Recent Submissions

  • Power Management and Control of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Photovoltaic, Fuel Cells, and Battery Energy Sources

    Mohamed, Naoui; Aymen, Flah; Altamimi, Abdullah; Khan, Zafar A.; Lassaad, Sbita; University of Gabès, Gabès 6072, Tunisia; University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia; Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur 10250, Pakistan; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2022-02-23)
    This paper deals with an energy management problem to ensure the best performance of the recharging tools used in electric vehicles. The main objective of this work is to find the optimal condition for controlling a hybrid recharging system by regrouping the photovoltaic cells and fuel cells. The photovoltaic and fuel cell systems were connected in parallel via two converters to feed either a lithium battery bank or the main traction motor. This combination of energy sources resulted in a hybrid recharging system. The mathematical model of the overall recharging system and the designed power management loop was developed, taking into account multiple aspects, including vehicle loading, the stepwise mathematical modelling of each component, and a detailed discussion of the required electronic equipment. Finally, a simplistic management loop was designed and implemented. Multiple case studies were simulated, statistical approaches were used to quantify the contribution of each recharging method, and the benefits of the combination of the two sources were evaluated. The energetic performance of an electric vehicle with the proposed hybrid recharging tool under various conditions, including static and dynamic modes, was simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink tool. The results suggest that despite the additional weight of PV panels, the combination of the PV and FC systems improves the vehicle’s energetic performance and provides a higher charging capacity instead of using an FC alone. A comparison with similar studies revealed that the proposed model has a higher efficiency. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of each solution are discussed to emphasise the significance of the hybrid recharging system.
  • Hierarchical Energy Management System With a Local Competitive Power Market for Inter-Connected Multi-Smart Buildings

    Hussain, Mirza Shehbaz; Kazmi, Syed Ali Abbas; Khan, Zafar A.; Alghassab, Mohammed; Altamimi, Abdullah; National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan; Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur AJK, Pakistan; University of Derby; Shaqra University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, Saudi Arabia (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022-02-09)
    The energy management in new distribution paradigms are amongst one of core research dimension, particularly in smart grids. This paper proposes a hierarchical energy management system for inter-connected multi-smart buildings with an inclusion of local Power Market. As home appliances have huge contribution in load of buildings, the appliances are scheduled in order to minimize operational cost while taking into account the user comfort and other system constraints. The objectives of this paper aim to minimize operational cost, CO 2 emissions, grid dependency while maximize user comfort and revenue. The proposed technique enables a prosumer with two options, either they can sell excess energy to the utility or can bid and sell in market with high price compare to utility. Besides increase in revenue, the consumer is enabled to buy electricity from utility or from local market with low prices compare to utility grid aiming at reducing operational cost. The proposed framework is evaluated across three algorithms namely, JAYA, teacher learning based optimization (TLBO) and Rao1, respectively. As per comparative analysis, the JAYA algorithm outperforms the others in achieving the aimed objectives in-terms of favorable achieved numerical values. Different cases are created in order to test the effectiveness of proposed system. The overall simulation results validate the proposed approach with highest operational cost reduction of 151.48%, peak load reduction 76.76%, grid dependency reduction 95.61%, and minimum emission of CO 2 is 3.70 Kg/Day as compare to base case.
  • Techno-Economic and Environmental Impact Analysis of Large-Scale Wind Farms Integration in Weak Transmission Grid from Mid-Career Repowering Perspective

