• The Engage-Disengage Model as an Inclusive Model for the Promotion of Healthy and Successful Aging in the Oldest-old

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-01)
      Theories relating to healthy and successful aging do not specifically cater for the oldest-old. This predominantly theoretical research considers the relevance of existing healthy and successful aging theories in the oldest-old. It explores a small sample of interviews of independently living oldest-old using Differential Qualitative Analysis. The Activity Theory and the Disengagement Theory were particularly relevant to investigate differences. The Engage-Disengage model was conceived as a pragmatic holistic model to address specific challenges facing the oldest-old. Engage-Disengage reflects attainable healthy and successful aging in the oldest-old according to individual abilities (intrinsic physical and mental capacities), values, and external resources (social, material, and environmental).
    • Engaging Leaders: The challenge of inspiring collective commitment in universities

      Gentle, Paul; Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (Routledge, 2014)
      Addressing the question of how leadership can work most successfully in universities, Engaging Leaders strengthens the sense of shared professional knowledge and capability amongst leaders in higher education. Presenting a narrative of change which not only spells out why universities need to work differently, this book also takes the reader through clear practical steps which any practising leader can take in order to build a collaborative professional culture which supports and challenges all members of an academic community.
    • English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample

      Fido, Dean; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby; Mejiro University, Japan (Springer, 2019-10-25)
      The psychological construct of ‘ikigai’ reflects the sense of having a ‘reason for living’ and has been associated with various positive health-related outcomes. This study presents an English translation of the Ikigai-9, empirically explores the manifestation of ikigai in the United Kingdom, and outlines its associations with facets of well-being. Three hundred and forty-nine participants self-reported levels of ikigai as well as state measures of mental well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original three-factor model, favouring instead a single-factor solution. Results indicated that above sex and age, ikigai predicted greater scores of mental well-being and lower scores of depression. The Ikigai-9 has high internal reliability and presents a logistically-convenient measure of ikigai for English-speaking populations. However, further validation (e.g., test-retest reliability) is required to develop a better understanding of the potential protective role of ikigai in mental health. Transparency files are available here: [https://osf.io/m4yjw/?view_only=26d526416a1e4746944ebaff64502152].
    • English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]

      Fido, Dean; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-02)
      The psychological construct of ‘ikigai’ reflects the sense of having a ‘reason for living’ and has been associated with various positive health-related outcomes. This proposal presents an English translation of the Ikigai-9, empirically explores the manifestation of ikigai in the United Kingdom, and outlines its associations with facets of well-being.
    • Ethical and professional issues: Reflections on course evolution, innovation and student engagement.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Auckland University of Technology (British Computer Society (BCS), 2015-03-31)
      At INSPIRE 2013 we outlined our efforts to develop a core first year undergraduate course entitled ‘Computing Technology in Society’. A primary course objective is to demonstrate the potential impact that ever more complex, interconnected digital systems may have on the both the individual and on society in general. This provides the backdrop against which we endeavour to foster an ethos in which students are encouraged to establish a personal ethical position in relation to the application and deployment of digital systems. Here we reflect on further progress in developing this course with particular reference to ongoing curriculum development, student evaluation and, most crucially, student engagement. Additionally, we outline developments relating to our integration of technologies into the educational experience. We draw on our experience with the CTIS course to consider broader ramifications of technology infusion, particularly in relation to increased VLE integration and the streaming/recording of lectures.
    • Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Conway, Elaine; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-11-30)
      There is growing awareness of mental health problems among UK business students, which appears to be exacerbated by students’ attitudes of shame toward mental health. This study recruited 138 UK business students and examined the relationship between mental health and shame, and mental health and potential protective factors such as self-compassion and motivation. A significant correlation between each of the constructs was observed and self-compassion was identified as an explanatory variable for mental health. Shame moderated the relationship between self-compassion and mental health. Integrating self-compassion training into business study programs may help to improve the mental health of this student group.
    • Ethics in computing, science, and engineering: A student's guide to doing things right

