• International operations, innovation and sustainability.

      Upadhyay, A.; Vadam, C.; Kumar, V.; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; University of Derby; University of Brighton; University of the West of England (Transnational Press London, 2017-07-01)
      This book is for anyone with a keen interest in the rapidly evolving field of international operations, innovation and sustainability. It combines an accessible explanation of key concepts and methods used in international operations, innovation and sustainability. This book covers both basic as well as advanced topics, illustrated with carefully crafted case studies. Question sections are designed to measure understanding and lessons learned. The engaging case studies are highly relevant to the fields of international operation, innovation and sustainability. The cases also cover how to tackle technology-related issues, setting up new business and managing cost. Subject matter experts in academia and industry share first-hand experience and knowledge on international operations, innovation and sustainability.
    • Investigating innovation capability and organisational performance in service firms

      Al-Kalouti, J., Kumar, V., Kumar, N., Garza-Reyes, J.A., Upadhyay, A., Zwiegelaar, J.B., Kumari, A.; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019)
      Innovation is crucial for businesses to address key challenges anticipated by the changes in socioeconomic and environmental issues. Innovation capability is largely seen as a vital source for generating sustainable competitive advantage. The paper investigates the determinants of innovation capability, and their relationship with organisational performance in service organisation context. The study contributes to the limited knowledge on the innovation capabilities in developing countries by providing empirical evidence from the Jordanian banking sector.
    • Investigating supply chain performance and supply chain integration linkage in Jordanian manufacturing firms.

      Kumar, Vikas; Zeidan, Jack; Kumari, Archana; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Tupa, Jiri; University of the West of England; University of Derby; University of West Bohemia (IEOM Society, 2018-07)
      Supply chain integration plays a major role in the success of any organisation. As a result in last over a decade it has drawn a significant interest from the research community and practitioners alike. Though researchers have aimed to address various aspects of supply chain integration, research addressing its linkage with overall performance of organisation is limited. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between supply chain integration and supply chain performance as well as the relationship between logistics systems and supply chain performance. A survey was developed and sent to 40 manufacturing companies operating in Jordan. The results show that supply chain integration has a positive impact on the performance of the supply chain as a whole. Moreover, when a high degree of supply chain integration takes place, it reduces inbound, outbound, warehousing and inventory holding costs. The study also investigates the impact of implementing logistics systems to act as an intermediate between supply chain partners. The result of the investigation shows a positive correlation between logistics management and supply chain performance. The study provides valuable contribution to theory and practice by adding to our limited understanding of supply chain integration in developing country context.
    • Investigating the benefits and challenges of the implementation of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 in the aerospace industry.

      Pratama, Noviya Ayu; Kumar, Vikas; Kumari, Archana; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Nadeem, Simon Peter; University of the West of England; University of Derby (IEOM Society, 2018-03)
      Aerospace companies implement certain quality management and environmental standards, e.g. ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 requirements specific to the aerospace industry. The big question is whether the implementation of the ISO standards has provided its hope for returns. The aim of this research is therefore to analyze the benefits and challenges of the implementation of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 in the aerospace industry. This study aims to investigate two underlying subjects – quality management and environmental management, and explore how they influence firm performance and how they are implemented in the aerospace industry. Nine participants from different aerospace companies were interviewed. The results suggest that these companies were put under pressure internally and externally by the customers for pursuing the certification. Major factors that affect the implementation include size of company, employee participation, and company commitment. It also discovered that ISO 14001 seems to mainly impact the managers and employees related to environmental work. This study found that the larger the company size, the more sensitive it becomes toward customer pressure on commitment to sustainability.
    • Investigating the benefits and challenges of Total Quality Management implementation in the pharmaceutical companies