    Butt, Rohan Zafar; Kazmi, Syed Ali Abbas; Alghassab, Mohammed; Khan, Zafar A.; Altamimi, Abdullah; Imran, Muhammad; Alruwaili, Fahad F.; National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan; Shaqra University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur AJK, Pakistan; et al. (MDPI AG, 2022-02-22)
    Repowering a wind farm enhances its ability to generate electricity, allowing it to better utilize areas with high mean wind speeds. Pakistan’s present energy dilemma is a serious impediment to its economic development. The usage of a diesel generator as a dependable backup power source raises the cost of energy per kWh and increases environmental emissions. To minimize environmental emissions, grid-connected wind farms enhance the percentage of wind energy in the electricity system. These wind generators’ effects, on the other hand, are augmented by the absorption of greater quantities of reactive electricity from the grid. According to respective grid codes, integration of commercial onshore Large-Scale Wind Farms (LSWF) into a national grid is fraught with technical problems and inter-farm wake effects, which primarily ensure power quality while degrading overall system operation and limiting the optimal use of attainable wind resources. The goal of this study is to examine and estimate the techno-economic influence of large-scale wind farms linked to poor transmission systems in Pakistan, contemplating the inter-farm wake effect and reactive power diminution and compensating using a range of voltage-ampere reactive (VAR) devices. This study presents a partial repowering technique to address active power deficits produced by the wake effect by raising hub height by 20 m, which contributed to recovering the active power deficit to 48% and so reduced the effects of upstream wind farms. Simulations were conducted for several scenarios on an actual test system modeled in MATLAB for comparative study using capacitor banks and different flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. Using the SAM (System Advisor Model) and RETscreen, a complete technical, economic, and environmental study was done based on energy fed into the grid, payback time, net present value (NPV), and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission reduction. The studies suggest that the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is the optimum compensating device via comparison analysis as it improved the power handling capabilities of the power system. Our best-case scenario includes UPFC with hub height augmentation, demonstrating that it is technically, fiscally, and environmentally viable. Over the course of its lifespan, the planned system has the potential to save 1,011,957 tCO2, resulting in a greener environment. When the energy generated annually by a current wake-affected system is compared to our best-recommended scenario, a recovered shortfall of 4.851% is seen, with improved system stability. This modest investment in repowering boosts energy production due to wake effects, resulting in increased NPV, revenue, and fewer CO2 footprints.
  • Melt Percolation, Melt-Rock Reaction and Oxygen Fugacity in Supra-Subduction Zone Mantle and Lower Crust from the Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    O’Driscoll, Brian; Leuthold, Julien; Lenaz, Davide; Skogby, Henrik; Day, James, M.; Adetunji, Jacob; University of Manchester; Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Zürich, Switzerland; Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-17)
    Samples of peridotites and pyroxenites from the mantle and lower crustal sections of the Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC; Norway) are examined to investigate the effects of melt-rock reaction and oxygen fugacity variations in the sub-arc oceanic lithosphere. The LOC is considered to represent supra-subduction zone (SSZ) oceanic lithosphere, but also preserves evidence of pre-SSZ magmatic processes. Here we combine field and microstructural observations with mineral chemical and structural analyses of different minerals from the major lithologies of the LOC. Wehrlite and websterite bodies in both the mantle and lower crust contain clinopyroxene likely formed at a pre-SSZ stage, characterised by high Al, high Cr, low Mg crystal cores. These clinopyroxenes also exhibit low Al, low Cr, high Mg outer rims and intracrystalline dissolution surfaces, indicative of reactive melt percolation during intrusion and disruption of these lithologies by later, SSZ-related, dunite-forming magmas. Chromian-spinel compositional variations correlate with lithology; dunite-chromitite Cr-spinels are characterised by relatively uniform and high TiO2 and Al2O3, indicating formation by melt-rock reaction associated with SSZ processes. Harzburgite Cr-spinel compositions are more variable but preserve a relatively high Al2O3, low TiO2 endmember that may reflect crystallisation in a pre-SSZ oceanic spreading centre setting. An important finding of this study is that the LOC potentially preserves the petrological signature of a transition between oceanic spreading centre processes and subsequent SSZ magmatism. Single crystal Cr-spinel Fe3+/ΣFe ratios calculated on the basis of stoichiometry (from electron microprobe [EPMA] and crystal structural [X-ray diffraction; XRD] measurements) correlate variably with those calculated by point-source (single crystal) Mössbauer spectroscopy. Average sample EPMA Fe3+/ΣFe ratios overestimate or underestimate the Mössbauer-derived values for harzburgites, and always overestimate the Mössbauer Fe3+/ΣFe ratios for dunites and chromitites. The highest Fe3+/ΣFe ratios, irrespective of method of measurement, are therefore generally associated with dunites and chromitites, and yield calculated log(fO2)FMQ values of up to ~ + 1.8. While this lends support to the formation of the dunites and chromitites during SSZ-related melt percolation in the lower part of the LOC, it also suggests that these melts were not highly oxidised, compared to typical arc basalts (fO2FMQ of > + 2). This may in turn reflect the early (forearc) stage of subduction zone activity preserved by the LOC and implies that some of the arc tholeiitic and boninitic lava compositions preserved in the upper portion of the ophiolite are not genetically related to the mantle and lower crustal rocks, against which they exhibit tectonic contacts. Our new data also have implications for the use of ophiolite chromitites as recorders of mantle oxidation state through time; a global comparison suggests that the Fe3+/ΣFe signatures of ophiolite chromitites are likely to have more to do with local environmental petrogenetic conditions in sub-arc systems than large length-scale mantle chemical evolution
  • Paying for end of life in care homes in the UK

