(Mis)Use of Personal Technology by Employees in Financial Services Organisations
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AbstractThis work presents a single methodology design across three different groups to chart the challenges and potential of digital investigation and to offer an original contribution to researchers seeking purposive samples specific to topical research questions. Open-source online intelligence theorised from an attacker's perspective is underpinned by a novel cyber-orientated framework of routine activity theory (RAT) (Cohen and Felson, 1979) to highlight digital footprint as a vector for targeted social engineering. Seventy-six (N=76) demographically diverse financial services employees from occupations throughout the sector provide empirical data via a mixed methods online survey. Cyber-specific RAT evaluates the ‘average user’ (with no specialist training) as a potential contributor to human assisted cybercrime threatening corporate networks through use of personal technologies and internet-based activities. Robust discussion debates routine digital activity using smartphones, tablets, and consumer Internet of Things (IoT) devices as an unmitigated factor for workplace risk. Personal internet use, devices accessing corporate networks, self-promotion on social media, physical and virtual IoT, executive personnel practicing ‘unsafe’ behaviours and assumed device security as licence for unrestricted online activity are key findings of this study which offers original contributions to critical assessment of insider threat. Despite employee (mis)use of personal technology as a potential vector financial organisations are seemingly unprepared for small-scale and dynamic risk. Results recommend bespoke training at all levels to associate personal use and online behaviour with known cyber risks and capacity for loss or harm. Cyber-RAT as a framework to identify suitable targets and potential for guardianship will contribute value added and assist in a more holistic response to cybercrime where the human element complements technological solutions as a positive enhancement to enterprise security.
CitationCollis, R. (2021) (Mis)Use of personal technology by employees in financial services organisations. PhD thesis. University of Derby
PublisherUniversity of Derby
TypeThesis or dissertation
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The use of a smartphone app and an activity tracker to promote physical activity in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: randomized controlled feasibility studyBentley, Claire L; Powell, Lauren; Potter, Stephen; Parker, Jack; Mountain, Gail A; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Farwer, Jochen; O'Connor, Cath; Burns, Jennifer; Cresswell, Rachel L; et al. (JMIR Publications Inc., 2020-06-03)Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is highly prevalent and significantly affects the daily functioning of patients. Self-management strategies, including increasing physical activity, can help people with COPD have better health and a better quality of life. Digital mobile health (mHealth) techniques have the potential to aid the delivery of self-management interventions for COPD. We developed an mHealth intervention (Self-Management supported by Assistive, Rehabilitative, and Telehealth technologies-COPD [SMART-COPD]), delivered via a smartphone app and an activity tracker, to help people with COPD maintain (or increase) physical activity after undertaking pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). This study aimed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of using the SMART-COPD intervention for the self-management of physical activity and to explore the feasibility of conducting a future randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate its effectiveness. We conducted a randomized feasibility study. A total of 30 participants with COPD were randomly allocated to receive the SMART-COPD intervention (n=19) or control (n=11). Participants used SMART-COPD throughout PR and for 8 weeks afterward (ie, maintenance) to set physical activity goals and monitor their progress. Questionnaire-based and physical activity–based outcome measures were taken at baseline, the end of PR, and the end of maintenance. Participants, and health care professionals involved in PR delivery, were interviewed about their experiences with the technology. Overall, 47% (14/30) of participants withdrew from the study. Difficulty in using the technology was a common reason for withdrawal. Participants who completed the study had better baseline health and more prior experience with digital technology, compared with participants who withdrew. Participants who completed the study were generally positive about the technology and found it easy to use. Some participants felt their health had benefitted from using the technology and that it assisted them in achieving physical activity goals. Activity tracking and self-reporting were both found to be problematic as outcome measures of physical activity for this study. There was dissatisfaction among some control group members regarding their allocation. mHealth shows promise in helping people with COPD self-manage their physical activity levels. mHealth interventions for COPD self-management may be more acceptable to people with prior experience of using digital technology and may be more beneficial if used at an earlier stage of COPD. Simplicity and usability were more important for engagement with the SMART-COPD intervention than personalization; therefore, the intervention should be simplified for future use. Future evaluation will require consideration of individual factors and their effect on mHealth efficacy and use; within-subject comparison of step count values; and an opportunity for control group participants to use the intervention if an RCT were to be carried out. Sample size calculations for a future evaluation would need to consider the high dropout rates.
Physical activity and sedentary behavior clustering: segmentation to optimize active lifestylesZwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, James; Pringle, Andy; Widdop, Paul; Griffiths, Claire; Mellis, Michelle; Rutherford, Zoe; Collins, Peter; Leeds Beckett University (Human Kinetics, 2016-09)Increasingly the health impacts of physical inactivity are being distinguished from those of sedentary behavior. Nevertheless, deleterious health prognoses occur when these behaviors combine, making it a Public Health priority to establish the numbers and salient identifying factors of people who live with this injurious combination. Using an observational between-subjects design, a nonprobability sample of 22,836 participants provided data on total daily activity. A 2-step hierarchical cluster analysis identified the optimal number of clusters and the subset of distinguishing variables. Univariate analyses assessed significant cluster differences. High levels of sitting clustered with low physical activity. The Ambulatory & Active cluster (n = 6254) sat for 2.5 to 5 h·d−1 and were highly active. They were significantly younger, included a greater proportion of males and reported low Indices of Multiple Deprivation compared with other clusters. Conversely, the Sedentary & Low Active cluster (n = 6286) achieved ≤60 MET·min·wk−1 of physical activity and sat for ≥8 h·d−1. They were the oldest cluster, housed the largest proportion of females and reported moderate Indices of Multiple Deprivation. Public Health systems may benefit from developing policy and interventions that do more to limit sedentary behavior and encourage light intensity activity in its place.
Multi-Component Physical Activity Interventions in the UK Must Consider Determinants of Activity to Increase Effectiveness.Faghy, Mark; Armstrong-Booth, Kirsty E; Staples, Vicki; Duncan, Micheal J; Roscoe, Clare M P; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI, 2021-06-23)Interventions to increase physical activity in children have adopted broad approaches and achieved varying success. There is a need to adopt approaches underpinned with a theoretical basis. Accordingly, the aim here was to implement and evaluate a 12-week intervention designed using the concepts of the COM-B model to determine the effect this has on physical activity levels. One hundred and forty-seven school-age children (mean age 8.9 ± 1.3 years) took part in a 12-week program delivered in a school setting. Topics included physical activity, healthy eating, sleep quality and reducing screen time/sedentary activities when not in school. A sample of participants wore a wrist-worn accelerometer for seven days pre-and post-intervention (N = 11). The physical activity frequency was unchanged (2.9 ± 1.0 AU) when compared with post-intervention values (3.1 ± 0.8 AU, mean increase 6.8 ± 3.7%, p > 0.05). Changes were observed in the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables (pre-intervention 44.6% vs. post-intervention 60.2%, p < 0.05). Sedentary time, light activity, moderate activity and vigorous activity were unchanged post-intervention (p > 0.05). There is a need to adopt a broader approach that incorporates a theoretical basis and considers the complex ways by which physical activity behaviours are influenced.