• Green and lean: a Gemba–Kaizen model for sustainability enhancement.

      Cherrafi, A; Elfezazi, S; Hurley, B; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, V; Anosike, Anthony; Batista, L; Cadi Ayyad University; Rockwell Collins Inc.; University of Derby; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2019-05-10)
      Despite the encouraging results obtained from the application of Green Lean, organizations have found the integration of Green and Lean, and their implementation as an integrated approach, challenging, especially when resources are limited. This paper aims to overcome some of these challenges by presenting a model for integrating Lean and Green based on the Gemba-Kaizen approach. The objective is to help organizations reduce their environmental waste in a practical and easy manner with limited resources. The proposed model was developed on the basis of a through literature review on Gemba and Kaizen, conducted on peer–reviewed journal articles and pragmatic books with managerial impact on the subject, and the more than 40 years of accumulated experience of the authors as academics, researchers, industrialists and consultants after having worked on a number of projects for multinational organisations that wanted to implement Lean Six Sigma and/or environmental management systems in various industrial sectors. The model was validated through two cases study in the aerospace and automotive industries. The results showed that the proposed model helped the case organizations to reduce the consumption of resources and improve their environmental performance. The proposed model can be the basis for further research on Lean and Green, contributing to help organizations to improve their sustainability performance. This research presents a first attempt to develop a model which integrates Lean and Green based on a combined Gemba-Kaizen approach.
    • Green lean and the need for six sigma.

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Derby (Emerald, 2015-08-03)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically review the green lean approach and highlight its limitations; examine the compatibility of the green, lean and Six Sigma concepts; and propose Six Sigma, and specially its problem-solving methodology DMAIC, as an approach to help enhancing the effectiveness of green lean initiatives. Historically, profitability and efficiency, and more recently customer satisfaction, quality and responsiveness objectives have been the prevailing interest for organisations. However, the move towards greener operations and products has forced companies to seek alternatives to combine these with green objectives and initiatives. Green lean is the result of this combination. Thus, the paper conceptually proposes Green Lean Six Sigma. Design/methodology/approach – To do this, a systematic literature review (SLR) of the subjects under investigation was conducted. Findings – The SLR indicated that the green lean integration may have inherited the same limitations as the individual green and lean approaches, but these may be overcome through the integration of Six Sigma. It also identified the similarities of some of the main attributes of green, lean and Six Sigma, which suggest their compatibility to be unified as an integrated approach. Practical implications – The paper allows scholars to develop a deeper and richer knowledge on the simultaneous deployment of green and operational improvement initiatives and help practitioners in formulating more effective strategies for their deployment. Originality/value – The paper is one of the very first researches that investigate the potential benefits of integrating green lean and Six Sigma.
    • How selection of collaborating partners impact on the green performance of global businesses? An empirical study of green sustainability

      Ramanathan, U., Mazolla, E., Mohan, U., Bruccoleri, M., Awasthi, A., Garza-Reyes, J.A.; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-07-27)
      In recent days, both collaboration and sustainability have become an integral part of many global supply chains to achieve business excellence. Although previous literature and actual practices confirmed the successful implementation of sustainability practices through supply chain collaborations, it is not clear how collaborating partners can support financial and environmental performance, and hence strengthen the partnership performance in the global supply chains. To address this practice-based research question, we test the theoretical underpinning of suppliers and logistics partners in relation to required skills selection. We capture the depth of interdependencies in collaborations for routine operations and sustainability, through empirical evidence. We used case study observations from three global companies to develop a conceptual model and also conducted a questionnaire survey to test the conceptual model. The results of case analysis confirmed two dimensions of collaborations that could strengthen relationship; namely, partners’ selection and sustainability team formation. Data analysis strongly support business collaborations having careful choice of supply chain partners and logistics operators who are ready to maintain green operations with transparent information sharing. Results of this study also inform managers about the importance of commitment from collaborating partners to achieve sustainability in their global supply chains. It is clear from the results that both the business and financial performances will be strengthened by environmental positioning (green objectives) of the companies.
    • How supplier selection criteria affects business performance? A study of UK automotive sector