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer-Nature, 2020-02)
      This comprehensive textbook introduces students to the wide-ranging responsibilities of computing, science and engineering professionals by laying strong transdisciplinary foundations and by highlighting ethical issues that may arise during their careers. The work is well illustrated, and makes extensive use of activities, ethical dilemmas and case studies designed to stimulate discussion and engagement. A broad range of technologies are introduced and examined within an ethical framework. These include biometrics, surveillance systems (including facial recognition), radio frequency identification devices, drone technologies, the Internet of Things, and robotic systems. The application and potential societal ramifications of such systems are examined in detail, not only in their current context but also in terms of their ongoing evolution. The reader is asked to consider whether we can afford to allow ongoing developments to be primarily driven by market forces, or whether a more cautious approach is needed. Further chapters examine the benefits of ethical leadership, environmental issues relating to the technology product lifecycle (from inception to e-waste), ethical considerations in research (including medical experimentation), and the need to develop educational programs which will better prepare students for a more fluid employment landscape. The final chapter introduces a structured approach to ethical issue resolution, providing a valuable, long-term reference. In addition, it emphasises the ethical responsibilities of the professional, and considers issues that can arise when we endeavour to effect ethically sound change within organisations. Examples are provided which highlight the possible ramifications of exercising ethical valour. The author has created an extensively referenced textbook that catalyses student interest, is internationally relevant, and which is multicultural in both its scope and outlook.
    • Evaluating an interprofessional disease state and medication management review model

      Hoti, Kreshnik; Forman, Dawn; Hughes, Jeffery; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-11-18)
      There is lack of literature data reporting an incorporation of medication management reviews in students’ interprofessional education (IPE) and practice programs in aged care settings. This pilot study reports how an interprofessional disease state and medication management review program (DSMMR) was established in a residential aged care facility in Perth, Western Australia. Students from the professions of nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy focused on a wellness check in the areas of cognition, falls and continence while integrating a medication management review. Students’ attitudes were explored using a pre- and post-placement questionnaire. Students indicated positive experience with the IPE DSMMR program which also resulted in their positive attitudinal shift towards IPE and practice. These findings indicated that aged care can be a suitable setting for student interprofessional programs focusing on DSMMR.
    • Evaluating the feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme for naval service personnel with excess body weight.

      Garip, Gulcan; Morton, Kate; Bridger, Robert; Yardley, Lucy; University of Derby; University of Southampton; Institute of Naval Medicine (2017-02-06)
      Overweight and obesity are a major concern that may influence the operational capacity of the UK Naval Service (NS). This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of trialling and implementing a modified web-based weight loss programme for overweight and obese NS personnel.
    • Evaluation of an educational website for parents of children with ADHD

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; Haroon, Munib; Melvin, Gail; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (Elsevier, 2015-07-26)
      Introduction ADHD is a relatively common neuro-developmental condition characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. The provision of timely and accurate information about the condition and about strategies to manage it is vital especially because of widespread misconceptions about it. Aim To see the effect of an educational website on (i) parental perceptions (ii) knowledge levels, and to obtain feedback to optimise user-experience. Method Parents whose children had ADHD (or were close to diagnosis) were recruited. Following a 30-item baseline knowledge test parents/carers were directed to an educational website on ADHD. After this they were re-contacted for follow up testing and feedback. Results n = 172, 14 were lost to follow up. Ninety-one (59.4 %) participants were known to have accessed the website at follow up. The majority of carers accessed the website just once or twice (32.7%). Of those who did not access the website 65% cited a lack of time as the reason while 29% cited they were unable to access the internet at the time. The majority (74%) of those accessing the site were just browsing for general information. Parents showed increased knowledge post website use p = 0.000. Of those accessing the website the majority (85.5%) felt it was relevant to them and would use it again (90.8%). Content analysis of open-ended feedback identified eight core themes including website appearance, content, functionality, perceptions, target audience, usability, usage patterns with areas for improvement noted in four areas. Conclusion Websites can be used as an adjunct to information given at clinic. Although a majority of parents will access them, there are still barriers to access e.g. time. Websites do seem to improve parent/carer knowledge levels.
    • Evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCD): A multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial

      Wilson, Andrew; O’Hare, Joseph Paul; Hardy, Ainslea; Raymond, Neil; Szczepura, Ala; Crossman, Ric; Baines, Darrin; Khunti, Kamlesh; Kumar, Sudhesh; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; et al. (PLOS, 2014-04-15)
      Background Configuring high quality care for the rapidly increasing number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major challenge worldwide for both providers and commissioners. In the UK, about two thirds of people with T2D are managed entirely in primary care, with wide variation in management strategies and achievement of targets. Pay for performance, introduced in 2004, initially resulted in improvements but disparities exist in ethnic minorities and the improvements are levelling off. Community based, intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCDs) were considered one solution and are functioning across the UK. However, there is no randomised trial evidence for the effectiveness of such clinics. Trial Design, Methods and Findings This is a cluster-randomised trial, involving 3 primary care trusts, with 49 general practices randomised to usual care (n = 25) or intervention (ICCDs; n = 24). All eligible adult patients with T2D were invited; 1997 were recruited and 1280 followed-up after 18-months intervention. Primary outcome: achievement of all three of the NICE targets [(HbA1c≤7.0%/53 mmol/mol; Blood Pressure <140/80 mmHg; cholesterol <154 mg/dl (4 mmol/l)]. Primary outcome was achieved in 14.3% in the intervention arm vs. 9.3% in the control arm (p = 0.059 after adjustment for covariates). The odds ratio (95% CI) for achieving primary outcome in the intervention group was 1.56 (0.98, 2.49). Primary care and community clinic costs were significantly higher in the intervention group, but there were no significant differences in hospital costs or overall healthcare costs. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of +£7,778 per QALY gained, indicated ICCD was marginally more expensive at producing health gain. Conclusions Intermediate care clinics can contribute to improving target achievement in patients with diabetes. Further work is needed to investigate the optimal scale and organisational structure of ICCD services and whether, over time, their role may change as skill levels in primary care increase. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00945204; National Research Register (NRR) M0014178167.
    • Event portfolios and cultural exhibitions in Canberra and Melbourne

      Gorchakova, Valentina; University of Derby, UK (Goodfellow Publishers, 2019-08)
      Event Portfolio Management' explores the phenomenon of the event portfolio as a policy tool for cities and destinations. Divided into two parts – ‘Theory’ and ‘Practice’ – the book critically analyses and summarises key underpinnings behind portfolio theory development and identifies key trends and issues in the event portfolio approach. It examines the processes of event portfolio development and management, leveraging, stakeholder networking and collaboration, portfolio design, risk assessment and evaluation. With a wide geographical reach, the book introduces the results of empirical research from different international case studies, including Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin in New Zealand, Canberra and Melbourne in Australia, and Manchester and Edinburgh in the UK.
    • 'Everything's from the inside out with PCOS': Exploring women's experiences of living with polycystic ovary syndrome and co-morbidities through Skype interviews

      Williams, Sophie; Sheffield, David; Knibb, Rebecca C.; University of Derby (Sage Publications, 2015-08-31)
      Polycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine disorder affecting 1 in 10 women. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome can experience co-morbidities, including depressive symptoms. This research explores the experience of living with polycystic ovary syndrome and co-morbidities. Totally, 10 participants with polycystic ovary syndrome took part in Skype™ interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged from the data: change (to life plans and changing nature of condition); support (healthcare professionals, education and relationships); co-morbidities (living with other conditions and depression, self-harm and suicidal ideation) and identity (feminine identity and us and them). The findings highlight the need for screening of women with polycystic ovary syndrome for depressive disorders.
    • Examining adherence to medication in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: The role of medication beliefs, attitudes and depression.

      Taylor, Elaina C.; Hughes, Lyndsay D; O'Neill, Mark; Bennett, Peter; King's College London (Wolters Kluwer, 2020-02-21)
      This study examined whether beliefs about medicines, drug attitudes, and depression independently predicted anticoagulant and antiarrhythmic adherence (focusing on the implementation phase of nonadherence) in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF). This cross-sectional study was part of a larger longitudinal study. Patients with AF (N = 118) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-8. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, Drug Attitude Inventory, and Morisky-Green-Levine Medication Adherence Scale (self-report adherence measure), related to anticoagulants and antiarrhythmics, were also completed. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were conducted. There were no significant differences in non-adherence to anticoagulants or antiarrhythmics. Greater concerns (r = 0.23, P = .01) were significantly, positively associated with anticoagulant nonadherence only. Depression and drug attitudes were not significantly associated with anticoagulant/antiarrhythmic adherence. Predictors reliably distinguished adherers and non-adherers to anticoagulant medication in the regression model, explaining 14% of the variance, but only concern beliefs (odds ratio, 1.20) made a significant independent contribution to prediction (χ2 =11.40, P=.02,with df = 4). When entered independently into a regression model, concerns (odds ratio, 1.24) significantly explained 10.3% of the variance (χ2 = 7.97, P = .01, with df = 1). Regressions were not significant for antiarrhythmic medication (P = .30). Specifying medication type is important when examining nonadherence in chronic conditions. Concerns about anticoagulants, rather than depression, were significantly associated with non-adherence to anticoagulants but not antiarrhythmics. Anticoagulant concerns should be targeted at AF clinics, with an aim to reduce nonadherence and potentially modifiable adverse outcomes such as stroke.
    • Examining the connection between nature connectedness and dark personality