    Stubbs, John; Adetunji, Jacob; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2020-10-08)
    To live to a ripe old age, untroubled by health problems, physical or mental, is an almost universal aspiration. But most people are not so lucky and will likely be in care homes for their final years, with varying levels of disease, disability and dementia. Kinley et al [1] maintain that over a fifth of the population of developed countries die in care homes. Moreover, the financial cost of this end of life care, which is the focus of this paper, can be daunting and require much planning [2]. It was reported in 2017 that, in the UK, care home costs are rising up to twice as fast as inflation [3]. Consequently the question arises about the long term affordability of such care to those having to fund it, a question that ever more people both nationally and globally are having to confront.
  • Chromite chemistry of a massive chromitite seam in the northern limb of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa: correlation with the UG-2 in the eastern and western limbs and evidence of variable assimilation of footwall rocks

    Langa, Malose M.; Jugo, Pedro J.; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Grobler, Danie F.; Adetunji, Jacob; Skogby, Henrik; Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada; Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; Ivanplats (Pty) Ltd., Mokopane, South Africa; University of Derby; et al. (Springer, 2020-02-03)
    The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is known for its laterally extensive platinum group element–bearing layers, the most famous being the Merensky Reef and the UG-2 chromitite in the eastern and western limbs of the complex. In the northern limb, the Plat-reef mineralization and a thick chromitite seam below it (referred to as the “UG-2 equivalent” or UG-2E) have been proposed to be the stratigraphic equivalents of the Merensky Reef and the UG-2, respectively. In this study, we compare a suite ofUG-2E samples from the Turfspruit project with a UG-2 reference suite from the western limb using petrography, electron probe microanalysis, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results show that(a) in Mg# vs. Cr# diagrams, UG-2E chromites have a distinct compositional field; however, when samples of similar chromite modal abundance (≥80%) are used, the UG-2E chromites overlap the field that characterizes UG-2 chromites; (b) the UG-2E is more variable in chromite modal abundance than the UG-2; and (c) variations in Mg# and Fe3+/ΣFe in the UG-2E indicate contamination of the magma by metasedimentary rocks of the Duitschland Formation (Transvaal Supergroup) during emplace-ment, followed by partial re-equilibration of chromite grains with a trapped melt. Thus, we conclude that for chromite modes higher than 80%, the chromite composition retains enough information to allow correlation and that the UG-2E in the northern limb is very likely the UG-2 chromitite
  • Dense melt residues drive mid-ocean-ridge “hotspots”

    Phethean, Jordan; Papadopoulou, Martha; Peace, Alexander L.; University of Derby; University of Leicester; McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada (Geological Society of America, 2022-01-27)
    The geodynamic origin of melting anomalies found at the surface, often referred to as “hotspots,” is classically attributed to a mantle plume process. The distribu- tion of hotspots along mid-ocean-ridge spreading systems around the globe, however, questions the universal validity of this concept. Here, the preferential association of hotspots with slow- to intermediate-spreading centers and not fast-spreading centers, an observation contrary to the expected effect of ridge suction forces on upwelling mantle plumes, is explained by a new mechanism for producing melting anomalies at shallow (<2.3 GPa) depths. By combining the effects of both chemical and ther- mal density changes during partial melting of the mantle (using appropriate latent heat and depth-dependent thermal expansivity parameters), we find that mantle resi- dues experience an overall instantaneous increase in density when melting occurs at <2.3 GPa. This controversial finding is due to thermal contraction of material during melting, which outweighs the chemical buoyancy due to melting at shallow pressures (where thermal expansivities are highest). These dense mantle residues are likely to locally sink beneath spreading centers if ridge suction forces are modest, thus driving an increase in the flow of fertile mantle through the melting window and increasing magmatic production. This leads us to question our understanding of sub–spreading center dynamics, where we now suggest a portion of locally inverted mantle flow results in hotspots. Such inverted flow presents an alternative mecha- nism to upwelling hot mantle plumes for the generation of excess melt at near-ridge hotspots, i.e., dense downwelling of mantle residue locally increasing the flow of fertile mantle through the melting window. Near-ridge hotspots, therefore, may not require the elevated temperatures commonly invoked to account for excess melting. The pro- posed mechanism also satisfies counterintuitive observations of ridge-bound hotspots at slow- to intermediate-spreading centers, yet not at fast-spreading centers, where large dynamic ridge suction forces likely overwhelm density-driven downwelling.
  • #52etc - 52 Engaging Toolkit Cards for enhancing student engagement