      Navasiri, Pabhavi; Kumar, Vikas; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Lim, Ming K.; Kumari, Archana; The University of Derby (Nottingham University Business School, 2016-07-03)
      According to KPMG international (2015), global sales of automobiles are forecasted to reach 73.9 million vehicles and expected to hit 100 million units in the next two years. This shows that automotive sector has a tremendous growth potential and UK automotive sector is no different. However, in recent years the growing environmental awareness has become a major concern for automotive sector as they are faced with pressure of reducing carbon emissions as well as the costs. Suppliers play a significant role in achieving environmental goals set by organisations. Under these circumstances it is worth exploring the criteria that are used in assessing suppliers including the green aspects and how that affects the business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This research adopts a mixed method research approach. In order to collect the quantitative data a survey questionnaire was constructed and sent to automotive businesses listed in the FAME database. In order to triangulate the findings of this study, survey was complemented with in-depth interviews. Around 100 automotive manufacturers were invited for the survey however only 38 usable responses were received. In total seven semi-structured interviews were also conducted with people from different backgrounds and work experiences in the automotive sector. Findings: Literature identified delivery, cost, quality and technology as the supplier assessment criteria commonly used in assessing suppliers in automotive industries. Yet the issue of culture and green supply chain practices (GSP) were also widely concerned in several studies. The data analysis showed that delivery, quality, cost, technology, culture are correlated with exception of green supply chain practices. GSP was only found to be correlated with technology and cultural criteria. Semi-structured interviews suggest delivery and quality as the most important criteria when assessing supplier because of their greater impact toward business performance and reputation. Findings from all respondents also showed that most automotive manufacturers have already adopted environmental competency in their criteria. However, interviewees mentioned that this criterion does not take a major role in assessment compared with other criteria. The results also indicate that all factors studied do affect the business performance of automotive organisations. Value: This study contributes to the limited literature focused on assessing supplier selection criteria and business performance linkage in the UK automotive organisations. In addition, most studies on supplier selection and business performance ignore the green practices as important criteria which this study aims to address. Research limitations/implications: The study is based on the findings from a limited survey responses and semi-structured interviews. Having larger sample population would certainly improve the validity of the findings. The perspective of SMEs and large businesses with regard to each supplier selection criterion may be different hence the future research in this domain would also provide some valuable contributions. Practical implications: The survey responses indicate green supply practices as one of the important criteria in supplier selection. This suggests that automotive manufacturers should realize the importance of green practices while selecting their suppliers. This will help them to meet their own green goals while simultaneously meeting the government environmental.
    • How sustainable is short food supply chains? A comprehensive systematic review

      Kumar, V.; University of Derby (IEOM Society, 2019-03)
      Growing awareness towards the sustainability has compelled supply chain domain experts to explore its relevance in this context. As a result, a number of studies in recent years have focused on investigating sustainable supply chain practices across the globe. Short food supply chains (SFSCs) have emerged as a promising sustainable alternative to the industrialized agro-food supply systems. However, academic literature hasn’t fully explored the linkage between SFSCs and sustainability. This study therefore aims to explore how SFSCs conforms to the dimensions of sustainability using the sustainability framework (social, economic, and environmental). The findings are based on a systematic literature review of 44 articles published between 2000 and 2018 selected from six electronic databases was used for the analysis. All items were properly analyzed by the researchers, seeking to identify the relationship or proximity of the information found in the papers with the SFSC concept. Our studies highlight the societal, environmental and cultural benefits of SFSC in addition to the associated economic and safety benefits. Our study thus, adds to the scant literature on SFSCs and shows a clear linkage between SFSCs and five-dimensional sustainability framework. We also propose a set of research questions that sets direction for future research.
    • Impact of I4.0 Technologies and their Interoperability on Performance: Future Pathways for Supply Chain Resilience Post-COVID-19

