• A Qualitative Exploration of CBT and Psychodynamic Therapists’ Views, Experiences and Perceptions of Integrating Different Therapeutic Modalities into their Private Practice with Adult Clients: Study Protocol

      Kaluzeviciute, Greta; Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-06-05)
      Background: CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and psychodynamic psychotherapy are two most frequently used therapeutic modalities in private and public clinical practice. CBT is currently considered to be a ‘gold standard’ therapy, culminating in a wide scale training and dissemination of research. Psychodynamic psychotherapy has also amassed increasing systematic research, yielding significant longitudinal outcomes. However, the co-existence of the two therapeutic modalities is not without controversies. Although few authors in psychotherapy suggested that CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapy should be viewed as complementary rather than dichotomous paradigms, little is known about how concepts and techniques from these two different approaches are integrated (if at all) by therapists in private practice. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a pilot study, which aims to qualitatively explore how CBT therapists experience and make sense of psychodynamic concepts and vice versa in private practice. Our study is particularly interested in how therapists conceptualise psychodynamic and CBT concepts, and whether they might integrate techniques from different therapeutic modalities in their practice formally or informally. We anticipate that the findings will be relevant for further theoretical and clinical recommendations on how CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapies can be integrated in a pragmatic manner to address individual patient treatment needs. Study Design: A qualitative survey method will be used to explore how qualified BABCP accredited CBT therapists and BCP accredited psychodynamic practitioners understand, perceive and, potentially, integrate, psychodynamic and CBT principles in private practice. The data collected will be analysed using thematic analysis in order to construct themes and generate implications for therapeutic integration and practice. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are discussed, with awareness of characteristics of our target sample.
    • A qualitative investigation into the experience of neuro-linguistic programming certification training among Japanese career consultants

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (2017-05-12)
      Although the application of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) has been reported worldwide, its scientific investigation is limited. Career consulting is one of the fields where NLP has been increasingly applied in Japan. This study explored why career consultants undertake NLP training, and what they find most useful to their practice. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with six career consultants, who had attended NLP certification training, revealed that they wanted to learn action-oriented NLP-based coaching skills in addition to their active-listening-based counselling skills. NLP provided frameworks to lead their clients’ thoughts efficiently, deepened their understanding of the human mind, and developed their attitude to understand others and themselves. The NLP skills found most useful were reframing and the Disney strategy.
    • A Qualitative Study Comparing Mindfulness and Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing): Practitioners’ Perspectives

      Clarke, Fiona J.; Kotera, Yasuhiro; McEwan, Kirsten; University of Birmingham; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-06-15)
      The boundary between mindfulness and forest bathing, two conceptually related therapies, is unclear. Accordingly, this study reports the strengths and challenges, similarities and differences, and barriers and facilitators for both. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven trained and experienced practitioners of both mindfulness and forest bathing. Reflexive thematic analysis revealed four main themes: (i) differences between the approaches; (ii) the benefits of forest bathing; (iii) biophilia through forest bathing; and (iv) inward versus outward attentional focus as a distinction between the approaches. Both practices were found to benefit well-being, but practitioners revealed key barriers to mindfulness. For vulnerable groups experiencing mental health challenges or difficulties achieving a meditative state, mindfulness may introduce well-being risks. By offering a gentler, more intuitive approach that encourages outward attentional focus, forest bathing was found to overcome this barrier. Forest bathing is suitable for all groups, but adaptations are recommended for those expressing fear or discomfort in forested environments. The findings inform how to position both approaches in practice, as a first step towards social prescribing recommendations. Wider implications concern forest bathing’s potential to impact environmental well-being. Future research must garner comparative data, involve young people, and explore the feasibility of a forest bathing social prescription.
    • Raising the profile of health psychology training, consultancy and practice issues through the new Health Psychology Update sub-section.

      Cross, Ainslea; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2019-03-20)
      A call for papers that share experiences or learning at any stage of a consultancy project, such as the negotiating, pitching and carrying out needs assessment for consultancy, as well as reflections on the outcomes or implementation of applied health psychology work. We are also looking for ‘works in progress’ describing treatment models, the development of applied practice roles for health psychologists or trainees, as well as self-reflections of the experiences of consultancy and applied practice. Contributions are welcomed to provide vital learning for trainee Health Psychologists (HPs) or established HPs looking to upskill in a different area.
    • Reactions to symptoms of mental disorder and help seeking in Sabah, Malaysia.

      Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Borhanuddin, Awang Faisal Bin Awang; Yong Pau Lin, Pauline; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris; Nordin, Norhayati; Giridharan, Beena; Forman, Dawn; Fyfe, Sue; Universiti Malaysia Sabah; Hospital Mesra Bukit Padang; et al. (Sage, 2017-11-06)
      Abstract Background: A better understanding is needed about how people make decisions about help seeking. Materials: Focus group and individual interviews with patients, carers, healthcare staff, religious authorities, traditional healers and community members. Discussion: Four stages of help seeking were identified: (1) noticing symptoms and initial labelling, (2) collective decision-making, (3) spiritual diagnoses and treatment and (4) psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion: Spiritual diagnoses have the advantage of being less stigmatising, giving meaning to symptoms, and were seen to offer hope of cure rather than just symptom control. Patients and carers need help to integrate different explanatory models into a meaningful whole.
    • Reduction of visual acuity decreases capacity to evaluate radiographic image quality

      Sá dos Reis, C.; Soares, F.; Bartoli, G.; Dastan, K.; Dhlamini, Z.S.; Hussain, A.; Kroode, D.; McEntee, M.F.; Mekis, N.; Thompson, J.D.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-05-16)
      To determine the impact of reduced visual acuity on the evaluation of a test object and appendicular radiographs. Visual acuity was reduced by two different magnitudes using simulation glasses and compared to normal vision (no glasses). During phase one phantom images were produced for the purpose of counting objects by 13 observers and on phase 2 image appraisal of anatomical structures was performed on anonymized radiographic images by 7 observers. The monitors were calibrated (SMPTE RP133 test pattern) and the room lighting was maintained at 7 ± 1 lux. Image display and data on grading were managed using ViewDEX (v.2.0) and the area under the visual grading characteristic (AUC VGC) was calculated using VGC Analyzer (v1.0.2). Inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS. For the evaluation of appendicular radiographs the total interpretation time was longer when visual acuity was reduced with 2 pairs of simulation glasses (15.4 versus 8.9 min). Visual grading analysis showed that observers can lose the ability to detect anatomical and contrast differences when they have a simulated visual acuity reduction, being more challenging to differentiate low contrast details. No simulation glasses, compared to 1 pair gives an AUC VGC of 0.302 (0.280, 0.333), that decreases to 0.197 (0.175, 0.223) when using 2 pairs of glasses. Reduced visual acuity has a significant negative impact on the evaluation of test objects and clinical images. Further work is required to test the impact of reduced visual acuity on visual search, technical evaluation of a wider range of images as well as pathology detection/characterization performance. It seems that visual performance needs to be considered to reduce the risks associated with incomplete or incorrect diagnosis. If employers or professional bodies were to introduce regular eye tests into health screening it may reduce the risk of misinterpretation as a result of poor vision.
    • Reflective self-attention: A more stable predictor of connection to nature than mindful attention.

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 2015-09-28)
      There is much to be gained from understanding the individual differences that predict our connection to nature, as those that are more connected tend to be more caring towards the environment and benefit from better well-being. Study 1 (n=137) found that reflective self-attention and mindful attention significantly predicted connection to nature, while anxious self-attention had a borderline significant negative association. With the introduction of personality measures, study 2 (n=161) found that reflective self-attention and openness had a stronger relationship to nature connection than mindful attention. Study 3 (n=99) found reflective self-attention, rather than mindful attention, to be associated with an increase in connection to nature. A pre-reflective and intentional self-attention account of nature connectedness is proposed with intentional self-reflection being a stronger factor than mindful attention.
    • The relationship between pain beliefs and physical and mental health outcome measures in chronic low back pain: direct and indirect effects