    Turner, Ian, J.; Norton, Stuart; Moody, Jasmine; University of Derby (Advance HE, 2020-12-01)
  • Characterization of a newly fallen Nigerian meteorite

    Gismelssed, Abbasher; Okunola, Olugbenga; Al-Rawas, Ahmed; Yousif, Ali; Oyedokun, Matthew; Adetunji, Jacob; Widatallah, Hisham; Elzai, Mohammed; Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman; University of Ibadan, Nigeria; et al. (Springer, 2019-12-19)
    X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fields Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) with EDS and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), were applied to investigate a newly fallen solid piece of debris named the Aba Panu meteorite, after a city in south western Nigeria (Lat: N 08° 14′ 25.7″ and Long: E 003° 33′ 47.0″). Matching X-ray diffraction results, together with the FE-SEM analysis confirms the presence of four kinds of iron-bearing minerals, namely olivine, pyroxene, kamacite (Fe-Ni alloys) and troilite (FeS). The Mössbauer spectra recorded at 295 K and 78 K consist of two strong paramagnetic doublets emanating from olivine of quadrupole splitting 2.9 mm/s and pyroxene of quadrupole splitting 2.1 mm/s. These are superimposed on two magnetic sub-spectra attributed to kamacite and troilite phases. From the Mössbauer sub-spectra absorption area, the ratio of the olivine absorption area to the pyroxene absorption area indicates that the meteorite can be classified as an L-ordinary chondrite. The mole fraction of the Fe end-member of olivine (fayalite) and the orthopyroxene (ferrosilite) calculated from the EDS data will be used to identify the petrographic type of the meteorite.
  • The Effects of High-Grade Metamorphism on Cr-Spinel from the Archean Sittampundi Complex, South India

    Lenaz, Davide; Bidyananda, Maibam; Adetunji, Jacob; Skogby, Henrik; Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, I-34127, Italy; Manipur University, Imphal 795003, India; University of Derby; Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden (MDPI AG, 2021-12-03)
    We investigated the crystal and structural behavior of Cr‐bearing spinels from the Ar‐ chean chromitites of Sittampundi (India), which had been subjected to very high‐grade metamor‐ phism. The structural data show that their oxygen positional parameters are among the highest ever recorded for Cr‐bearing spinels with similar Cr# and Mg# and very similar to those found for other Archean occurrences. The general agreement between electron microprobe and Mössbauer data in‐ dicates that the analyzed spinels are stoichiometric. It is therefore most likely that the PH2O and Ptotal values as well as both the oxygen fugacity and the temperature reached during high‐grade meta‐ morphism inhibited the possibility of the non‐stoichiometry of chromites, contrary to what can hap‐ pen in ophiolites, where non‐stoichiometry has recently been documented.
  • RemoteForensicCSI: Enriching teaching, training and learning through networking and timely CPD

    Bolton-King, Rachel, S.; Nichols-Drew, Leisa, J.; Turner, Ian, J.; Staffordshire University; De Montfort University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2022-01-31)
    The COVID-19 pandemic brought about rapid, transformational change to pedagogic practice on a global scale. During this time, educators across all levels needed to significantly broaden and upskill their digital skills and competence to instantaneously turn face-2-face content into remote, online provision, particularly during periods of national lockdown. Whilst there was significant e-content available in some subject domains, there were limited e-resources available to those working within the criminal justice sector. The #RemoteForensicCSI network was established in attempts to fill this gap and support both practitioner and learner transition within further and higher education and industry.This article evaluates the value and impact that the #RemoteForensicCSI initiative had on the personal development of network participants, their peers and learners, whilst considering, reflecting on and recommending how remote delivery may influence the future of teaching, training and learning within education and the wider criminal justice sector.
  • The African continental divide: Indian versus Atlantic Ocean spreading during Gondwana dispersal

