Now showing items 21-40 of 6328

    • Identifying critical success factors in Key Account Management, along with characteristics of Key Account Managers, in order to develop a new model and approach to implementation

      Veasey, Christian; University of Derby (British Academy of Management, 2016-09-07)
      This research was a developmental paper ‘Identifying critical success factors in key account management, along with characteristics of key account managers, in order to develop a new model and approach to implementation.
    • Theorising career guidance policymaking: watching the sausage get made

      Hooley, Tristram; Godden, Lorraine; University of Derby; Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada (Informa UK Limited, 2021-07-14)
      In this article, we propose a framework for understanding career guidance policy. We use a systems theory approach informed by Gramscian theories of politics and power to make sense of this complexity. Firstly, we argue that career guidance policy is made by and for people and that there is a need to recognise all of the political and civil society actors involved. Secondly, we argue that policymaking comprises a series of ideological, technical and practical processes. Finally, we contend that policymaking takes place in a complex, multi-level environment which is can be described across three levels as the policy framing, middle and street level tiers.
    • Erasmus Darwin's Gardens: Medicine, Agriculture and the Sciences in the Eighteenth Century

      Elliott, Paul; University of Derby (Boydell and Brewer, 2021-06)
      Famous as the author of the Botanic Garden (1791) and grandfather of Charles Darwin (1809-1882), Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) was a larger-than-life enlightenment natural philosopher (scientist) and writer who practised as a doctor across the English Midlands for nearly half a century. A practical gardener and horticulturist, Darwin created a botanic garden near Lichfield - which galvanised his poetry - and kept other gardens, an orchard and small "farm" in Derby. Informed by his medical practice and botanical studies, Darwin saw many parallels between animals, plants and humans which aroused hostility during the years of revolution, warfare and reaction, but helped him to write Zoonomia (1794/96) and Phytologia (1800) - his major studies of medicine, agriculture and gardening. Captivated by the changing landscapes and environments of town and country and supported by social networks such as those in Lichfield and Derby, Darwin avidly exchanged ideas about plants, animals and their diseases with family, patients, friends such as the poet Anna Seward (1742-1809), farmers, fellow doctors, huntsmen and even the local mole catcher. The is the first full study of Erasmus Darwin's gardening, horticulture and agriculture. It shows him as keen a nature enthusiast as his contemporary Rev. Gilbert White of Selbourne (1720-1793) or his grandson Charles, fascinated with everything from swarming insects and warring bees to domestic birds and dogs, pigs and livestock on his farm to fungi growing from horse dung in Derby tan yards. Ranging over his observations of plant physiology and anatomy to the use of plant "bandages" in his orchard and electrical machines to hasten seed germination to explosive studies of vegetable "brains", nerves and sensations, the book demonstrates the ways in which Erasmus Darwin's landscape and garden experiences transformed his understanding of nature. They provided him with insights into medicine and the environmental causes of diseases, the classification of plants and animals, chemistry, evolution, potential new medicines and foodstuffs and the ecological interdependency of the natural economy. Like the amorous vegetables of the Loves of the Plants (1789) which fascinated, scandalised and titillated late Georgian society, the many living creatures of Darwin's gardens and farm encountered in this book were for him real, dynamic, interacting and evolving beings who helped inspire and re-affirm his progressive social and political outlook.
    • Ethics, Impartiality, Locus of Control

      Moore, Nicki; University of Derby (EKS, 2021-05-01)
      Those working in ‘helping’ professions will occasionally be presented with issues that feel uncomfortable, challenge their own values and beliefs, and result in ethical dilemmas associated with choosing appropriate attitudes, behaviours and approaches. In the career development context, ethics refers to the moral principles that govern the way practitioners practice. This article provides a dialogue between two practitioners, who, discuss an ethical dilemma and try to decide on an appropriate course of action.
    • A collaborative approach for national cybersecurity incident management