      Frederico, G.F.; Kumar, V; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, A; Agrawal, R; Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; University of the West of England; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University; National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, India (Emerald, 2021-10-05)
      This study aims to investigate the impact of I4.0’s technologies and their interoperability on Supply Chains (SCs) performance and how the integration of such technologies and their interoperability can create pathways for SCs resilience post-COVID-19. This is of paramount importance in the context of COVID-19 as the investigation around I4.0 technologies may provide relevant insights on how SCs may better respond to unexpected situations like the current pandemic with the use of digital technologies. A survey research method was designed based on some constructs extracted from the literature regarding the main disruptive technologies, interoperability, elements of Supply Chains Processes (SCPs) performance such as integration, collaboration, transparency, efficiency, responsiveness, and profitability. The data were collected from March-July 2020 from different regions of the world when the peak of the first wave of the pandemic had occurred. The survey resulted in 115 valid responses. The study employed a combination of descriptive, correlation and multiple regression methods to analyse the data. The study indicates that disruptive technologies significantly impact SCPs performance (integration, collaboration, responsiveness, and transparency) and their resilience. The findings did not support the notion that these technologies improve the efficiency of SCs, a significant contrast to the existing literature. Our findings also refute the existing understanding that interoperability moderates the impact of disruptive technologies on SCPs performance and enhancing the resilience of SCs. However, the findings show that the integration of I4.0 technologies and their interoperability has a positive impact on SCPs profitability. The findings strongly advocate that this integration plays an important role in improving SC performance, and a future pathway of supply chain resiliency post-COVID-19. Considering that the I4.0 trend will impact SCs in the coming years, this study brings a relevant contribution to researchers and practitioners. This study makes a unique contribution by investigating a novel causal relationship between the main elements (I4.0 technologies, interoperability, processes performance, and strategic outcomes) related to the SC in this new context.
    • The impact of lean methods and tools on the operational performance of manufacturing organisations.

      Belekoukias, Ioannis; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; University of Warwick; University of Derby; University of the West of England (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-07)
      Evidence suggests that lean methods and tools have helped manufacturing organisations to improve their operations and processes. However, the real effect of these methods and tools on contemporary measures of operational performance, i.e. cost, speed, dependability, quality and flexibility, is still unclear. This paper investigates the impact of five essential lean methods, i.e. JIT, autonomation, kaizen, total productive maintenance (TPM) and value stream mapping (VSM), on these measures. A linear regression analysis modelled the correlation and impact of these lean practices on the operational performance of 140 manufacturing organisations around the world. In addition, structural equation modelling (SME) was used to cross verify the findings of the regression and correlation analyses. The results indicate that JIT and automation have the strongest significance on operational performance while kaizen, TPM and VSM seem to have a lesser, or even negative, effect on it. This paper provides further evidence regarding the effects that lean practices have on the performance of organisations and thus the research offers companies, and their managers, a better understanding of the relationship between the lean strategy and the performance of their operations.
    • Impact of lean, agile and green (LAG) on business competitiveness: An empirical study of fast moving consumer goods businesses

