• A PDCA-based approach to Environmental Value Stream Mapping (E-VSM)

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Torres Romero, Joseth; Govindan, Kannan; Cherrafi, Anass; Ramanathan, Usha; University of Derby; University of Warwick; University of Southern Denmark; Cadi Ayyad University; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2018-02-03)
      Research into the application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) as a tool to enhance the environmental sustainability performance of operations has been confined to a handful of studies only. Research on this green lean research stream is therefore limited, especially when compared to the vast amount of scholarly research focused on the ‘traditional’ VSM tool. To complement and support the narrow body of knowledge on the application of VSM as tools to improve environmental performance and enhance the effectiveness of its application, this paper proposes an approach, based on the Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) improvement cycle, to systematically implement and conduct Environmental-VSM (E-VSM) studies. The implementation of the proposed method is reported through an action research-based case study conducted in a helical rolling process of one of the mining consumables business units of an international diversified mining and materials multinational company. The results of the case study indicate that the proposed PDCA-based approach to E-VSM can be an effective alternative to improve the green performance of operations. Besides the proposal of this approach, its testing, and expanding the body of knowledge in the green lean field, the paper also contributes by providing a guiding reference for operations managers who may want to make the operations of their organisations more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Finally, this paper also intends to contribute by inspiring researchers and practitioners to broaden the study of the under-researched field which explores the application of VSM for environmental sustainability enhancement.
    • Performance Efficiency Measurement of Airports: A Comparative Analysis of Airports Authority of India and Public Private Partnership

      Kumar, Anil; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Sahu, Rajendra; University of Derby; BML Munjal University, Gurgaon, India; Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior, India; School of Management, BML Munjal University, Gurgaon, India; Behavioural Economics Experiments and Analytics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior, India; Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior, India (IGI Global, 2018-04)
      This article describes how to improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the aviation sector and also to source extra funding, the Government of India has paved the way for private investors through to a Public Private Partnership (PPP) model since the 1980s. This liberalization step in the Indian aviation market has minimized the institutional barriers which have hindered the freedom and flexibility of air transport operations among private investors. Now, competition within the aviation sector has become fiercer; the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Indian airports are not only providing varied services, but also attracting consumers with new infrastructure and full modern facilities. The importance of this article is because after privatization, no studies have been conducted to examine the efficiency of Indian airports by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). An output-oriented DEA model is employed to determine the efficiency score of airports by taking a sample of 15 airports, including airports run by PPP, for comparison. Output-oriented DEA calculates the efficiency by maximizing the outputs for a given level of inputs. Therefore, this article contributes to the existing literature on Indian airports. Based on available data, three variables - length of runways, terminal size and number of check-in counters, are used as inputs and two variables - passenger movement and aircraft movement, are used as outputs.
    • Performance factors for successful business incubators in Indonesian public universities

      Gozali, Lina; Masrom, Maslin; Zagloel, Teuku Yuri M.; Haron, Habibah N.; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Tjahjono, Benny; Purna Irawan, Agustinus; Daywin, Frans Jusuf; Syamas, Asril Fitri; Susanto, Sani; et al. (IJTech Universitas Indonesia, 2020-01-29)
      Measuring the performance of business processes is already a main concern for both faculty and enterprise players, since organizations are motivated to reach the productivity stage. Employing a performance achievement framework for the relationship between business incubator success factors will guarantee connection with commercial schemes, which support a high level of performance indicators in successful business incubator models. This research employs a quantitative approach, with the data analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 23 and Smart PLS version 3 statistical software packages. Employing a sample of 95 incubator managers from 19 universities which geographically located in Indonesia, it is shown that the image of business incubator factors has a positive effect on incubator performance. The study investigates the relationship between incubator performance and business incubator success factors in Indonesia. It was found that IT, as part of the business incubators’ facets/abilities, partially supports their performance; that the entry criteria directly support the performance of the incubators; that mentoring networks also support the performance, with good infrastructure systems as a moderating factor; that funding supports the performance of business incubators, also with good infrastructure systems as a moderating factor; and that university regulations and government support and protection enhance the performance of business incubators, with credits and rewards as a moderating factor. In addition, a variety of indicators from the local context affiliate positively to promote a community that highlighted the incubators’ strategies.
    • Performance measurement for supply chains in the Industry 4.0 era: A balanced scorecard approach