      Oriola, Oluwafemi; Adeyemo, Adesesan Barnabas; Papadaki, Maria; Kotzé, Eduan; university of Plymouth; University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa (Emerald, 2021-06-28)
      Collaborative-based national cybersecurity incident management benefits from the huge size of incident information, large-scale information security devices and aggregation of security skills. However, no existing collaborative approach has been able to cater for multiple regulators, divergent incident views and incident reputation trust issues that national cybersecurity incident management presents. This paper aims to propose a collaborative approach to handle these issues cost-effectively. A collaborative-based national cybersecurity incident management architecture based on ITU-T X.1056 security incident management framework is proposed. It is composed of the cooperative regulatory unit with cooperative and third-party management strategies and an execution unit, with incident handling and response strategies. Novel collaborative incident prioritization and mitigation planning models that are fit for incident handling in national cybersecurity incident management are proposed. Use case depicting how the collaborative-based national cybersecurity incident management would function within a typical information and communication technology ecosystem is illustrated. The proposed collaborative approach is evaluated based on the performances of an experimental cyber-incident management system against two multistage attack scenarios. The results show that the proposed approach is more reliable compared to the existing ones based on descriptive statistics. The approach produces better incident impact scores and rankings than standard tools. The approach reduces the total response costs by 8.33% and false positive rate by 97.20% for the first attack scenario, while it reduces the total response costs by 26.67% and false positive rate by 78.83% for the second attack scenario.
    • “We All Need Purpose and Reason to Be Here.”: A Qualitative Investigation of How Members of Alcoholics Anonymous with Long-term Recovery Experience Aging

      mcinerney, Kevin; Gulcan, Garip; benson, tony; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-09)
      Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and theoretically framed within Frankl’s logotherapy, the current paper explored how members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) with long-term recovery (LTR) experience aging and health-related issues. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore the lived experiences of three older members of AA with LTR. IPA revealed five higher-order group concepts: spirituality, being in the present, acceptance, self-esteemandfellowship: a support network. Interpretation of the themes revealed that LTR in AA is beneficial in helping individuals transition to later life, develop coping mechanisms for poor health and find a purpose and meaning to life.
    • A Framework for Assessing Sustainability in Multi-tier Supply Chains using Empirical Evidence and Fuzzy Expert System

      Shayganmehr, Masoud; Kumar, Anil; Lutha, Sunil; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; London Metropolitan University; Ch. Ranbir Singh State Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jhajjar, Haryana, India; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-07-12)
      This study investigates various factors for assessing sustainability in Multi-tier Supply Chains (MtSCs) using a hybrid approach consisting of an empirical study and fuzzy expert system. After an extensive literature review, four research questions were formulated and a questionnaire designed. From its distribution, 152 responses were collected from the textile industry. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was employed to determine the most effective factors that could contribute to the evaluation of extensive aspects of sustainability in MtSCs as well as recognize the importance of constructs. The categorized constructs based on their importance included “Environmental issues”, “Economic issues”, “Policy and governance”, “Participation”, “Social issues”, “Transparency” and “Leadership and support”. A comprehensive rating for evaluating sustainability by indicating a readiness score and linguistic variables for each construct was developed in the form of a “fuzzy expert system”. The developed fuzzy expert system was applied in an Iranian textile company to assess its readiness status as a case application. The results indicated that the company had the highest and lowest readiness in “Transparency” and “Environmental issues” with total readiness scores of 2.65 and 0.17 respectively. The finding recommends that the company should pay more attention to environmental issues such as making a cutback on utility consumption and increasing recycled materials. The framework’s validity was measured around 90% based on the satisfaction of experts’ judgments, which enables the framework to be applied in different industrial settings. Theoretically, the findings contribute to the Resources-Based View (RBV) theory, with a focus on the sustainability of MtSCs, by unveiling a comprehensive set of factors for assessing sustainability and recognizing external and internal strategic resources that lead firms to sustainable competitive advantages.
    • An empirical analysis of the information security culture key factors framework