      Fido, D.; Rees, A.; Clarke, P.; Petronzi, D.; Richardson, M.; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-24)
      The psychological construct of nature connectedness - the depth of an individual's relationship with the natural world - has not only been associated with benefits for mental well-being but has also shown relationships with personality traits relevant to the dark personality literature. These include agreeableness, cognitive and affective empathy, and callous and uncaring traits. Across two independently-sampled studies we delineate relationships between explicit and implicit indices of nature connectedness and dark personality. In Study 1 (N = 304), psychopathy (and Machiavellianism) was associated with self-reported, but not implicitly-measured, nature connectedness. Moreover, individuals scoring high on dark personality exhibited a preference for inner-city, relative to suburban or rural living. In Study 2 (N = 209), we replicated the findings of Study 1 in relation to explicit measures of nature connectedness but did not find further relationships between dark personality and the population densities of where participants had previously lived. Limitations of implicit and pseudo indices of nature connectedness are outlined, and the results are discussed in relation to future research and the potential role of nature connectedness interventions in forensic populations. Data, syntax, and the manuscript pre-print are available here: [https://osf.io/3mg5d/?view_only=b5c7749d4a7945c5a161f0915a2d0259].
    • Exploring emptiness and its effects on non-attachment, mystical experiences, and psycho-spiritual wellbeing: a quantitative and qualitative study of advanced meditators.

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Dunn, Thomas J.; Sapthiang, Supakyada; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Bishop Grosseteste University; University of Essex; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-12-28)
      Wisdom-based Buddhist-derived practices (BDPs) are concerned with transmuting suffering by cultivating insight into the ultimate nature of both the self and reality. Arguably the most important wisdom-based BDP is emptiness (Sanskrit: śūnyatā) that implies that although phenomena are perceptible to the human mind, they do not intrinsically exist. Despite its significance in Buddhism, emptiness has received little empirical attention. Advancing scientific understanding of emptiness is important as it may yield novel insights not only into the nature of mind and reality, but also in terms of helping human beings realise more of their capacity for wisdom and wellbeing. This study recruited 25 advanced Buddhist meditators and compared emptiness meditation against a mindfulness meditation control condition within the same group of participants. Qualitative analytical techniques were also employed to investigate meditators’ experiences of emptiness. Compared to the mindfulness control condition, emptiness meditation resulted in significantly greater improvements in non-attachment to self and environment, mystical experiences, compassion, positive affect, and negative affect. No significant relationship was observed between duration of emptiness meditation and any of the aforementioned outcome measures. Qualitative outcomes demonstrated that participants (i) combined concentrative and investigative meditation techniques to induce emptiness, (ii) elicited spiritually meaningful insights both during and following the meditation on emptiness, and (iii) retained volitional control over the content and duration of the emptiness meditation. Cultivating emptiness appears to be a means of reconnecting advanced Buddhist meditators to what they deem to be the innermost nature of their minds and phenomena.
    • Exploring the consistency and value of humour style profiles

      Evans, Thomas Rhys; Johannes, Niklas; Winska, Joanna; Glinksa-Newes, Aldona; van Stekelenburg, Aart; Nilsonne, Gustav; Dean, Laura; Fido, Dean; Galloway, Graeme; Jones, Sian; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2020-05-12)
      Establishing generalisable humour style profiles promises to have significant value for educational, clinical, and occupational application. However, previous research investigating such profiles has thus far presented inconsistent results. To determine the generalisability and value of humour style profiles, a large and geographically diverse examination of humour styles was conducted through a cross-sectional questionnaire methodology involving 863 participants from across three world regions. Findings identify inconsistencies in the humour style profiles across countries tested and the extant literature, possibly indicative of cultural differences in the behavioural expression of trait humour. Furthermore, when directly compared, humour types, rather than humour styles, consistently provide the greatest predictive value for friendship and well-being outcomes. As such, with respect to both consistency and value, capturing humour style profiles appears to represent a relatively reductionist approach to appreciating the nuances in the use and consequences of humour.
    • Exploring the factors associated with MOOC engagement, retention and the wider benefits for learners