      Frederico, G.F.; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; Kumar, A; Kumar, V; University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; University of Derby; University of the West of England (Emerald, 2020-05-06)
      The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical approach based on the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) with regards to Performance Measurement (PM) in supply chains for the Industry 4.0 era. This paper combines the literature on PM and specifically the BSC related to the dimensions of supply chain in the context of Industry 4.0. Dimensions extracted from the literature based on supply chains within the context of Industry 4.0 showed a strong alignment with the four perspectives of the BSC, which make it suitable to be considered as a Performance Measurement System (PMS) for supply chains in this new context. From theoretical perspective, this study contributes to the limited literature on PM for supply chains in industry 4.0 era. The study proposes a supply chain 4.0 scorecard and strongly support researchers to conduct future empirical researches in order to get a deeper understanding about PM in supply chains in the Industry 4.0 era. As limitations, the theoretical framework proposed needs further empirical research in other to validate it and obtain new insights over the investigation conducted and presented into this paper. Practitioners can use this study as a guide to develop more effective Performance Measurement Systems (PMSs) in their organizations. This research is unique as it addresses a significant knowledge gap related to PM in Supply Chains in the Industry 4.0 era. It brings a significant contribution in terms of understanding how to measure performance in supply chains in this new era.
    • Practical implications and future research agenda of lean manufacturing: a systematic literature review

      Antony, J; Psomas, E; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; Hines, P; Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh; University of Patras, Greece; University of Derby; Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland (Taylor & Francis, 2020-06-29)
      Academic literature on Lean Manufacturing (LM) is widely available. However, due to its fragmentation, the contribution of LM from practical and academic perspectives is controversial. This paper establishes the practical implications of LM studies carried out worldwide and identifies novel research streams. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. A total of 401 articles published in 61 journals during 2010-2019 were collected from four major management science publishers. An “affinity diagram” was applied to organize the data into natural and logical themes. Conceptual frameworks concerning LM practical implications and future research agenda were formulated. Meaningful themes of LM practical implications and future research suggestions were revealed and classified into two categories. In category one pertaining to the internal nature of LM, themes related to the pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation phases of LM were identified. In category two pertaining to the external nature of LM, themes related to the country in which the companies operate, the diverse managerial systems available, and the methodological research approach were identified. The main themes supported in the literature by most references were determined. Finally, respective statements concerning the practical implications of LM and the future research agenda are analytically presented.
    • Predicting changing pattern: building model for consumer decision making in digital market

      Kumar, Anil; Mangla, Sachin Kumar; Luthra, Sunil; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; BML Munjal University; Graphic Era University, Dehradun, India; State Institute of Engineering and Technology, Nilokheri, India; Swansea University; BML Munjal University, Gurgaon, India; et al. (Emerald Insight, 2018-09-10)
      Purpose Consumers have the multiple options to choose their products and services, which have a significant impact on the pattern of consumer decision making in digital market and further increases the challenges for the service providers to predict their buying pattern. In this sense, the purpose of this paper is to propose a structural hierarchy model for analyzing the changing pattern of consumer decision making in digital market by taking an Indian context. Design/methodology/approach To accomplish the objectives, the research is conducted in two phases. An extensive literature review is performed in the first phase to list the factors related to the changing pattern of consumer decision making in digital market and then fuzzy Delphi method is applied to finalize the factors. In the second phase, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is employed to find the priority weights of finalized factors. The fuzzy set theory allows capturing the vagueness in the data. Findings The findings obtained in this study shows that consumers are much conscious about innovative and trendy products as well as brand and quality; therefore, the service providers must think about these two most important factors so that they can able to retain their consumer in their online portal. Practical implications The analysis shows that “innovative and trendy” is the first priority factor for the consumers followed by “brand and quality” and “fulfilment and time energy.” The proposed model can help the marketers and service providers in predicting customers’ preferences and their changing pattern efficiently under vague surroundings. The outcomes of this research work not only help the service provider to update their products and services according to consumers’ needs but can also help them to increase profit and minimize their risk. Originality/value This work contributes to consumer research literature focusing on problem evaluation in the context of changing pattern of consumer decision making in digital era.
    • Prioritisation of operations improvement projects in the European manufacturing industry.