      Tolah, Alaa; Furnell, Steven; Papadaki, Maria; University of Plymouth; Saudi Electronic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; University of Nottingham; University of Derby; Nelson Mandela University, Gqeberha, South Africa (Elsevier, 2021-06-05)
      Information security is a challenge facing organisations, as security breaches pose a serious threat to sensitive information. Organisations face security risks in relation to their information assets, which may also stem from their own employees. Organisations need to focus on employee behaviour to limit security failures, as if they wish to establish effective security culture with employees acting as a natural safeguard for information assets. This study was conducted to respond to a need for more empirical studies that focus on a development of security culture to provide a comprehensive framework. The Information Security Culture and Key Factors Framework has been developed, incorporating two types of factors: those that influence security culture and those that reflect it. This paper validates the applicability of the framework and tests related hypotheses through an empirical study. An exploratory survey was conducted, and 266 valid responses were obtained. Phase two of the study demonstrates the framework levels of validity and reliability through the use of factor analysis. Different hypothetical correlations were analysed through the use of structural equation modelling, with indirect exploratory effect of the moderators achieved through a multi-group analysis. The findings show that the framework has validity and achieved an acceptable fit with the data. This study fills an important gap in the significant relationship between personality traits and security culture. It also contributes to the improvement of information security management through the introduction of a comprehensive framework in practice, which functions in the establishment of security culture. The factors are vital in justifying security culture acceptance, and the framework provides an important tool that can be used to assess and improve an organisational security culture.
    • Mapping Stories of Cause and Cure Using Story Stem Completion: Mental Distress in the Evangelical Christian Community. A Study Protocol

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-07-11)
      Recent qualitative evidence suggests Christian communities can hold specific religious and cultural beliefs regarding mental illness, which can influence how psychological illness is experienced, perceived and managed on both an idiographic and community level. There are, however, no studies which explore the implicit wider social discourses and narratives Christians may draw upon when making sense of mental illness. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a novel pilot study, which aims to collect qualitative data using story completion. Study design: Story completion is an innovative qualitative method which presents participants with a fictional story stem, or cue, and asks participants to continue the story in their own words. This study will explore evangelical Christians perceptions, representations and views of depression (story stem 1) and self-harm (story stem 2), as well as, the wider social, religious and cultural narratives they utilise. Analysis: A critical realist informed thematic analysis will be carried out on the data. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are examined, with specific cognisance towards characteristics of the target sample.
    • The Effect of Lighting on Crime Counts

      Fotios, Steve; Robbins, Chloe; Farrall, Stephen; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-07-07)
      The influence of lighting on crime was investigated by considering the effect of ambient light level on crimes recorded in three US cities for the ten-year period 2010 to 2019. Crime counts were compared for similar times of day, before and after the biannual clock change, therefore employing an abrupt change of light level but without an obvious intervention such as improving road lighting in an area. The results suggest a significant increase in robbery during darkness, confirming previous studies. The results also suggest darkness leads to an increase in arson and curfew loitering offenses, and to a decrease in disorderly conduct, family offences (non-violent) and prostitution. Future research investigating the effectiveness of improved street lighting should consider that this may not be beneficial for all types of crime.
    • Evaluating Key Capabilities for Developing Global Collaborative Networks Using a Multi-Layer Decision-Making Approach

      Mahdiraji, H.A.; Hafeez, K; Kamardi, A.A.A.; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; De Montfort University; University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-07-07)
      This paper proposes a multi-layer hybrid decision-making approach to evaluate the capability alternatives for developing a collaborative network to operate in the international market. The present study is contextualised in the Iranian pistachio export industry. An extensive review of the state-of-the-art literature on supplier collaboration was conducted to identify key capabilities that are essential to establish a collaborative network. The set of defined capabilities were then optimised through interviews with 14 experts from the relevant industry, academics and export authorities. A combination of the fuzzy Delphi method and the best–worst method (BWM) approach was, respectively, used to reduce the number of capability alternatives and assign priority weights to these alternatives. Subsequently, a weighted aggregated sum product assessment method (WASPAS) was employed to rank and evaluate the ability to creating a collaborative network for the export of pistachio. From the extant literature review, 18 capabilities for the formation of coordination networks in the international markets were identified. Then, the prominent indicators in forming a global network were extracted. After ranking the top pistachio export countries/regions to formalise an efficient collaborative network, it was revealed that although Iran exports approximately 30% of the global market, it falls behind the USA and European Union. The competitors have scored higher in critical criteria, including “trust and commitment”, “strategy and management”, “managerial control and standardization” and “financial resources”. The proposed hybrid approach encompassing fuzzy Delphi–BWM–WASPAS offers to solve the capability evaluation and selection as well as ranking the possible alternative to formalise a collaborative network in an integrated fashion. This combination of methods is capable to first identify the most important factors, then measuring their importance and eventually rank the possible alternatives. The suggested framework provides an approach to deal with the uncertainty of global collaborative network formation.
    • Design for environment Ontology-based knowledge management model for green product development