      Baird, Andrew; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2016-08-19)
      Low back pain remains a major health problem with huge societal cost. Biomedical models fail to explain the disability seen in response to reported back pain and therefore patients’ beliefs, cognitions and related behaviours have become a focus for both research and practice. This study used the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire and had two aims: To examine the extent to which pain beliefs are related to disability, anxiety and depression; and to assess whether those relationships are mediated by pain self-efficacy and locus of control. In a sample of 341 chronic low back pain patients, organic and psychological pain beliefs were related to disability, anxiety and depression. However, organic pain beliefs were more strongly related to disability and depression than psychological pain beliefs. Regression analyses revealed that these relationships were in part independent of pain self-efficacy and locus of control. Further, mediation analyses revealed indirect pathways involving self-efficacy and, to a lesser extent chance locus of control, between organic pain beliefs, on the one hand, and disability, anxiety and depression, on the other. In contrast, psychological pain beliefs were only directly related to disability, anxiety and depression. Although longitudinal data are needed to corroborate our findings, this study illustrates the importance of beliefs about the nature of pain and beliefs in one’s ability to cope with pain in determining both physical and mental health outcomes in chronic low back pain patients.
    • Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Global Academic Excellence, 2017-12-02)
      Objectives The UK hospitality industry employs more than two million workers and accounts for 7% of the country’s workforce. However, despite the number of people employed, work-related mental health issues are a cause for concern in this worker population. While our previous research in UK hospitality workers identified that work motivation was a predictor of mental health, the relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile (e.g. demography, work experience, position) has not been explored to date. This study aimed to i) identify the primary type of work motivation, and ii) explore relationships between worker profile and types of work motivation in UK hospitality workers. Methodology 103 UK hospitality workers completed a worker profile questionnaire and work motivation measure. Descriptive statistics were yielded to compare each type of motivation, and correlation analyses were conducted between worker profile and motivation type. Findings Levels of internal motivation were found to be significantly higher than external motivation. Male and longer time served in the industry were associated with amotivation, the lowest form of external motivation. A higher position in the organisation was associated with external regulation, the second lowest form of external motivation. Future research Research evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to enhance intrinsic motivation, particularly among male experienced workers or managers/owners is warranted. Furthermore, male hospitality workers’ high levels of external motivation may highlight the UK’s strong masculine culture as described in Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. This echoes with our previous research finding that shame concerning mental health issues is a problem among UK hospitality workers. Cross-cultural comparisons of work motivation and mental health would be an important future direction to help place these findings in a global context.
    • The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Global Academic Excellence, 2018-01-04)
      While the UK hospitality industry is growing faster than the economy, mental health problems are a serious concern in this worker population. Our previous research identified that work motivation accounted for a significant variance in mental health, however, the relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile has not been explored to date. Therefore, this study aimed to i) identify the primary type of work motivation, and ii) explore relationships between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. UK hospitality workers (n=103) completed a worker profile questionnaire and work motivation measure. Their internal motivation was significantly higher than external motivation. Male and longer industry experience were associated with amotivation, the lowest type of motivation. A higher position in the organisation was associated with external regulation, the second lowest type of motivation. Intervention research for intrinsic motivation, particularly among male experienced workers or managers/owners is warranted. Considering their low wages, the high levels of internal motivation may be explained by the ‘psychological justification’ strategies. Furthermore, male hospitality workers’ high levels of external motivation may highlight the UK’s strong masculine culture as described in Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. Likewise, highly positioned workers' high levels of external motivation may relate to the UK's low power distance in the same theory. Cross-cultural comparisons of work motivation and mental health (e.g., with the high feminine Dutch culture and/or the high power distant Malaysian culture) would be an important future direction to help place these findings in a global context.
    • Renewable hydrogen anaerobic fermentation technology: problems and potentials

      Komolafe, Abiodun O.; Okere, Uchechukwu V.; University of Derby; Lancaster University; University of Southampton (Elsevier, 2019-08-21)
      Hydrogen technology is essential to the decarbonisation of global economies because it addresses the variability and storage limitation of renewable energy. Several research literatures on hydrogen technology have focused on energy systems with minimum attention given to other fossil fuel driven sectors such as chemical and material production. For effective decarbonisation, the application of hydrogen in global economies must extend beyond the use of energy systems. Renewable hydrogen anaerobic fermentation is a suitable technology for converting the hydrogen substrate into gaseous fuel and precursors for material and green chemical production. The technology leverages on the well-established anaerobic digestion (AD) technology and can be selectively operated for a specific product. Although there are some problems associated with renewable hydrogen anaerobic fermentation, studies show different technological advancements in mitigating these challenges. This review focuses on the technological breakthroughs and limitations associated with renewable hydrogen anaerobic fermentation and provides insights on other products that could be derived from it, especially for a circular economy and the emerging market of green chemicals, sustainable agriculture, and bio-based product development.
    • Repositioning interprofessional education from the margins to the centre of Australian health professional education - what is required?