      Kirkham, Louis; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; Antony, Ji; Rolls Royce Plc; University of Derby; University of the West of England; Heriot-Watt University (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-07)
      To improve their competitive ability, organisations are turning towards implementing improvements into their operations and processes. Whilst operations improvement projects are often identified with relative ease, resource constraints limit the ability of organisations to conduct them simultaneously. This paper supports the limited empirical research on prioritisation of improvement initiatives by investigating how European manufacturing organisations conduct this activity. To do this, four hypotheses and two research questions were formulated and tested using a combination of descriptive statistics and two proportion T-tests, while data was collected through a survey questionnaire responded by 203 organisations. The results highlight the importance of objectively prioritising improvement projects and establish that the adoption of this method increases through the implementation of improvement methodologies, especially those that stipulate the use of objective methods towards project prioritisation. In this way, Six Sigma is defined as the most influential improvement methodology for supporting the use of objective prioritisation approaches. The paper also identifies the reasons as to why organisations adopt subjective over objective prioritisation methods, and the most common approaches used by large organisations and small and medium enterprises. This research provides organisations, and their managers, with a better understanding of the different factors that affect this key aspect of operations improvement projects.
    • Proposition of a method for stochastic analysis of value streams

      Luz, G., Tortorella, G.L., Bouzon, M., Garza-Reyes, J.A., Gaiardelli, P.; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil; The University of Melbourne; University of Derby; Università degli Studi di Milano (Taylor & Francis, 2020-10-19)
      This article aims at proposing a method to stochastically analyze values streams taking into consideration the effect of critical uncertainty sources on lead time. The proposed method combines value stream mapping (VSM) and Monte Carlo simulation to identify improvement opportunities. To illustrate this approach, we carried out a case study in the special nutrition value stream of a Brazilian public hospital. Results show that the proposed method allows the identification of improvement opportunities that would not be considered in the classical deterministic VSM approach. Further, the integration of the stochastic analysis enables the determination of a more realistic lead time, which supports a more assertive planning and scheduling of the value stream. The proposed method addresses a fundamental gap in traditional VSM without adding much complexity to the analysis procedure, which is a common practical issue in previous works that integrated other stochastic methods into VSM.
    • Quality assurance for operating room illumination through lean six sigma

      Ozturkoglu, Y; Kazancoglu, Y; Sagnak, M; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Yasar University, Universite Caddesi, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey; Izmir Kâtip Celebi University, Balatcik Kampusu, Cigli, Izmir, Turkey; University of Derby (International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences, India, 2021-06)
      Since every mistake made in the healthcare industry can cause permanent harm or even death, some fundamental requirements should be considered when planning and designing operating rooms. Lighting is one of the most important ergonomic factors, especially for operating rooms. This paper investigates the integration of the lean approach and six sigma in measuring the efficiency of LED technology, which can also be regarded as a factor affecting the operating room efficiency. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) and Gage Control methods were applied to determine measurement variability in operating room illumination measurement process. Repeatability and reproducibility (%R&R) was found 12.89%. After calibration, %R&R value was found 8.21%, which implies that calibration helped reduce variability.
    • A readiness self-assessment model for implementing Green Lean Initiatives

      Cherrafi, Anass; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Belhadi, Amine; Kamble, S.S; Elbaz, Jamal; Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco; University of Derby; Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco; EDHEC Business School, Roubaix, 59057, France; ENCG –Agadir, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco (Elsevier, 2021-05-07)
      This paper proposes a self-assessment model to evaluate the level of readiness of organizations to implement Green Lean initiatives. A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize the key elements of the implementation of Green Lean, barriers and its critical success factors. The proposed instrument was validated through semi-structured interviews and workshops with experts from academia and industry and applied in four manufacturing companies in a developing country. The results revealed that the proposed self-assessment model is an appropriate instrument to determine the readiness of organizations for effectively implementing Green Lean. The proposed self-assessment model was able to display the potential challenges a company will face if it aims to integrate Green and Lean and implement it. The results of this paper will help the practitioners to conduct a diagnostic of requirements for Green Lean adoption, thereby increasing the probability of success of such an initiative before a company spends its resources on the project. Consequently, this paper will contribute to encouraging the effective implementation of Green Lean initiatives and serving as implications for further exploration and contribution to this area.
    • Reduce turnaround time through waste elimination.