      Udokporo, C.K.; Anosike, A.I.; Lim, M.K.; Nadeem, S.P.; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; Ogbuka, C.P.; University of Derby; Coventry University; Eneyserv Ltd, Nottingham (Elsevier, 2020-02-08)
      The adoption/utilisation of Lean, Agile and Green (LAG) practices in both the manufacturing and service sector is rising. However, there yet remain a research gap to precisely evaluate the relationship between LAG practices and business competitiveness (e.g, achieving reduction in cost, lead time and environmental recyclable waste). This research aims to explore this relationship, specifically in fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) businesses. The hypothesised relationships are tested with data collected from 96 FMCG companies. Structural Equation Modelling is applied to evaluate different channels of achieving business competitiveness through the adoption of Lean, Agile and Green. The findings suggest that competitive outcomes vary with the adoption of LAG practices in specific product life cycle stages. This implies that awareness of the product life cycle concept is essential. A combination of LAG practices for the sole purpose of reducing environmental waste is negatively related to environmental waste reduction. LAG practices are more efficiently adopted when the adopters are equipped with expert knowledge on the paradigms and their individual practices. This research has approached the attainment of competitiveness in the FMCG businesses by analysing management efforts that improve cost performance, lead time and environmental sustainability aspects of business operations. The research has also considered the product life cycle stages in analysing the impacts of management efforts.
    • The impact of learning orientation on innovation performance: mediating role of operations strategy and moderating role of environmental uncertainty

      Jeihoony, P., Jabarzadeh, Y., Kumar, V., Garza-Reyes, J.A.; University of Derby (IEOM Society, 2019-07)
      Performing well in developing production industry is an important factor for companies to survive and sustain a competitive edge in the current turbulent business environment. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of learning orientation on innovation performance with the mediating role of operations strategy (cost, quality, flexibility, and delivery). Environmental uncertainty plays a moderator role in this model. Using a questionnaire to measure variables, data were collected from 243 UK production companies. Structural Equations Modelling used for data analysis and hypothesis testing. The results support 9 out of thirteen research hypotheses. Learning orientation influences innovation performance and two dimensions of operations strategy (delivery and quality) mediates this relationship. Also, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the relationship between quality and flexibility strategies with innovation performance.
    • The impact of supply chain integration on performance: Evidence from the UK food sector

      Kumar, Vikas; Chibuzo, Esinaulo Nwakama; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumari, Archana; Rocha-Lona, Luis; Lopez-Torres, Gabriela Citlalli; University of the West of England; University of Warwick; University of Derby; Instituto Politécnico Nacional; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-09)
      Supply chain Integration has emerged as a major field of interest over the years that involve the strategic alignment of functions and processes within an organization. However, there have been major debates regarding the true design of the kinds of integration that would lead to performance of supply chains. This study develops a conceptual framework from the literature and defines four constructs of integration (customer, supplier, internal, and information integration) to see how this would lead to improved supply chain performance (such as production flexibility, inventory turns, order fulfillment rate, total logistics costs, and operational performance).
    • Impact of the Strategic Sourcing Process on the Supply Chain Response to the COVID-19 effects

      Frederico, G.F.; Kumar, V; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; University of the West of England; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-08-20)
      This research investigates the impact of the strategic sourcing process on the supply chain response to COVID-19. The paper presents practitioners' perspectives (experts in supply chain management, especially involved in the procurement field) on the strategic sourcing process's impact on the supply chain response. The study follows a survey-based approach for data collection. It uses a descriptive survey methodology where questions related to the impact of the strategic sourcing process on the supply chain response in the face of the coronavirus pandemic were explored by practitioners. In total, 130 valid responses were obtained. The results showed that the majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that strategic sourcing positively impacts the supply chain response amid the COVID-19 effects. Also, for the five phases of the strategic sourcing process, the majority of respondents considered them as a high and very high impact on the supply chain response. This paper provides timely insights for practitioners and academics, especially those involved in the supply chain management area, showing how the strategic sourcing process plays an important role in making supply chains more responsive amid disruption situations. Findings of this paper clearly shows the impact of the phases of the strategic sourcing process on the responsiveness of the supply chains amid the COVID-19 pandemic. This can encourage supply chain leadership to devote more time to strategic sourcing initiatives to generate improvements on the supply chain performance. This paper is unique since it brings an unexplored relation in respect to strategic sourcing amid disruption situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, from a practitioner's perspective. It also significantly contributes to developing new directions for the supply chain management domain to deal with large-scale disruptions, such as the coronavirus pandemic.
    • Improve an emergency medical system capacity with theory of constraints.