      Petliushenko, Kateryna; Kumar, Vikas; Zwiegelaar, Jeremy; Loonam, John; Garza-Reyes, Jose A.; University of Derby; University of the West of England; University of Bristol; Dublin City University (British Academy of Management (BAM), 2018-09)
      Pharmaceutical companies in Eastern European region are facing urgent quality tools implementation due to fierce global competition. The aim of this research is to provide current understanding of TQM in this region and provide further guidance on how to improve quality standards and techniques. The study follows a qualitative method and data was collected through 5 semi-structured interviews. The study highlights that TQM in pharmaceutical industry in this region is not well developed. The findings shows that there is lack of senior management commitment to TQM principles explanation and emphasises on its importance. Additionally, lack of governmental influence on quality standards and budgeting problems also affects TQM development. Moreover, there is a believe that TQM will not influence the overall performance of the company in the positive manner, since the development of such quality improvement method has to be efficiently budgeted and under current economic and political circumstances it is not possible.
    • Investigating the green impact of Lean, Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma: a systematic literature review

      Chugani, Nashmi; Kumar, Vikas; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Rocha-Lona, Luis; Upadhyay, Arvind; University of Derby (Emerald, 2017-01)
      Purpose - The academic literature and research lines exploring the effect of quality improvement methods on environmental performance still remain in early stages. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate, through a systematic review of the existing academic literature, the environmental (green) impact of using quality and operations improvement methods such as Lean, Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma. This includes the impact on energy saving and the usage of natural resources. Design/methodology/approach - This study follows a systematic literature review approach through which it analyses research papers published in top 16 operations and quality management journals. No specific time frame was established, but a set of keywords were used to shortlist the articles. A sample of 70 articles was finally shortlisted and analysed to provide a discussion on environmental concerns related to Lean, Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma. Findings - The comprehensive review of shortlisted articles indicates that both Lean and Six Sigma can be considered effective methods to support the conservation of resources, combat global warming and saving energy. Various scholars provide evidence of this and as such, organisations should not only consider these methods to manage quality and improve operational performance but also meet environmental regulations. A set of research questions that demands further investigation has also been proposed based on the findings of this research. Research limitations - This study is limited to a sample of 70 articles collected from top 16 operations and quality management journals. The search of journals is also limited to a set of key words (‘Lean’, ‘Green’, ‘Six Sigma’, ‘environment’, ‘sustainable’ and ‘sustainability’) used to shortlist the sample size. Practical implications - The study shows that organisations can consider the adoption of Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma to meet environmental regulations, save costs and also meet quality management standards. This will contribute in helping organisations to formulate more effective and inclusive strategies which do not only consider the quality and operational dimensions but also the environmental dimension. Originality/value - Literature exploring the environmental/green impact of quality management methods commonly used in industry is limited. There is also a lack of studies aiming to investigate the green impact of Lean and Six Sigma in top operations and quality management journals. The study focusing on investigating the green impact of Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma methods altogether is also a research first of its kind.
    • Investigating the role of social media in polio prevention in India: a Delphi-DEMATEL approach

      Kumar, Anil; Kaviani, Mohamad Amin; Bottani, Eleonora; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras; BML Munjal University, Gurgaon, India; Islamic Azad University; University of Parma; Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management; Vilnius Gediminas Technical University; et al. (Emerald, 2018-05-08)
      Abstract Purpose- This study aims to evaluate the role of social media (SM) tools in the polio prevention in an Indian context, using a hybrid Delphi-DEMATEL approach. Design/methodology/approach- A preliminary list of suitable evaluation criteria was derived from an extensive literature review. Ten experts were then contacted to collect data and finalize the most prominent criteria using the Delphi method. To establish cause-effect relationships among the criteria, further data were collected from twenty-one experts. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method was applied to process and interpret the data collected. Findings- The analysis grouped criteria into two sets, i.e. cause and effect. The results show that awareness of social cause and government utilization of resources fall into the cause group; these elements are critical since both directly affect the remaining criteria. These outcomes can help government and businesses to utilize SM for public health surveillance, e.g. to promote schemes/initiatives through sites concerning polio or related health issues. Practical implications- The findings of this research are useful for governments and individual companies to conceive their marketing initiatives akin to polio prevention issues using SM. Originality/value- Despite the emergence of SM, there has been little discussion in existing literature on their role for polio prevention; however, measuring such role could be useful in practice, to help decision makers (DMs) exploiting the potential of SM in the healthcare context. To fill this gap, this study aims to measure the role of SM in polio prevention in the Indian context and to create a cause-effect evaluation model. Using an integrated Delphi-DEMATEL framework for decision-making in the healthcare context is another novelty of this study.
    • An investigation into some measures of manufacturing performance - Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), Process Capability (PC), OEE+ and ORE