      Villarreal, Bernardo; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Aleu, Fernando Gonzalez; Quezada, Arturo; Morales, Gabriela; Carranza, Aracely; University of Derby (IEOM Society, 2018-03)
      According to the NHS Confederation (2012), “It’s not good to be a patient stuck on an ambulance trolley in a corridor, but the patients at risk are the road traffic accidents or heart attacks still waiting for the ambulance service to respond”. Ambulance Turnaround time is a measure of particular interest in the performance of Emergency Medical Systems (EMS). It determines the degree of coordination and communication with the health institutions where each patient will receive his final treatment. Its value is key in the determination of the ambulance capacity of the operations system of an EMS institution. Long turnaround times decreases the availability of ambulances for future services and furthermore, it increases ambulance response times and patient´s health risk. This work is about applying an improvement approach based on Lean Thinking for reducing ambulance turnaround time in the EMS operations of the Red Cross located in metropolitan Monterrey, Mexico. Results of the application are provided.
    • The relationship between lean and environmental performance: practices and measures

      Dieste, M., Panizzolo, R., Garza-Reyes, J.A., Anosike, A.I.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-03-23)
      Lean production has emerged in the past decades as one of the most popular themes in the business and manufacturing literature as it is the most extended production paradigm currently applied in industry. The lean approach is characterized by five principles (value, mapping the value stream, flow, pull and continuous improvement) that facilitate the reduction of waste (muda). In parallel, the environmental performance of a company in terms of pollution prevention, reduction and use/waste of resources is an issue increasingly concerning companies and customers in recent years. The focus on these issues has spurred an area of research that is commonly known as green production. Lean and green production concepts are both focused on waste reduction, and several authors have studied their relationships (commonalities and divergences) and the synergic effects of integrating these two management approaches. This research conducts a literature review in order to: (1) identify if firms which have applied lean principles and methods have improved their environmental measures; (2) highlight the environmental measures that are positively affected by lean practices adoption; and finally (3) underline the most important lean practices in relation to impacting environmental performance. The results are condensed in a final matrix that links some key lean practices to specific environmental measures. This matrix is of great interest for both researchers and practitioners since it suggests some possible relationships between various lean practices and the improvement of specific green performances. The findings give light regarding the state-of-the-art relationships between the lean and green production approaches.
    • Resolving forward-reverse logistics multi-period model using evolutionary algorithms

      Kumar, Varun; Kumar, Vikas; Brady, Malcolm; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-05)
      In the changing competitive landscape and with growing environmental awareness, reverse logistics issues have become prominent in manufacturing organizations. As a result there is an increasing focus on green aspects of the supply chain to reduce environmental impacts and ensure environmental efficiency. This is largely driven by changes made in government rules and regulations with which organizations must comply in order to successfully operate in different regions of the world. Therefore, manufacturing organizations are striving hard to implement environmentally efficient supply chains while simultaneously maximizing their profit to compete in the market. To address the issue, this research studies a forward-reverse logistics model. This paper puts forward a model of a multi-period, multi-echelon, vehicle routing, forward-reverse logistics system. The network considered in the model assumes a fixed number of suppliers, facilities, distributors, customer zones, disassembly locations, re-distributors and second customer zones. The demand levels at customer zones are assumed to be deterministic. The objective of the paper is to maximize the total expected profit and also to obtain an efficient route for the vehicle corresponding to an optimal/ near optimal solution. The proposed model is resolved using Artificial Immune System (AIS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms. The findings show that for the considered model, AIS works better than the PSO. This information is important for a manufacturing organization engaged in reverse logistics programs and in running units efficiently. This paper also contributes to the limited literature on reverse logistics that considers costs and profit as well as vehicle route management.
    • A review of challenges and opportunities of blockchain adoption for operational excellence in the UK automotive Industry