      Villarreal, Bernardo; Diaz Ramirez, Jenny; Carranza, Aracely; Morales, Gabriela; Quezada, Arturo; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Universidad de Monterrey; University of Derby (IEOM Society, 2018-07)
      The measure of ambulance cycle time is of particular interest in the performance of Emergency Medical Systems (EMS). Its value determines the ambulance capacity of the operations system of an EMS institution. For a given number of ambulances in operation, as the value of the average ambulance cycle time increases, total ambulance capacity for the system is reduced. Additional impacts resulting from this situation are; an increase on the average ambulance response time and patient´s health risk due to the unavailability of ambulances; and a greater need of ambulance replacement investment requirements and operating cost. This work suggests an improvement approach based on Theory of Constraints (TOC) and elimination of waste for reducing ambulance cycle time. The approach is applied to a Mexican EMS institution based on metropolitan Monterrey. Results of the application are provided.
    • Improving road transport operations through lean thinking: A case study

      Villarreal, Bernardo; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; Lim, Ming K.; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-04)
      Traditionally, logistics and transportation problems have been addressed through mathematical modelling, operations research, and simulation, but criticism has emerged about their effectiveness to actually address real-life problems. This paper documents a case study whereby the road transport operations of a leading Mexican brewery were improved through lean thinking and waste reduction. Two lean-based principles and tools were combined; the Seven Transportation Extended Wastes and Transportation Value Stream Mapping. Three systematic steps were proposed to facilitate the implementation of improvement. Feasibility studies conducted in this research suggested that lean thinking is an effective alternative for the improvement of road transport operations. The findings of this research could be used as guidance for transport managers to improve road transport operations. This paper also expands the limited evidence of the application of lean thinking in road transport logistics and highlights the research areas where its application has been concentrated in this sector.
    • Improving road transport operations using lean thinking

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Forero, Juan Sebastian Beltran; Kumar, Vikas; Villarreal, Bernardo; Cedillo-Campos, Miguel Gaston; Rocha-Lona, Luis; University of Derby; University of Warwick; University of the West of England; Universidad de Monterrey; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-09)
      This paper documents a case study where the transport operations of a word leading provider of paper-based packaging solutions operating in Bogota, Colombia, were measured and improved using lean concepts, methods and tools. The methodology consisted of: (1) direct observations of the transport operations; (2) collection and analysis of data; (3) creation of a Transportation Value Stream Map (TVSM); (4) measurement of the Transportation Overall Vehicle Effectiveness (TOVE); and (5) proposal of improvement recommendations. The TVSM identified six wastes: waiting, resource utilisation, excess movement, over-production, over-processing and behavioural. The TOVE measure resulted in an efficiency of 54%. The study proposed improvement recommendations based on the results of the TVSM and TOVE.
    • Improving the reliability of warehouse operations in the 3PL Industry: an Australian 3PL case study.

      Dieu Ho, Thi Hien; Daniel, Jay; Nadeem, Simon Peter; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; International College of Management, Manly NSW; University of Derby; University of the West of England (IEEE, 2019-01-31)
      Warehouses play an important value-adding role to provide a competitive edge, support business growth and efficiency throughout their supply chains. This paper explores warehouse operations (i.e. receiving, put away, picking, packing and shipping) and a series of challenges faced in managing warehouse operations in general and the 3PL industry in particular. Especially, the paper analyses the warehouse and logistics operations of an Australian 3PL company. By utilizing a mixed method approach both qualitative and quantitative data was gathered through in-depth interviews, direct observations and warehouse operations records. The collected data were then analyzed using thematic analysis. The data was screened and coded to further develop major themes to identify the problematic areas. This analysis helped to identify issues in operations related to the receiving process, missing, picking and locating items as well as human errors. While multiple approaches could be utilized to improve the operations, there yet remained a major challenge to manage operations within the planned budgetary limits. This research, therefore, provides some solutions/recommendations to improve the case company’s warehouse operations through staff empowerment, management process improvement, order dispatch and return process improvement, improvement in record keeping, and recruiting more personnel. These recommendations ensure company’s efficiency while balancing its challenges both in operations and budgetary constraints. This study thus provides an evidence to improve the reliability of warehouse operations through systematic process improvement.
    • Improving the sustainability of food supply chains through circular economy practices – a qualitative mapping approach