      Petronzi, Dominic; Hadi, Munib; University of Derby Online (UDOL) (Sciendo, 2016-12-09)
      Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have and continue to change the way in which nontraditional learners' access education. Although the free element of these has been linked to low completion rates due to no invested interest, the MOOC platform enables innovative technologies and practices to be trialled. Therefore, rather than attributing varied intentions of learners for high drop-out rates, it is suggested that an increase in completion can be achieved through more focussed pedagogical practices. In this way, it is necessary to understand the wider benefits of MOOC engagement for learners and what factors are key to their engagement and retention. The current research qualitatively analysed open feedback obtained from learners that corresponded to their goals of course participation. The feedback was also matched to categorical data that related to initial course intentions, the value of course materials and activities, the preferred extent of instructor interaction, unit completion and their overall rating of the MOOC. Thematic analysis revealed eight key themes that can be linked to engagement and wider benefits of course participation and widely related to professional and educational development, for example, supplementary learning for undergraduate students. Moreover, the MOOC appeared to have encouraged learners to reevaluate their perspectives of and attitudes towards Dementia and those diagnosed with it, demonstrating another key element of this course. The open feedback revealed that quality assured MOOCs have significant impact on the lives of enrolled learners and pedagogical design and advances in these courses are considered, particularly in relation to collaborative learning. Finally, the application of MOOCs to wider learning and teaching at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) is discussed, with emphasis placed on the advantages of readily available resources and scope for scholarly activity.
    • Exploring the problem of establishing horizon emergent technologies within a higher education institution’s operational framework

      Shaw, Paula; Sheffield, David; Rawlinson, Sarah; University of Derby (Sciendo, 2020-04-24)
      Since the early 2000s, a plethora of web-based learning technologies has been developed, each proposing to improve the student experience. Yet, a study conducted by Martin et al. (2018) demonstrate sporadic new technology adoption in Higher Education (HE), despite wide-scale social interest and a wealth of academic publications. This paper aims to provide a framework to explore this problem from an institutional perspective, involving both educational planners and pedagogues. This framework, the Pedagogic Realignment with Organisational Priorities and Horizon Emergent Technologies Framework or PROPHET Framework, is a new three phase framework that combines two distinct research methodologies used by policy makers and pedagogues with a new dynamic multi-level diffusion of innovation (DMDI) model specifically designed to support dialogue between these stakeholders. Application of the PROPHET Framework will enable stakeholders to arrive at a common understanding about the efficacy of such new technologies and collaborative exploration of technology through these different lenses will lead to increased confidence in its value and relevance. It is hypothesised that undertaking this process will increase the adoption rate of Horizon Emergent Technologies, resulting in operational policy amendments and evidence of impact in the learning environment.
    • Exploring the Relationship Between Mathematics Anxiety and Performance: An Eye-Tracking Approach

      Hunt, Thomas E.; Clark-Carter, David; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Department of Life Sciences, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby UK; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences; Staffordshire University; Stoke-on-Trent UK; Department of Life Sciences, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby UK (2014-12-09)
      Summary: The mechanisms underpinning the relationship between math anxiety and arithmetic performance are not fully understood. This study used an eye-tracking approach to measure a range of eye movements of 78 undergraduate students in response to performance on an arithmetic verification task. Results demonstrated a significant positive relationship between self-reported math anxiety and response time, indicating reduced processing efficiency. Analysis of eye-movement data reinforced the utility of an eye-tracking approach in studying arithmetic performance; specific digit fixations, dwell time, saccades, and regressions all significantly predicted response time. Furthermore, findings highlighted significant positive correlations between math anxiety and fixations, dwell time, and saccades. Despite there being little evidence that eye movements mediate the math anxiety-to-performance relationship, relationships observed between math anxiety and eye movements provide a useful starting point for research using an eye-tracking methodology in studying math anxiety and performance; the present findings suggest future work should focus on calculation strategy.