      Garza-Reyes, J.A.; University of Derby (LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010-02-12)
      Increasing competitive environments and markets have forced manufacturing organisations to continuously seek improvements in their production processes as an alternative to reduce operational costs. In this context, the ability to measure performance is a key factor in the success of any improvement initiative. Two of the most important and used metrics of performance in manufacturing are productivity and quality. This book establishes the relationship between two highly used measures of productivity and quality, Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and Process Capability (PC). In addition, the book also proposes Overall Resource Effectiveness (ORE) as an improved measure of equipment and process effectiveness. The book provides a useful perspective and guide to understand the interaction of different elements of performance in manufacturing processes. This may help managers to take better decisions about how to run and improve their manufacturing operations more effectively and efficiently. Therefore, this book should be especially useful to academics and practitioners in the field of operations and production management.
    • Is tourism really affected by logistical operations and environmental degradation? An empirical study from the perspective of Thailand.

      Zhang, Yu; Rehman Khan, Syed Abdul; Golpîra, Heris; Sharif, Arshian; Kumar, Anil; University of Derby; Chang'an University; Tsinghua University; Islamic Azad University (Elsevier, 2019-04-15)
      We do this research is to examine the relationship between tourism, environmental degradation, and logistics & transport-related operations in a time series data of Thailand from 2001 to 2017. The study employed the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) statistical method to study the short-term and longterm relationship between endogenous and explanatory variables. The research results indicate that logistics and transport-related operations positively correlated with inbound tourism. Because logistics and transportation provide foreign tourist easy access to tourist destinations/places, while fossil fuel and carbon emissions have negative effects on inbound tourism in the context of Thailand. On the other hand, a greater level of crime discourages international tourists to visit and strongly negatively associated with inbound tourism both in the short-run and long-run. This research concludes with the importance of the logistics and transport sector that deem it is necessary to increase international tourists' arrivals and enhance the quality of inbound tourism. In addition, governmental authorities should enforce green practices in logistical and transport-related operations, and need to increase tourist safety and security, which may mitigate harmful effects on environmental sustainability, reduces criminal activities and also will attract foreign tourists respectively.
    • Knowledge management as intellectual property: evidence from Mexican manufacturing SMEs

      Madonado-Guzman, Gonzalo; Lopez-Torres, Gabriela Citlalli; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; Martinez-Covarrubias, Juan Luis; The University of Derby (Emerald, 2017-07)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between knowledge management and creation of intellectual property within the context of small and medium size manufacturing enterprises. Design/methodology/approach – A hypothesis was formulated and tested using structural equation modelling. Data were collected through an instrument that was developed based on key constructs adapted from the literature and that was first validated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. A Cronbach’s alpha test was also conducted and the Composite Reliability Index was calculated to ensure reliability of the theoretical model. The instrument was distributed among manufacturing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Aguascalientes region of Mexico, from were 125 valid responses were obtained. Findings – In general, the results indicate that knowledge management has positive effects on the creation of intellectual property in manufacturing SMEs. This suggests that SMEs can create more intellectual property if they dedicate more efforts to the management of knowledge. Practical implications – The implication of this research and its findings may inform the strategies formulated by policy makers, and the managerial practices that manufacturing SMEs can adopt to protect their knowledge. Originality/value – Evidence suggests that studies focused on investigating the relationship between knowledge and intellectual property are limited. This paper provides a refined understanding of the relationship between knowledge management and intellectual property creation.
    • A lean and cleaner production benchmarking method for sustainability assessment: A study of manufacturing companies in Brazil.