      Batista, Luciano; Dora, Manoj; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; Aston University, Birmingham; Brunel University, Uxbridge; University of Derby; University of the West of England (Emerald, 2021-04-30)
      The purpose of this paper is to present a methodological approach to support qualitative analysis of waste flows in food supply chains. The methodological framework introduced allows the identification of circular food waste flows that can maximise the sustainability of food supply chains. Following a qualitative approach, circular economy perspectives are combined with core industrial ecology concepts in the specification of a standardised analytical method to map food waste flows and industrial synergies across a supply chain. The mapped waste flows and industrial linkages depict two time-related scenarios: 1. Current scenarios showing the status quo of existing food waste flows, and 2. Future scenarios pointing out circular flows along the supply chain. The future scenarios inform potential alternatives to take waste flows up the food waste hierarchy. The qualitative approach do not allow generalisations of findings out of the scope of the study. The framework is intended for providing focused analysis, case by case. Future research involving mixedmethods where quantitative approaches complement the qualitative perspectives of the framework would expand the analytical perspective. The framework provides a relatively low cost and pragmatic method to identify alternatives to minimise landfill disposals and improve the sustainability of food supply chains. Its phased methodology and standardised outcomes serve as a referential basis to inform not only comparative analysis, but also policy making and strategic decisions aimed at transforming linear food supply chains into circular economy ecosystems.
    • Increasing Service Quality at a University: A Continuous Improvement Project

      Gonzalez Aleu, Fernando; Granda Gutierrez, Edgar Marco Aurelio; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Garza Villegas, Juan Baldemar; Vazquez Hernandez, Jesus; Universidad de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico; University of Derby; Continuous Improvement (Analytics), Viakable SA de CV, San Nicolas de los Garza, Mexico; Advanced Value Chain Institute, San Pedro Garza García, Mexico (Emerald, 2021-07-05)
      This paper evaluates a continuous improvement project (CIP) at a Mexican university designed to increase engineering graduate student loyalty. A plan-do-check-act problem-solving methodology was implemented, and a SERVQUAL survey was conducted on 67 master’s engineering students. Five factors were found to affect student loyalty: facility cleanliness, faculty teaching skills, evening student services, master’s degree student management roles at work and master’s degree students’ ages. After the implementation of the improvement and control actions, there was a 7.7% increase in the engineering master’s degree students’ loyalty scores. This research work took a different approach in assessing student satisfaction and student loyalty in a higher education institution (HEI) by using the SERVQUAL survey as the data collection instrument for the conduct of the CIP. However, there were several research limitations: data availability (such as student loyalty, student satisfaction and a small master’s degree student population size) and factors outside the CIP’s scope (such as the country’s economic situation, university rankings, master’s programme accreditations and COVID-19). Practical implications—The findings from this research study could be used by other HEIs to improve student loyalty and as a reference when conducting similar studies in other service organisations such as hospitals and hotels.
    • Industry 4.0 as enabler of sustainability diffusion in supply chain: analysis of influential strength of drivers in emerging economy