      Upadhyay, Arvind; Ayodele, J; Kumar, Anil; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Brighton; University of the West of Scotland London Campus, London; London Metropolitan University; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-11-20)
      This paper aims to explore the challenges and opportunities of blockchain technology adoption from the lens of the TOE framework for operational excellence in the UK automotive industry context. The research methodology of this study follows a systematic review approach, which analyses existing academic published research papers in the top 35 academic journals. There was no specific timeframe established for this study and shortlisting the articles through a set of used keywords. A sample of 71 articles was shortlisted and analysed to provide a discussion on technological and management challenges and opportunities of blockchain adoption from the lens of the TOE framework for operational excellence. Findings– The findings of this study present significant theoretical and managerial implications and deep understanding for firms seeking to understand the challenges and opportunities of blockchain adoption for their operational excellence. Systematic literature approach was considered for the present study to explore existing academic papers on technological and management challenges and opportunities from the lens of TOE framework for operational excellence, whereas a more specified method meta-analysis can be considered for future research. The study has been explored in the UK automotive industry context, which has been considered as the limitation of generalization across countries and industries. This paper represents the most comprehensive literature study related to the technological and management challenges and opportunities of blockchain from the TOE framework angle for operational excellence.
    • A review of lean and agile management in humanitarian supply chains: analysing the pre-disaster and post-disaster phases, and future directions

      Upadhyay, A., Ayodele, J., Kumar, A., Garza-Reyes, J.A.; University of Brighton; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Hull; University of Derby; Middlesex University, London (Taylor & Francis, 2020-10-21)
      Disasters have quadrupled over the last two decades leading to unprecedented loss of life. The objective of disaster-focused humanitarian supply chains (HSCs) is to ensure saving maximum lives with limited resources; despite severe uncertainties. Therefore, significant research has investigated lean and agile in HSCs; to effectively source and speedily deploy resources, with minimum wastage; in each disaster life-cycle phase. However, the literature and research findings are currently highly disjointed regarding how lean and agile principles may be aligned with different HSC activities in the disaster management lifecycle; and do not provide a collective understanding for practitioners and researchers. This paper reviews and organises the literature on HSCs in relation to lean and agile paradigms, focusing on the pre-disaster (mitigation and preparedness) and post-disaster (response and recovery) phases. Findings reveal, all phases benefit from both lean and agile, with agile benefiting the response phase most. The phases are inter-dependent and identifying optimum decoupling points for lean and agile principles are crucial. Majority research has focused on individual or a couple of phases. Therefore, authors recommend research on integrating the functions of the different phases by employing lean and agile principles, to generate rapid response, economies of scale and cost minimisation
    • The role of organizational motivation and coordination in continuous improvement implementations: an empirical research of improvement project success

      Lameijer, B; Antony, J; Chakraborty, A; Does, R.J.M.M.; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; University of Amsterdam; Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh; Indian Institute of Management; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-04-30)
      The paper aims to elicit the understanding of process improvement (PI) project success by researching the effects of organizational- motivation and coordination in continuous improvement (CI) implementations in the financial services sector. The data analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) comes from a sample of 198 survey respondents in financial service organizations that have implemented CI. This research shows that a strong organizational motivation is driving the embeddedness of PI methodology in, and alignment with the CI implementation of, the organization and thus affecting PI project success. In addition, central coordination is found to affect the alignment of the organization to the CI implementation activities and objectives and affects PI project success. These findings show how the organizational level constructs of organizational- motivation and coordination affect PI project success following the mediating constructs of alignment, embeddedness, and routinization specifically in the context of financial services. Thus, the work provides a better understanding of how organizational level drivers affect the organizational context of PI projects and consequently affect PI project success. There is little empirical research on determinants of PI project success. Our work explains how factors in the organizational context in which PI projects take place are affecting project outcome.
    • The role of supply chain integration in achieving competitive advantage: A study of UK automobile manufacturers