    Peace, Alexander L.; Phethean, Jordan; McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; University of Derby (Geological Society of America, 2022-01-27)
    It is well established that plate-tectonic processes operate on a global scale and that spatially separate but temporally coincident events may be linked. However, identifying such links in the geological record and understanding the mechanisms involved remain speculative. This is particularly acute during major geodynamic events, such as the dispersal of supercontinents, where multiple axes of breakup may be present as well as coincidental collisional events. To explore this aspect of plate tectonics, we present a detailed analysis of the temporal variation in the mean half rate of seafloor spreading in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, as well as plate-kinematic attributes extracted from global plate-tectonic models during the dispersal of Gondwana since ca. 200 Ma. Our analysis shows that during the ~20 m.y. prior to collision between India and Asia at ca. 55 Ma, there was an increase in the mean rate of seafloor spreading in the Indian Ocean. This manifests as India rapidly accelerating toward Asia. This event was then followed by a prompt deceleration in the mean rate of Indian Ocean seafloor spreading after India collided with Asia at ca. 55 Ma. Since inception, the mean rate of seafloor spreading in the Indian Ocean has been generally greater than that in the Atlantic Ocean, and the period of fastest mean half spreading rate in the Indian Ocean was coincident with a slowdown in mean half seafloor spreading rate in the competing Atlantic Ocean. We hypothesize that faster and hotter seafloor spreading in the Indian Ocean resulted in larger ridge-push forces, which were transmitted through the African plate, leading to a slowdown in Atlantic Ocean spreading. Following collision between India and Asia, and a slowdown of Indian Ocean spreading, Atlantic spreading rates consequently increased again. We conclude that the processes in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans have likely remained coupled throughout their existence, that their individual evolution has influenced each other, and that, more generally, spreading in one basin inevitably influences proximal regions. While we do not believe that ridge push is the main cause of plate motions, we consider it to have played a role in the coupling of the kinematic evolution of these oceans. The implication of this observation is that interaction and competition between nascent ocean basins and ridges during supercontinent dispersal exert a significant control on resultant continental configuration.
  • Nature Connectedness and Biophilic Design

    Richardson, Miles; Butler, Carly; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-11-26)
    Biophilic design involves creation of built environments that promote connection between humans and nature. While literature reviews show support for the psychological and health benefits of biophilic design, they note that the evidence base is heavily focused on the restorative efficacy of various natural elements (e.g., light, water, wood) and experiences (direct, indirect, space and place). There has been little consideration of Kellert and Calabrese’s (2015) key principles of biophilic design and the holistic approach to design that has nature connection at its heart. This perspective article discusses the biophilic design principles in light of research on the psychological construct of nature connectedness. The research offers empirical support for the importance of key biophilic design principles – the need for repeated and sustained engagement with nature, for encouraging an emotional attachment to settings and places, and for promoting interactions between people and nature that foster a greater sense of relationship and responsibility for human and natural communities. An evidence-based framework for application of biophilic principles and experiences into the design process is proposed. Recommendations for optimising the application and evaluation of biophilic design principles and practices are made, in order to support the wellbeing of humans and nature.
  • Can playing table-top role-play games help children learn?

    Turner, Ian; Morgan, Lewis; University of Derby (Association of Science Education, 2021-11)
  • Climate Change Adaptation in West Africa: A critical analysis of climate change adaptation policies and their implications for coastal communities in West Africa

    Backler, Scott; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2021)
    The UNFCCC, (2019) identifies climate change as a “threat multiplier” meaning that a sizeable amount of the UNs 17 Sustainable Development Goals are at threat from climate change. The recently published sixth assessment report by the IPCC further highlights that climate change is now at some level an unavoidable reality (IPCC, 2021). Whilst many West African coastal countries have adaptation framework to respond to the threat of climate change, several studies have highlighted an apparent gap in policy implementation, meaning that the policies are not as effective as intended at a grassroots level (Boateng, 2018; Davies-Vollum, Raha, and Koomson, 2021). Aims: 1. To critically analyse the institutional and organisational structure of climate change adaptation (CCA) policies and strategies in West African Coastal Countries. 2. To evaluate socio-cultural or socio-economic issues influencing policy implementation at a grassroots level. 3. To recommend alternative systematic policies or practical processes that could enable successful implementation of climate change adaption plans. Academic supervisors for this project - Dr Debadayita Raha & Dr Sian Davies-Vollum.
  • Time to change the data culture in geochemistry