      Dunston, Roger; Forman, Dawn; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Steketee, Carole; Rogers, Gary D.; Moran, Monica Catherine; University of Technology Sydney; University of Derby; University of Notre Dame; Griffith University; et al. (CSIRO, 2018-01-16)
      Abstract Objective This paper examines the implementation and implications of four development and research initiatives, collectively titled the Curriculum Renewal Studies program (CRS), occurring over a 6-year period ending in 2015 and focusing on interprofessional education (IPE) within Australian pre-registration health professional education. Methods The CRS was developed as an action-focused and participatory program of studies. This research and development program used a mixed-methods approach. Structured survey, interviews and extensive documentary analyses were supplemented by semi-structured interviews, focus groups, large group consultations and consensus building methods. Narrative accounts of participants’ experiences and an approach to the future development of Australian IPE were developed. Results Detailed accounts of existing Australian IPE curricula and educational activity were developed. These accounts were published and used in several settings to support curriculum and national workforce development. Reflective activities engaging with the findings facilitated the development of a national approach to the future development of Australian IPE – a national approach focused on coordinated and collective governance and development. Conclusion This paper outlines the design of an innovative approach to national IPE governance and development. It explores how ideas drawn from sociocultural theories were used to guide the choice of methods and to enrich data analysis. Finally, the paper reflects on the implications of CRS findings for health professional education, workforce development and the future of Australian IPE. What is known about the topic? IPE to enable the achievement of interprofessional and collaborative practice capabilities is widely accepted and promoted. However, many problems exist in embedding and sustaining IPE as a system-wide element of health professional education. How these implementation problems can be successfully addressed is a health service and education development priority. What does this paper add? The paper presents a summary of how Australian IPE was conceptualised, developed and delivered across 26 universities during the period of the four CRS studies. It points to strengths and limitations of existing IPE. An innovative approach to the future development of Australian IPE is presented. The importance of sociocultural factors in the development of practitioner identity and practice development is identified. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings of the CRS program present a challenging view of current Australian IPE activity and what will be required to meet industry and health workforce expectations related to the development of an Australian interprofessional- and collaborative-practice-capable workforce. Although the directions identified pose considerable challenges for the higher education and health sectors, they also provide a consensus-based approach to the future development of Australian IPE. As such they can be used as a blueprint for national development.
    • Research proposal: qualitative investigation into internet-based interventions for professional dementia caregivers' wellbeing

      Aledeh, Muhammad; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-10)
      This paper proposes a qualitative investigation into internet-based intervention for the wellbeing of professional dementia caregivers. Dementia care is associated with care burden leading to negative psychological consequences, such as stress, anxiety, and depression. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has made access to the traditional face-to-face therapy challenging for dementia caregivers. Accordingly, some dementia caregivers have started to use therapy via information and communication technologies (ICTs) including internet-based interventions. The interventions offered in this medium include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and psychoeducation. To date, research has only examined the effects of these ICTs interventions among informal/family dementia caregivers, suggesting a need to examine the effects on professional dementia caregivers. In order to capture their first-hand experience receiving ICTs interventions on wellbeing, a qualitative research, using thematic analysis on semi-structured interview is proposed. Interviews will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of ICTs interventions on their mental wellbeing and care burden. Findings can inform the utility of these interventions for professional dementia caregivers in COVID-19 to help protect them from severe mental distress such as burnout supporting long-lasting care for their patients/clients.
    • Resilience Intervention for Families of Autistic Children: Reviewing the Literature

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Pope, Melanie; Chircop, James; Kirkman, Ann; Bennett-Viliardos, Laura; Sharaan, Shereen; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh (Concurrent Disorders Society Publishing, 2021-05-24)
      Given the rising diagnostic rates of autism, it is imperative to investigate the well-being of families with autistic children. Families of autistic children report more mental health difficulties than families of typically developing children. Resilience is identified as a key protective factor for mental health difficulties in many populations, and research suggests that this construct is effective for coping with mental health difficulties in families of autistic children. However, reviews on resilience interventions for families of autistic children are lacking. Accordingly, this paper aims to report (a) common mental health difficulties that families of autistic children experience, (b) how resilience may reduce mental health difficulties, (c) interventions to enhance resilience in families of autistic children, and (d) discuss implications for practice and future research. Our review identified that mental distress resulting from feelings of uncertainty and helplessness following a diagnosis, in addition to caregiving stressors, is especially common among families of autistic children. Enhancing resilience is suggested to reduce those difficulties by tapping into strengths related to various positive psychological resources such as internal locus of control, positive cognitive appraisal, acceptance and self-efficacy. Interventions such as Dance Movement Psychotherapy and spirituality-based approaches, are deemed especially helpful to families of autistic children. However, research in this area is still under-developed, and there is a pressing need to build a more rigorous evidence base. Findings reviewed in the current work can aid families of autistic children, healthcare practitioners, and researchers to support the mental wellbeing of families of autistic children, which in turn would support the wellbeing of autistic children.
    • Review of preventative behavioural interventions for dermal and respiratory hazards.