      Ngo, Hieu Van; Kumar, Vikas; Kumari, Archana; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Akkaranggoon, Supalak; The University of Derby (2016-06)
      The competitive nature of the global automobile industry has resulted in a battle for efficiency and consistency in supply chain management (SCM). For manufacturers, the diversified network of suppliers represents more than just a production system; it is a strategic asset that must be managed, evaluated, and revised in order to attain competitive advantage. One capability that has become an increasingly essential means of alignment and assessment is supply chain integration (SCI). Through such practices, manufacturers create informational capital that is inimitable, yet transferrable, allowing suppliers to participate in a mutually-beneficial system of performance-centred outcomes. From cost reduction to time improvements to quality control, the benefits of SCI extend throughout the supply chain lifecycle, providing firms with improved predictability, flexibility, and responsiveness. Yet in spite of such benefits, key limitations including exposure to risks, supplier failures, or changing competitive conditions may expose manufacturers to a vulnerable position that can severely impact value and performance. The current study summarizes the perspectives and predictions of managers within the automobile industry in the UK, highlighting a dynamic model of interdependency and interpolation that embraces SCI as a strategic resource. Full commitment to integration is critical to achieving improved outcomes and performance; therefore, firms seeking to integrate throughout their extended supply chain must be willing to embrace a less centralized locus of control.
    • Scoping review of the readiness for sustainable implementation of lean six sigma projects in the manufacturing sector

      Shokri, A., Antony, J., Garza-Reyes, J.A., Upton, M.; Northumbria University; Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh; University of Derby; University of York (Emerald, 2021-01-11)
      This work presents a synthesis of current literature published from 2010 to provide an overall understanding of the sustainable implementation of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) projects in terms of project approaches rather than outcomes. A comprehensive and validated ten-step model was applied to conduct a scoping review (SR) with the following three broad phases: “review planning”, “review execution”, and “review reporting”. The analysis shows that while a few geographically and methodologically broad research studies have been conducted on LSS and green manufacturing integration, no studies have examined organisational culture or conducted readiness assessments on the sustainable implementation of LSS projects in the manufacturing sector. The present study contributes to existing knowledge by describing the current state of research on green LSS integration. The study also identifies a lack of research on the deployment of sustainable LSS projects for manufacturers. Further empirical analyses that include case studies must be conducted to assess the negative environmental impacts of LSS projects. This study serves as an initial call for practitioners and research scholars to favour the sustainable deployment of LSS projects in manufacturing alongside the use of traditional approaches with a focus on costs, quality and delivery.
    • Service innovation and performance in Mexican service SMEs

      Maldonado-Guzman, Gonzalo; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Rocha-Lona, Luis; Kumar, Vikas; Centro de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas; University of Derby; Instituto Politécnico NacionalESCA Santo Tomás; University of West England (Springer, 2017-08-29)
      This empirical research investigates the influence of service innovation on the performance of service SMEs, especially within the context of a country with an emerging economy as it is the case of Mexico. Data were collected through a survey instrument designed and distributed among service SMEs in the Aguascalientes state of Mexico to test a hypothesis formulated from the literature review conducted. The instrument was validated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test and the Composite Reliability Index to ensure its reliability. The hypothesis was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) using an as input 308 valid responses obtained from the survey. In general, the results obtained show that service innovation has a positive and significant effect on the performance of service SMEs. Specific research related to service innovation in service SMEs is limited. This paper therefore fills this research gap by expanding the limited body of knowledge in this field.
    • Social and environmental sustainability model on consumers’ altruism, green purchase intention, green brand loyalty, and evangelism

      Panda, T. K.; Kumar, Anil; Jakhar, S; Luthra, S; Garza-Reyes, J. A.; Kazancoglu, I; Nayak, S.S.; University of Derby; OP Jindal Global University, India; Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, India; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-09-26)
      Across the globe, the awareness for environmental degradation and its harmful effects is rapidly growing. The whole world has come together to work in the direction to protect the environment. Consumers are increasingly becoming cautious towards the impact of their consumption pattern on environment and organisations can attain a competitive edge by leveraging this cautiousness by offering them green products/brands. However, it is importance for the marketers to understand that how increasing levels of sustainability awareness impacts other factors which explain pro-environmental behaviour of customers. To fill the existing gap in the current literature in this regard, the current study aims to build a structural model which includes social and environmental sustainability awareness in measuring customer altruism, buying intention, loyalty and customer evangelism. The theoretical model extends the existing framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and explores the decision-making framework regarding ethical behaviour. Through existing literature review and expert input, the indicators (variables) for each construct were recognised. After that, data was collected from 331 respondents through a structurally designed questionnaire; the hypothetical model was test using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. The findings of the study indicate that sustainability awareness positively influence the consumer altruism which in turn enhances the consumer purchase intention, green brand loyalty and green brand evangelism and altruism can and can bridge value-action gap for green brands. Current analysis supports the view that there are significant positive associations among the identified constructs.