      Benabdellah, A.C; Zekhnini, K; Cherrafi, A.; Garza‐Reyes, J.A; Kumar, A; Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (Wiley, 2021-06-30)
      Through appropriate operations and policies, such as green processes and product development (PDP), companies can respond to environmental sustainability. To remain competitive, one such approach, Design for X (DFX), involves considering different environment and sustainable strategies through different factors Xs. With regards to the availability of different DFX techniques that consider environmental issues, the decision as to which approach needs to be adopted remains absent. This paper aims at presenting an overview from 1980 to 2020 of the developed research, applications, and DFX techniques for assessing green issues. Selected DFX techniques are linked with strategies used in organizations. Following a literature analysis, a collaborative knowledge-based framework that addresses the design concepts needed to assess environmental, safety, and health concerns in the development of green products is proposed. Furthermore, as a pillar for considering the Semantic Web and an evolving approach linked with Natural language processing (NLP) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), an ontology-based knowledge management model for green assessment is developed for the representation, acquisition, organization and capitalization of knowledge in a computer interpretable manner. The findings are useful for both managers and practitioners as they provide a coherent domain ontology that can help them manage knowledge, improve teamwork, and make decisions in a collaborative green PDP. Besides, an understanding of the essential design considerations that are required to implement environmental, safety, and health issues, as well as competencies used in the PDP is presented. Key barriers, managerial and strategic implications and mitigation actions are also identified in this paper.
    • Increasing Service Quality at a University: A Continuous Improvement Project

      Gonzalez Aleu, Fernando; Granda Gutierrez, Edgar Marco Aurelio; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Garza Villegas, Juan Baldemar; Vazquez Hernandez, Jesus; Universidad de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico; University of Derby; Continuous Improvement (Analytics), Viakable SA de CV, San Nicolas de los Garza, Mexico; Advanced Value Chain Institute, San Pedro Garza García, Mexico (Emerald, 2021-07-05)
      This paper evaluates a continuous improvement project (CIP) at a Mexican university designed to increase engineering graduate student loyalty. A plan-do-check-act problem-solving methodology was implemented, and a SERVQUAL survey was conducted on 67 master’s engineering students. Five factors were found to affect student loyalty: facility cleanliness, faculty teaching skills, evening student services, master’s degree student management roles at work and master’s degree students’ ages. After the implementation of the improvement and control actions, there was a 7.7% increase in the engineering master’s degree students’ loyalty scores. This research work took a different approach in assessing student satisfaction and student loyalty in a higher education institution (HEI) by using the SERVQUAL survey as the data collection instrument for the conduct of the CIP. However, there were several research limitations: data availability (such as student loyalty, student satisfaction and a small master’s degree student population size) and factors outside the CIP’s scope (such as the country’s economic situation, university rankings, master’s programme accreditations and COVID-19). Practical implications—The findings from this research study could be used by other HEIs to improve student loyalty and as a reference when conducting similar studies in other service organisations such as hospitals and hotels.
    • How can children aged 8-12 years be involved in decision-making and consent processes in outpatient Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS)? An embedded case study.