      Ramos, Aline Ribeiro; Ferreira, João Carlos Espíndola; Kumar, Vikas; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Cherrafi, Anass; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; University of the West of England; University of Derby; Cadi Ayyad University (Elsevier, 2017-12-28)
      A constant evolution in the efficiency of production systems and government policies has enabled the control of the environmental impact of production activities and encouraged companies to develop strategies to achieve more sustainable operations. Despite this, more needs to be done to reduce the risks of globalised production activities. In this context, evidence suggests that Lean Manufacturing (LM) and Cleaner Production (CP) make a positive contribution to the environmental performance of organizations. However, very little has been reported in the scholarly literature regarding the convergence and divergence of these two approaches. This work therefore attempts to take advantage of the synergies of LM and CP by proposing a Lean Cleaner Production Benchmarking (LCPB) method to assess the practices and culture regarding the application of CP in companies. The method considers the management aspects of people, information, products, suppliers and customers, management and processes, as well as the LM practices that contribute to a more eco-efficient production. LCPB uses a methodology based on benchmarking that was applied to 16 Brazilian manufacturing companies in order to assess their practices and performances regarding CP. The method seeks to provide a diagnosis to verify whether CP is effectively carried out by the companies, and what their performances are regarding actions beneficial to the environment. The application of LM practices that contribute to CP was also evaluated through the proposed LCPB method. The paper contributes to the theory by proving further evidence of the compatibility and synergies of LM and CP. In addition, it proposes a novel method that enables the analysis of companies' practices and performances related to CP, assesses their actions associated with sustainability, and contributes to identifying points where there is a lack and difficulty regarding CP. The proposed method helps to relate LM and CP activities, indicating that companies that seek to apply LM concepts are those that present high CP practices and performance.
    • Lean and green in the transport and logistics sector: A case study of simultaneous deployment

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Villarreal, Bernardo; Kumar, Vikas; Ruiz, Patricia Molina; The University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016)
      The transport and logistics sector is of vital importance for the stimulation of trade and hence the economic development of nations. However, over the last few years, this sector has taken central stage in the green agenda due to the negative environmental effects derived from its operations. Several disciplines including operations research and sub-areas of supply chain management such as green supply chains, green logistics and reverse logistics have tried to address this problem. However, despite the work undertaken through these disciplines, theoretical or empirical research into the sequential or simultaneous deployment of the lean and green paradigms, particularly, in the road transport and logistics sector is limited. This paper presents a case study where both paradigms have been combined to improve the transport operations of a world leader logistics organisation in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. To do this, a systematic methodology and a novel tool called Sustainable Transportation Value Stream Map (STVSM) were proposed. The results obtained from the case study indicate that the concurrent deployment of the green and lean paradigms through such methodology and the STVSM tool is an effective approach to improve both operational efficiency and environmental performance of road transport operations. The paper can be used as a guiding reference for transport and logistics organisations to undertake improvement projects similar to the one presented in this paper. Additionally, this research also intends to stimulate scholarly research into the application of lean and green paradigms in the transport and logistics sector to expand the limited research pursued in this area.
    • Lean and green – a systematic review of the state of the art literature

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; The University of Derby (Elsevier Ltd., 2015-04)
      The move towards greener operations and products has forced companies to seek alternatives to balance efficiency gains and environmental friendliness in their operations and products. The exploration of the sequential or simultaneous deployment of lean and green initiatives is the results of this balancing action. However, the lean-green topic is relatively new, and it lacks of a clear and structured research definition. Thus, this paper’s main contribution is the offering of a systematic review of the existing literature on lean and green, aimed at providing guidance on the topic, uncovering gaps and inconsistencies in the literature, and finding new paths for research. The paper identifies and structures, through a concept map, six main research streams that comprise both conceptual and empirical research conducted within the context of various organisational functions and industrial sectors. Important issues for future research are then suggested in the form of research questions. The paper’s aim is to also contribute by stimulating scholars to further study this area in depth, which will lead to a better understanding of the compatibility and impact on organisational performance of lean and green initiatives. It also holds important implications for industrialists, who can develop a deeper and richer knowledge on lean and green to help them formulate more effective strategies for their deployment.
    • Lean emergency medical operations