    Chamberlain, Katy J.; Lehnert, Kerstin; McIntosh, Iona; Morgan, Daniel J.; Worner, Gerhard; University of Derby; Columbia University; JAMSTEC; University of Leeds; Gottingen University (Nature Research, 2021-10-29)
    Geochemical data are vital for understanding Earth’s past, present and future. However, currently only a fraction of geochemical data are findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable, limiting their use in the broadest range of scientific studies. There is an urgent need for international coordination of geochemical data and methods to unlock their full research potential.
  • Environmental management systems in the architectural, engineering and construction sectors: a roadmap to aid the delivery of the sustainable development goals

    Horry, Rosemary; Booth, Colin; Mahamadu, Abdul-Majeed; Manu, Patrick; Georgakis, Panagiotis; University of Derby; University of the West of England; University of Manchester; University of the West of England (Springer Nature, 2021-10-24)
    Realisation of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) will provide improvements to people's lives and longevity of the planet. The architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) sectors have a potentially huge role in aiding the delivery of many SDGs; however, there appears to be a lack of research into the engagement within this sector. The leading environmental management system (EMS), ISO 14001, can enable organisations in the AEC sectors to improve their business operations, whilst minimising their impacts on the environment and improving society. Therefore, the study sets out to use institutional theory to determine the usefulness of ISO 14001 as a tool within the AEC sector and to demonstrate how the organisational benefits could facilitate the delivery of the SDGs. A stepwise PRISMA review process facilitated the compiling of academic articles and professional reports (n = 44), which enabled the creation of an inventory of the perceived benefits (n = 85) and the recognised barriers (n = 63) to implementing ISO 14001 across the AEC sectors. These barriers and benefits were confirmed by environmental practitioners as being relevant to the incorporation of an EMS. The most widely reported benefits within the AEC sectors were improving environmental performance and compliance with legislation. Lack of government pressure and lack of expertise were the most widely reported barriers, followed by cost to AEC organisations utilising an EMS. Following on from this inventory of benefits, it was possible to develop of a conceptual roadmap, which illustrates where linkages exist with the SDGs. SDG 4, 8, 12 and 13 are shown as exhibiting the most associations with the benefits. This roadmap was reviewed by AEC sector professionals who confirmed its usefulness. Therefore, it is surmised that the roadmap could aid strategic organisational sustainable planning or for organisations to demonstrate the delivery of their corporate social responsibilities.
  • Insights into Public Perceptions of Earthship Buildings as Alternative Homes

    Booth, Colin; Rashid, Sona; Mahamadu, Abdul-Majeed; Horry, Rosemary; Manu, Patrick; Awuah, Kwasi Gyau Baffour; Aboagye-Nimo, Emmanuel; Georgakis, Panagiotis; University of the West of England; University of Derby; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-25)
    Sustainable futures necessitate a concomitant requirement for both sustainable buildings and sustainable behaviours under one roof. The defining principles behind Earthship buildings are to promote the use of local, recycled, waste, natural and renewable materials in their construction, for the adoption of a passive solar design for internal heating/cooling, collection of rainwater as a potable water supply, and encourage the onsite recycling of used water for plants to aid food production. However, despite growth in Earthship buildings constructed across many countries of the world, their appeal has not yet made a noticeable contribution to mainstream housing. Therefore, this study is the first to attempt to explore public perceptions towards the benefits and barriers of Earthship buildings as a means of understanding their demand by potential home builders/owners. Opinions were sought through questionnaire surveys completed by visitors to the Brighton Earthship building. Results reveal that the public believe that the reclamation of rainwater and greywater, renewable energy consumption and use of recycled materials included in the design/build are the major benefits of Earthship buildings, whilst the opportunity for a modern living style in a conservative lifestyle/setting, having a building that is cheaper than an ordinary home and the possibility of living totally off grid are considered the least beneficial reasons for building Earthship homes. Results also reveal that the public believe acquiring necessary permits/permissions to build may be more complicated, securing financial support (mortgage/loan) may be more challenging, and identifying/attaining suitable building plots are major barriers of Earthship buildings, whilst the futuristic/alternative building design, being built from waste materials and being entirely dependent on renewable resources (rainfall/wind/sunshine) are considered the least important barriers to building Earthship homes. Notwithstanding the participants included in this study already having an interest in Earthship buildings/lifestyles, it is concluded that the general public deem the general principles of Earthships as an acceptable choice of building/living but it is the formal means of building or buying an Earthship home that is the greatest hurdle against the uptake of Earthship buildings. Therefore, if sustainable futures are to be realized, it is proposed that a shift away from traditional house building towards Earthship building will require the involvement of all stakeholders immersed in the building process (architects, planners, builders, investors, lawyers) to path an easier journey for Earthship buildings and sustainable living.
  • Actively Noticing Nature (Not Just Time in Nature) Helps Promote Nature Connectedness