      Forman, Dawn; Brannigan, Chris; Naylor, Bill; Cox, Ann Marie (University of Derby, 2021-06-17)
      Involving children in decision-making and consent processes in their own healthcare has long been a challenging area of clinical practice. The reasons for this are the challenges in assessing child development capabilities in decision-making, and the lack and ambiguity of guidance and frameworks that support this area of practice. This study addresses these challenges in relation to outpatient CAMHS and provides an in-depth examination of how children can consistently be involved in decision-making and consent processes. The study has triangulated children’s, parents’, and clinicians’ perspectives to provide a theoretical understanding of children’s involvement and how this can be used within clinical practice. The method used in this study has been an embedded case study design and the critical realist inquiry of retroduction. A variety of methods and analytical tools transcending the research paradigms have been used to elicit the relevant data. The study includes several literature reviews, a patient clinical record evaluation, a semi-structured questionnaire administered to clinicians, and four focus groups, two with children and two with parents. The findings are i) children can be involved in decision-making and consent processes; ii) children want to be involved in decision-making and consent processes; iii) The onus is on the adults supporting the child in the decision-making process to maximise the child’s involvement in the process and iv) the theories of prioritising, knowing and navigating are fundamental to understanding the decision-making process and provide an evidence base for this area of practice. This study provides practical solutions in translating the theory into practice. In conclusion, decision-making is a multifaceted process that needs time, resources, and skills to facilitate it properly. For the first time, children have been heard in how they want to be involved in decision-making and consent processes. A critical examination of how children can be involved in decision-making and consent processes has been undertaken. The development of the theories of prioritising, knowing, and navigating are critical to fully understanding and implementing this area of practice.
    • Pre-colonial legal system in Africa: an assessment of indigenous laws of Benin kingdom before 1897

      Ojo, Idahosa Osagie; Ekhator, Eghosa; University of Derby; University of Leeds (State University of New York, 2021)
      There were salient novelties in the legal system of the Benin Kingdom and other areas in pre-colonial Africa that promoted justice, peace, and order among people and communities. Special provisions such as collective responsibility in legal personality, the law of primogeniture, the fusion of laws and religion in theory and practice, and the recognition of societal status and political position in legal proceedings amongst other legal concepts were incorporated into the body of laws in Benin. Previous intellectual efforts center on the political, economic, and social aspects of history, largely neglecting these legal dynamics and other vital areas of the kingdom's organization. Hence, this study analyzes indigenous legal concepts in the Benin Kingdom using several varieties of primary and secondary sources. It contends that Benin, like other African societies, developed practical and useful legal concepts that helped in the consolidation of peace and harmony throughout its length and breadth, and that these indigenous Benin legal concepts were in force till 1897.
    • Theoretical Perspectives of Crisis Management and Recovery for Events

      Ziakas, Vassilios; Antchak, Vladimir; Getz, Donald; University of Derby; University of Queensland (Goodfellow Publishers, 2021-04)
      The world is always subject to crises and many times significant developments or changes occur in the aftermath of a crisis. In this regard, any crisis can be viewed as a turning point or critical juncture, though typically characterized by ambiguity, volatility and grave worries about the future. A crisis can cause continuing existential and socio-economic impacts; however, it also provides opportunities for creativity and innovation by re-imagining and reconfiguring the strategic purpose of organizations. Crises are apposite circumstances for reflection on management approaches, decision-making and the overall stability and sustainability of any system within which individual organizations operate. Arguably, any crisis prompts change to systems and organizations analogous to its scale and extent of multifaceted impacts. The recent COVID-19 pandemic is a case in point of a multifaceted crisis as it is not only a health emergency. It entirely disrupted the social world and its commerce bringing about serious repercussions to the everyday life of people. The event sector, being a mirror of society, has been affected dramatically. Compulsory closures and regulations regarding social distancing led to innumerable postponements or cancellations of planned events, from the Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo to the smallest of community celebrations. Professional and amateur sports alike postponed or cancelled their seasons. Businesses of all scales all along the supply chain, including the venues, entertainers, and suppliers of goods and services, suffered enormous economic losses.
    • Agility in the Events Sector A Case Study of a Business Event in Finland