      Villarreal, Bernardo; Granda, Edgar; Lankenau, Andrea Montalvo; Bastidas, Ana Cristina; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Universidad de Monterray; University of Derby (Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (IEOM) Society, 2017-07)
      The fundamental responsibilities of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems are to provide urgent medical care, such as pre-hospital care, and to transport the patient to the hospital if needed. The agility and efficiency of EMS systems are major public concerns. Since the EMS process involved is fundamentally a transportation process, the Lean Transportation approach is a viable option for improving Emergency Medical Service (EMS) operations performance. The identification of waste during the ambulance cycle time is the basis for designing an operations improvement strategy. The scheme utilized uses modified versions of the Transportation Value Stream Map (TVSM) and The Operational Vehicle Effectiveness (TOVE) Index. Thus, availability, performance and quality wastes are identified to define the improvement strategy. Results of the application for the Monterrey metropolitan operations of the Mexican Red Cross are provided.
    • A lean environmental benchmarking (LEB) method for the management of cutting tools

      Tomelero, Roberto Luiz; Ferreira, João Carlos Espíndola; Kumar, Vikas; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-02-21)
      Manufacturing companies are striving hard to remain competitive hence, they rely on a number of resources to meet customers’ expectations, among which cutting tools are included. This paper addresses the problems faced in the management of cutting tools activities. Production managers have highlighted the lack of procedures containing metrics and targets that would show them whether their company is able to perform an efficient management, and if it is capable of supporting the deployment process. In this context, this paper presents a novel Lean Environmental Benchmarking (LEB) method for performing a diagnosis of practices and performances to support the implementation of a cutting tool management strategy and/or the effective management of these assets. Strategic, technical and logistical aspects are addressed, particularly, with regard to management focused on lean manufacturing and environmental aspects. Field studies were performed in nine Brazilian companies in the metal-mechanical sector to validate the LEB method proposed. The LEB method helped the participant organisations clarify the various activities that involved the management of their cutting tools, while the field studies indicated that all nine organisations had a great concern regarding the preservations of the environment, and also an effective utilisation of resources spent for machining components.
    • A lean implementation framework for the mining industry.

      Seifullina, Aziza; Er, Ahmet; Nadeem, Simon Peter; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; University of Warwick; University of Derby; University of the West of England (International Federation of Automatic Control, 2018-06)
      The adoption of Lean concepts beyond the manufacturing sector has been increasing recently. In this line, its scope has been expanded to the mining industry under the realisation of the need for productivity improvements and a leverage for efficient operations. Limited research exists regarding Lean implementation in the mining industry in a comprehensive and structured way. This paper therefore follows a systematic approach to review the current literature to identify Lean implementation patterns in the mining sector, its scope, challenges, and limitations. The results reveal the limited utilisation of Lean and that there is a lack of coherent and conceptual models to guide the implementation of Lean in this industry. Hence, the research proposes a framework for Lean implementation in the mining industry.
    • Lean manufacturing adoption in the transport and logistics sector of Thailand – An exploratory study.

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Tangkeow, Sarita; Kumar, Vikas; Nadeem, Simon Peter; University of Derby; University of Warwick; University of West England (IEOM Society, 2018-03)
      This paper investigates the adoption status of lean manufacturing (LM) in the transport and logistics sector of Thailand. A survey questionnaire was design, validated and distributed among Thai transport and logistics companies. In total, 120 useable responses were received and analysed using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of LM is relatively high, with PDCA, 5S and root cause analysis being the most implemented LM approaches and tools. However, the LM’s implementation was found to be mainly contained within individual departments or improvement projects, rather than being a company’s wide strategy. Main challenges to LM implementation included: organisational structure of companies, misalignment between goals of individuals and their companies, and lack of sustainment of a lean culture. Main benefits were the ability to identify and reduce waste, increased productivity and better organisation of workstations. On the other hand, lack of understanding, knowledge and expertise in LM were the main reasons for not implementing it, plus the use of technology-based tools instead of LM. Non-LM companies showed interest in adopting LM in the future, with JIT, Kaizen and Six Sigma being the most likely to implement. This study is among the very first of its kind. It offers academics, researchers and practitioners interested in LM and/or the transport and logistics sector with some initial evidence of the adoption of LM in this industrial sector of Thailand.
    • Lean manufacturing and environmental performance – exploring the impact and relationship