    Richardson, Miles; Hamlin, Iain; Butler, Carly; Thomas, Rory; Hunt, Alex; University of Derby; National Trust (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers, 2021-10-08)
    The climate and biodiversity crises reveal a failing human-nature relationship. The psychological construct of nature connectedness provides a means for understanding and improving that relationship. Furthermore, recent research suggests that higher levels of nature connectedness benefit both people and the environment, promoting pro-nature conservation actions, pro-environmental behaviours, and greater personal wellbeing. Nature connectedness is therefore emerging as a key target to improve human and nature’s wellbeing. Using data from a large national survey in the UK, the present research investigates how nature contact and noticing nature activities predict nature connectedness. Multiple regression analyses revealed that noticing nature, through activities that involve active sensory engagement with wildlife, explained levels of nature connectedness over and above simply spending time in nature. Moreover, the activities engaged in when in nature had differential effects on nature connectedness. Watching, listening to and photographing wildlife were significant predictors of nature connectedness, whereas studying nature, looking at scenery through windows, observing celestial phenomena and collecting shells and rocks were not. The results have implications for how best to improve nature connectedness, both in terms of how to design and improve greenspaces, and in terms of how to better engage the public with nature for a healthy and sustainable future.
  • Zircon geochronological and geochemical insights into pluton building and volcanic-hypabyssal-plutonic connections: Oki-Dōzen, Sea of Japan - a complex intraplate alkaline volcano

    Scarrow, Jane; Chamberlain, Katy J.; Montero, Pilar; Horstwood, Matthew S.A.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Chang, Qing; Barclay, Jenni; University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva, Granada, Spain; University of East Anglia; et al. (Mineralogical Society of America, 2021)
    The relationship between plutonic and volcanic components of magmatic plumbing systems continues to be a question of intense debate. The Oki-Dōzen Islands, Sea of Japan, preserve outcrops of temporally-associated plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic rocks. Juxtaposition of these, by post-intrusion uplift, placed Miocene syenites in inferred faulted contact with volcanic trachytes that are cut by rhyolite hypabyssal dikes. This provides a window deep into the timing and origins of magma storage architecture and dynamics. Our aim is to determine what the age and composition of zircon, which is ubiquitous in all samples, can reveal about the plutonic-volcanic connection. Here we show magma source characteristics are recorded in zircon Hf isotopes whereas, in addition to source composition, differentiation processes - assimilation of heterogeneous hydrothermally altered crust and extensive fractional crystallization - are preserved in zircon O isotopes and trace elements, respectively. Combined with new U-Th-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages, 6.4–5.7 Ma, the compositional data show pluton formation was by protracted amalgamation of discrete magma pulses. The rhyolite dike preserves an evolved fraction segregated from these. Synchronous with plutonism was volcanic eruption of trachyte magma derived from the same source, but apparently stalled at a relatively shallow depth. Stalling occurred at least above the zone of amphibole stability since amphibole-compatible Sc and Ti were not depleted in the trachyte melt - resulting in elevated values of these in the volcanic, compared to the plutonic, zircon. Identifying smaller episodic magma pulses in a larger magmatic complex places constraints on potential magma fluxes and eruptible volumes. Distinct from high-flux, large volume, plume-related ocean islands with extensive vertically distributed multi-stage magmatic reservoirs or subduction-related transcrustal magma reservoirs, Oki-Dōzen was a low-flux system with incremental pluton growth and small- to moderate-scale eruptions.

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