      Gorchakova, Valentina; Berdysheva, Ekaterina; University of Derby (Goodfellow Publishers, 2021-04)
      The events industry was estimated at $1,100 billion in 2018 and was expected to grow to reach $2,330 billion by 2026 (Allied Market Research, n.d.). Year 2020, however, turned out to be perhaps the most transformative year in the industry in the last decades. Numerous events, from smaller family occasions, like weddings, to major events of the likes of the Wimbledon tennis tournament, the UEFA EURO 2020, Glastonbury Festival and the Cannes Film festival, had to be cancelled due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The combined economic impact is not yet known but will be a loss in the hundreds of billions of US dollars (Gössling, Scott, & Hall, 2021). This shows the vulnerability of the events industry to major crises. Despite the negative impacts of crises on events, there is a paucity of research that explores organizational responses under unusual, unprecedented or critical circumstances in the events sector. This chapter applies the concept of agility in event organization within volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous, so-called VUCA, environment (Bennett & Lemoine, 2014) that dominated year 2020 due to the unfolding pandemic. The agile approach is often seen as a stream of new ideas leading to elegantly simple solutions. It requires a high energy level of the team involved due to the tight constraints and deadlines. The authors introduce a case study of a business festival organized in Turku (Finland) and discuss the decision-making process, stakeholder involvement, introduction of a new modus operandi, and the new event format that was chosen.
    • Personal Guidance Fund Evaluation: Final Report

      Hanson, Jill; Neary, Siobhan; Blake, Hannah; University of Derby (The Careers & Enterprise Company, 2021-07-07)
      Since the transfer of responsibility for career guidance to schools /colleges, a range of approaches to delivering personal guidance have been utilised in schools and colleges in order for them to meet the statutory requirement of implementation of the Gatsby benchmarks. In their report for The Careers & Enterprise Company, Everitt, Neary, Delgardo and Clark (2018) concluded that five key points need to be in place for effective personal guidance (space & time; preparation & feedback, effective interviewing; professionalism and integration) but that ‘the evidence on personal guidance remains a work in progress’. The Careers & Enterprise Company recognised the importance of this of this work, developing the Personal Guidance Fund which aimed to support the development of innovative, cost-effective models for delivering personal careers guidance in schools and colleges. Evaluation aims and objectives The evaluation focused on identifying effective approaches with the intention of improving practice beyond the fund. The report considers: 1. The effectiveness of different approaches. 2. Working with different beneficiary groups. 3. The impact of personal guidance on students. 4. The impact of training on staff and school/college career guidance. 5. Key learning regarding scaling up, sustainability and best practice This report describes the methodology adopted to answer these objectives and outlines key learning with regard to the different approaches adopted and the different beneficiaries targeted. It considers the impact of the programmes on students and the staff who took part in training and provides recommendations for programme providers, Careers Leaders and Senior Leadership Teams in schools and colleges.
    • An exploration of primary school teachers’ maths anxiety using interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Dove, Jane; Montague, Jane; Hunt, Thomas, E; University of Derby (Final International University, 2021-06-30)
      Primary school teachers are important in children’s learning of mathematics, and maths anxiety development has been partly attributed to children’s classroom experiences (Das & Das, 2013). Maths anxiety was explored in UK primary school teachers, with a view to understanding its development and impact. Data from four semi-structured individual interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which facilitates a deeper knowledge of individuals’ personal experience. Three key themes emerged: “experiencing the psychological consequences of maths anxiety”, “social influences” and “the consequences of experiencing maths anxiety as a teaching professional”. The findings contribute to our understanding of the influence of maths anxiety on teachers and teaching practices.
    • Darker Deals? Male Dark Tetrad preferences for female sex worker services

      Hughes, Sara; Adhikari, Joanna; Goulding, Katharine; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-06-24)
      The present study explored links between male Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism) and preferences for using outdoor and indoor female sex worker services. We also investigated the mediating effects of perceiving sex workers as deviant and as victims. Heterosexual males ( N = 347) were recruited to take part in an online survey investigating personality and attitudes towards female sex workers. Path analyses revealed that psychopathy and sadism positively predicted preferences for outdoor but not indoor female sex services. Sex worker choice mediated positive links between narcissism and outdoor female sex worker preferences. Compared to indoor, outdoor sex services are associated with increased aggression and violence. Our findings highlight the importance of considering narcissism and particularly psychopathy and sadism when investigating individual male preferences for outdoor sex services that are being offered by particularly vulnerable women.