      Nadeem, Simon Peter; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Leung, Sin-Ching; Cherrafi, Anass; Anosike, Anthony; Lim, Ming K.; University of Derby; PAL Surface Treatment System Ltd.; Cadi Ayyad University; Coventry University (Springer, 2017-08-29)
      The relationship between Lean Manufacturing and Environmental Performance has attracted much debate but at the same time lack of empirical evidence leaves haphazard opinions on this matter. The objective of this paper is therefore to pro-vide some insight into the impact of Lean Manufacturing on Environmental Per-formance and the existing relationship of these two concepts. Four semi-structured interviews with industrial and academic experts provided a solid ground to suggest that the relationship does exist, despite the fact that these two concepts were developed independently from each other. Being the exploratory nature of this study and its purpose to ignite further research, it does not employ a quantitative approach. The results of this study can help managers to better un-derstand and concurrently tackle both the economic and environmental challenges faced by their organizations.
    • Lean Manufacturing and Internet of Things – A Synergetic or Antagonist Relationship?

      Anosike, Anthony; Alafropatis, Konstantinos; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Anil; Luthra, Sunil; Rocha-Lona, Luis; University of Derby; University of Warwick; London Metropolitan University; Ch. Ranbir Singh State Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jhajjar-124103, Haryana, India; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-04-13)
      This paper explores the relationship between five LM methods (JIT, TPM, Autonomation, VSM and Kaizen) and three IoT technologies (RFID, WSN and Middleware) and the implications that arise from their combination. Four hypotheses and four complimentary research questions were formulated and tested. 136 responses were obtained through a questionnaire survey and analysed using descriptive statistics, 2-Sample proportion, Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and Pairwise comparison tests. The findings indicate that IoT can significantly improve the operational performance of manufacturing organisations. The findings advocate that all LM methods, apart from Kaizen, benefit from improved effectiveness by combining them with IoT. The results suggest that this can be attributed to the general perception about IoT, which despite the support and benefits it provides to people, is seen to be reducing human involvement whereas Kaizen is seen to be more people-focused. Improvements in information flow, decision-making and productivity were also found to be the most important motivations and benefits of combining LM methods with IoT. The findings of this research can be used by LM organisations that wish to embark into the new digitalised manufacturing era and businesses seeking to improve their performance through the combination of traditional efficiency-based methods and I4.0 technologies.
    • Lean production myths: An exploratory study

      Saurin, Jose T; Tortorella, G; Soliman, M; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil; The University of Melbourne; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-11-25)
      Tthis paper presents an exploratory investigation of myths on lean production (LP), by identifying, dispelling, and assessing their pervasiveness. A list of myths was proposed mostly based on seminal LP texts and our rich experience from researching, teaching, and consulting in lean journeys. Complexity thinking was adopted as a lens for dispelling the myths, as it challenged generalizations implied in myths. An investigation of the pervasiveness of the myths was conducted, based on a survey with 120 academics and practitioners. Ten myths were identified and dispelled. Survey’s results indicated that belief in lean myths was more common among less experienced practitioners (< 10 years), while experience was not a relevant factor for academics. The lean myths partly reflect the experience of the authors. Furthermore, a larger sample size is necessary for a full analysis of pervasiveness. The lean myths might be underlying barriers to LP implementation (e.g., lack of knowledge of managers and workers), and they might be proactively accounted for in lean training and education programs. This is the first work to explicitly frame a set of lean myths.