      Luthra, S; Kumar, Anil; Zavadskas, E; Mangla, S; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Derby; Plymouth University; Vilnius Gediminas Technical University; Government Engineering College India (Taylor & Francis, 2019-09-26)
      Industry 4.0 (I4.0) and sustainability are recent buzzwords in manufacturing environments. However, the connection between these two concepts is less explored in the literature. In the current business context, the future generation of manufacturing systems is greatly influenced by the rapid advancement of information technology. Therefore, this study aims to examine the drivers of I4.0 to diffuse sustainability in Supply Chains (SCs). This research identifies the most relevant drivers through the literature and discusses them with area experts. Afterwards, an empirical analysis is conducted to validate the key drivers. Finally, the Grey based DEMATEL method is employed to examine the influential strength of the identified drivers and to build an interrelationship diagram. ‘Government supportive policies’ and ‘Collaboration and transparency among supply chain members’ were reported as highly significant drivers of I4.0. This study is an initial effort that investigates the key drivers of I4.0 to achieve high triple bottom line (ecological-economic-social) gains in SCs by taking an example from an emerging economy, i.e. India. This study may help managers, practitioners and policy makers interested in I4.0 applications to diffuse sustainability in SCs.
    • Industry 4.0 enablers for a cleaner production and circular economy within the context of business ethics: a study in a developing country

      Shayganmehr, Masoud; Kumar, Anil; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Moktadir, Abdul; Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; London Metropolitan University; University of Derby; University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh (Elsevier, 2020-11-26)
      To achieve sustainability, businesses are adopting Cleaner Production (CP) and Circular Economy (CE) practices for producing better quality products at the lowest cost while decreasing the negative environmental impact of their operations. The implementation of these practices is highly influenced by Industry 4.0 technology’s enablers, particularly within the context of ethical and sustainable business development. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed to assess the importance of Industry 4.0 enablers for implementing CP practices embedded in CE in the context of ethical societies and assess an industry’s readiness. Firstly, the most effective context-related Industry 4.0 enablers are extracted from previous studies and validated through a Fuzzy Delphi method. Secondly, the Interval-Valued Fuzzy Sets (IVFS) based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is applied to evaluate the enablers’ weight. Due to existing ambiguities in the enablers, IVFS was applied to model the uncertainty in an interval [0,1]. The final results indicate that the most important enablers are “Technical Capability”, “Security and Safety”, Policy and Regulation”, “System Flexibility”, “Education and Participation” and “Support and Maintenance” respectively. Thirdly, the Fuzzy Evaluation Method (FEM) was followed to evaluate the readiness score of Industry 4.0 enablers for implementing CP practices embedded in CE and evolving ethical principles of corporate social responsibility. This paper contributes to the CP, CE and ethics body of knowledge by proposing a framework for assessing wider dimensions of Industry 4.0 enablers during the implementation of CP and CE practices and providing ethical and sustainable business development.
    • Innovation and growth in family-owned Mexican SMEs.

      Maldonado-Guzman, Gonzalo; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Pinzon-Castro, Sandra Yesenia; Mejia-Trejo, Juan; Kumar, Vikas; Nadeem, Simon Peter; Autonomous University of Aguascalientes; University of Derby; University of Guadalajara; University of West England (IEOM Society, 2018-03)
      This paper studies the relationship between innovation and the level of growth in family-owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this is done within the context of Mexico. The conceptual framework of analysis is based on the hypothesis that innovation in products, processes and management systems contribute to the achievement of growth in family-owned SMEs. To test this hypothesis, a model of structural equation of second order was developed with data collected from 206 family-owned SMEs located in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico. The empirical evidence provided by the analysis supports the hypothesis, showing that family-owned SMEs that increase their innovation activities will also significantly increase their opportunities for growth. This finding can be used to inform the business growth strategies formulated by the owners, or managers, of family-owned SEMs. These also indicate policy-makers that by designing effective policies and providing incentives to support innovation in family-owned SMEs, the government would not only contribute to the growth of these organisations but also to the growth of their regions and countries. Despite the importance of innovation and family-owned SMEs, evidence suggests that studies focused on investigating innovation in this type of organisations are very limited. This paper fills this gap by providing a refined understanding of the relationship between innovation and growth in family-owned SMEs.