      Lunt, J. A.; Sheffield, David; Bell, N.; Bennett, V.; Morris, L. A.; Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire; University of Derby, Centre for Psychological Research (2011-08)
      No previous systematic review of the evidence base has been undertaken to help occupational health professionals understand how to reliably lower the instance of occupational ill-health through reducing risk-taking behaviour.
    • Review of the evidence for adolescent and young person specific, community-based health services for NHS managers

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (Emerald, 2015-11)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evidence surrounding the design and delivery of adolescent-specific health services for young people aged 14-25. This aims to make recommendations for National Health Service (NHS) senior management teams on the available literature relating to service design for children’s and young people's services within the UK. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents a mini-review carried out in Spring 2013 using EMBASE, BNI, PSYCHinfo, MEDLINE and Google Scholar to systematically search available published and unpublished research papers. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and evaluations of service models were included within this review. Adapted “GRADE” criteria were used to appraise the evidence. Findings – Of 70 papers found, 22 met the inclusion criteria. There were five main service designs found within the literature: hospital-based; school-linked or school-based; community based; combination and integrative; and other methods which did not fit into the four other categories. Research limitations/implications – This review is limited to the literature available within the inclusion criteria and search strategy used. It intends to inform management decisions in combination with other parameters and available evidence. Originality/value – There is range of research and evidence syntheses relating to adolescent services, but none of these have been conducted with a focus on the UK NHS and the information needs of managers re-designing services in the current climate within England.
    • Revisiting the compilation of Matthew Paris’s Chronica majora: new textual and manuscript evidence

      Greasley, Nathan; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-03-15)
      The Chronica majora of Matthew Paris (c.1200–59) is a vital source for the study of thirteenth-century Europe. This article explores its compilation and dating. Much previous scholarship has rested on the assumption that the first part of the text, a revision of the Flores historiarum of Roger of Wendover covering the years from the Creation to 1235, was written at the same time as Matthew’s continuation of it (stretching to the year 1250). Textual, codicological and palaeographic evidence suggests that this was not the case. Matthew at first wrote only to revise the Flores, and only later was it extended to become the Chronica majora. This article also puts forward evidence that Matthew’s continuation was begun in the year 1247. The complex compositional process of the Chronica majora offers rare insight into the methods available to medieval authors charged with writing large-scale projects.
    • Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-05-24)
      The Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF) was developed as an economical alternative for the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), one of the few scales to assess self-compassion. Despite the active use of the SCS-SF, a psychometric evaluation of this scale remains limited. This study analysed the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS-SF in UK university student populations. Methods Of 365 students approached, 333 completed the SCS-SF, and other measures including negative psychological constructs (mental health problems, self-criticism, and mental health shame) and positive psychological constructs (self-reassurance, resilience, and wellbeing). Data were analysed through confirmatory factor analyses and correlations. Results CFA revealed that the six-factor structure, reported in the validation paper, was not replicated. The positive factor, consisting of the three positive subscales, was not strongly related to any variable, but moderately related to reassured-self, resilience, wellbeing, and inadequate-self. The negative factor, consisting of the three negative subscales, was strongly related to inadequate-self, and moderately related to resilience, reassured-self, stress, wellbeing, depression, and internal shame. Coefficients in the negative factor were in general larger than those in the positive factor. The total SCS-SF score was most strongly related to inadequate-self, followed by resilience. Inter-correlations of the six subscales did not follow Neff (2003b)'s theoretical model of self-compassion nor the full-scale factor solution. Conclusions Findings do not accord with the common use of the global SCS-SF score as an assessment of six factors of self-compassion, and suggest a two factor solution assessing self-criticism and self-compassion.
    • The role of Covid-19 for Chinese stock returns: evidence from a GARCHX model

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-03)
      This paper examines the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on the Chinese stock market returns and their volatility using the generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic GARCHX model. The GARCHX model allows us to include Covid-19 information within the GARCH framework. The findings document that daily increases in total confirmed Covid-19 cases in China, measured as total daily deaths and cases, have a significant negative impact on stock returns, with the negative impact of the Covid-19 on stock returns being more pronounced when total deaths proxy the effect of this infectious disease. The results also document that Covid-19 has a positive and statistically significant effect on the volatility of these market returns. Overall, new evidence is offered that infectious diseases, such as Covid-19, can seriously impact market returns, as well as their volatility. The findings could be essential in understanding the implications of Covid-19 for the stock market in China.
    • The role of fiscal policy in the link between income inequality and banking crises

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-16)
      This paper explores the link between income inequality and banking crises, when inequality is affected by fiscal policy. Using a two-stage probit least squares method and a panel of 21 countries, spanning the period 1971-2017, the findings indicate that inequality impacts the probability of banking crises through budget deficits, followed by government expenses.