• Pandemic burnout in frontline healthcare professionals: Can Meditation Help?

      Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-17)
    • Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Rhodes, Christine; UDOL; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-01)
      Research about sex addiction and its relationships with other constructs remains unexplored. We recruited a gender-balanced sample (53 men, 51 women) who responded to measures of sex addiction, adverse childhood experience, adult attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation. Sex addiction was found to be statistically significantly associated with these constructs. Anxious attachment statistically significantly mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experience and sex addiction and the relationship between narcissism and sex addiction. Self-compassion did not statistically significantly moderate the relationship between anxious attachment and sex addiction. Therapeutic approaches targeting attachment and narcissism such as relation-based or mindfulness-based interventions are recommended.
    • Patterns of value change during the life span.

      Gouveia, Valdiney V.; C. Vione, Katia; Milfont, Taciano L.; Fischer, Ronald; Federal University of Paraiba; Cardiff University; Victoria University of Wellington; Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil; Cardiff University, UK; Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand; et al. (Sage, 2015-07-17)
      Little research has examined mean-level change in values across the life span. Using large cross-sectional data (N = 36,845) from the five geo-social regions in Brazil, this study examines how mean levels of basic values differ as a function of age (from age 12 to 65; M = 28) and whether age effects are moderated by gender. Results show that mean-level value change is substantial throughout the life course. We observed both linear and curvilinear patterns of change as well as differential patterns by gender. The observed value change is consistent with age-related life circumstances and psychosocial development. Age effects are also value dependent, supporting the notion that values have different functions for different developmental stages.
    • Perceptions around adult and child sex offenders and their rehabilitation as a function of education in forensic psychology independent of traditionalism and perpetrator sex  

      Rothwell, Megan; Fido, Dean; Heym, Nadja; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-12-15)
      Literature pertaining to individuals with sexual convictions typically reports punitive views about their crimes, sentences, and effectiveness of rehabilitation. However, such perceptions may be a function of offense demographics, such as victim age and perpetrator sex, and perceiver characteristics, such as their traditionalism or forensic awareness/education. Participants (N=101; 60% forensic psychology student; 40% general public) read online vignettes related to sexual offences (manipulating perpetrator sex and victim age), and completed measures of perceptions of sex offenders, perceived rehabilitation efficacy and traditionalism. Members of the general population (without forensic education background) reported harsher views towards individuals with sexual convictions and their rehabilitation, relative to students of forensic psychology, independent of their greater traditionalism. There was no main effect of or interaction with perpetrator sex. Whilst participants endorsed more negative perceptions towards sex offenders of child than adult victims, this did not extent to differences in perceptions regarding their rehabilitation. Findings reported here indicate a need for greater understanding as to the factors that might moderate perceptions towards individuals with sexual convictions, and have implications for the promotion of sex offender rehabilitation programmes. Understanding the root of such public attitudes is a key step for creating and improving associated policies.
    • Persation: an IoT based personal safety prediction model aided solution

      Alofe, Olasunkanmi Matthew; Fatema, Kaniz; Azad, Muhammad Ajmal; Kurugollu, Fatih; University of Derby; Aston University, Birmingham (University of Bahrain, 2020)
      The number of attacks on innocent victims in moving vehicles, and abduction of individuals in their vehicles has risen alarmingly in the past few years. One common scenario evident from the modus operandi of this kind of attack is the random motion of these vehicles, due to the driver’s unpredictable behaviours. To save the victims in such kinds of assault, it is essential to offer help promptly. An effective strategy to save victims is to predict the future location of the vehicles so that the rescue mission can be actioned at the earliest possibility. We have done a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art personal safety solutions and location prediction technologies and proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) based personal safety model, encompassing a prediction framework to anticipate the future vehicle locations by exploiting complex analytics of current and past data variables including the speed, direction and geolocation of the vehicles. Experiments conducted based on real-world datasets demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed framework in accurately predicting future vehicle locations. In this paper, we have a risk assessment of our safety solution model based on OCTAVE ALLEGRO model and the implementation of our prediction model.
    • Persistence in silver prices and the influence of solar energy

      Apergis, Nicholas; Gil-Alana, Luis; Carmona-González, Nieves; University of Derby; University of Navarra; University Francisco de Vitoria (Elsevier, 2020-09-14)
      This paper deals with the analysis of silver prices and the influence of solar energy production on its behaviour. For this purpose, the analysis uses long memory methods based on fractional integration and cointegration. The results indicate that the two variables are very persistent, though any long run equilibrium relationship between them is not observed. Nevertheless, the results illustrate some short-run negative effects from solar energy capacity on silver prices.
    • The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics

      Maratos, Frances A.; Duarte, Joana; Barnes, Christopher; McEwan, Kirsten; Sheffield, David; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; University of Coimbra (Elsevier, 2017-01-25)
      Research demonstrates that highly self-critical individuals can respond negatively to the initial introduction of a range of therapeutic interventions. Yet touch as a form of therapeutic intervention in self-critical individuals has received limited prior investigation, despite documentation of its beneficial effects for well-being. Using the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, 15 high- and 14 low- self-critical individuals (from a sample of 139 females) were recruited to assess how self-criticism impacts upon a single instance of focused touch. All participants took part in a hand massage- and haptic control- intervention. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, as well as questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken before and after the interventions. Following hand massage, analyses revealed cortisol decreased significantly across all participants; and that significant changes in emotional responding reflected well-being improvements across all participants. Supplementary analyses further revealed decreased alpha amylase responding to hand massage as compared to a compassion-focused intervention in the same (highly self-critical) individuals. Taken together, the physiological and emotional data indicate high self-critical individuals responded in a comparable manner to low self-critical individuals to a single instance of hand massage. This highlights that focused touch may be beneficial when first engaging highly self-critical individuals with specific interventions.
    • Policing in a pandemic: a commentary on officer well-being during COVID-19

      Edwards, Ann-Marie; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-24)
      The role of police officers during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is challenging, faced with the difficult task of keeping communities safe and preventing the spread of COVID-19 while putting their physical and mental health at risk. Emerging evidence points to the stress experiences of officers during the COVID-19 pandemic. With cases now surpassing 174 million and close to four million deaths worldwide, as well as stringent lockdown measures, police officers are faced with unprecedented challenges resulting from the pandemic. This commentary suggests police departments strengthen resources by putting in place appropriate emergency planning for future public health incidents, in addition to preparing for temporary or permanent loss of human resources. It is important to implement robust training plans post-pandemic to allow officers to offer better care for communities when faced with future public health emergencies. Finally, police officers should be provided with the resources and support to cope with the stresses associated with COVID-19.
    • Positive psychology for mental wellbeing of uk therapeutic students: Relationships with engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-01-12)
      This study aimed to examine the relationships between mental wellbeing and positive psychological constructs in therapeutic students (psychotherapy and occupational therapy students). The number of therapeutic students has increased recently, however they suffer from poor mental health, which may be improved by potentiating their positive psychological constructs, bypassing mental health shame. Therapeutic students (n=145) completed measures regarding positive psychological constructs, namely mental wellbeing, engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion. Resilience and self-compassion predicted mental wellbeing, explaining a large effect. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between resilience and mental wellbeing. This study highlights the importance of positive psychological constructs, especially resilience and self-compassion, for mental wellbeing of therapeutic students.
    • Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Ting, Su-Hie; University of Derby; Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (Springer, 2019-12-18)
      Malaysia plays a key role in education of the Asia Pacific, expanding its scholarly output rapidly. However, mental health of Malaysian students is challenging, and their help-seeking is low because of stigma. This study explored the relationships between mental health and positive psychological constructs (academic engagement, motivation, self-compassion, and wellbeing), and evaluated the relative contribution of each positive psychological construct to mental health in Malaysian students. An opportunity sample of 153 students completed the measures regarding these constructs. Correlation, regression, and mediation analyses were conducted. Engagement, amotivation, self-compassion, and wellbeing were associated with, and predicted large variance in mental health. Self-compassion was the strongest independent predictor of mental health among all the positive psychological constructs. Findings can imply the strong links between mental health and positive psychology, especially selfcompassion. Moreover, intervention studies to examine the effects of self-compassion training on mental health of Malaysian students appear to be warranted.
    • Postcolonial Theory and Canada’s Health Care Professions: Bridging the Gap

      wilmot, stephen; University of Derby (springer, 2021-05-12)
      In recent years there have been several calls in professional and academic journals for healthcare personnel in Canada to raise the profile of postcolonial theory as a theoretical and explanatory framework for their practice with Indigenous people. In this paper I explore some of the challenges that are likely to confront those healthcare personnel in engaging with postcolonial theory in a training context. I consider these challenges in relation to three areas of conflict. First I consider conflicts around paradigms of knowledge, wherein postcolonial theory operates from a different base from most professional knowledge in health care. Second I consider conflicts of ideology, wherein postcolonial theory is largely at odds with Canada’s political and popular cultures. And finally I consider issues around the question of Canada’s legitimacy, which postcolonial theory puts in doubt. I suggest ways in which these conflicts might be addressed and managed in the training context, and also identify potential positive outcomes that would be enabling for healthcare personnel, and might also contribute to an improvement in Canada’s relationship with its indigenous peoples.
    • Predicting self-compassion in UK nursing students: Relationships with resilience, engagement, motivation, and mental wellbeing

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Cockerill, Vicky; Chircop, James; Kaluzeviciute, Greta; Dyson, Sue E.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-02-11)
      Self-compassion, being kind towards oneself, has been identified as a key protective factor of mental health. This is consistent with students’ experiences in the study of nursing, which attracts a large number of students in the United Kingdom. Despite the importance of self-compassion, knowledge in how to enhance self-compassion is under-researched. Self-compassion interventions are commonly related to meditative exercises. In order to suggest alternative approaches, relationships between self-compassion and more established constructs need to be appraised. Accordingly, this study evaluated predictors of self-compassion, examining its relationships with more established constructs examined in other healthcare student populations: resilience, engagement, motivation and mental wellbeing. An opportunity sample of 182 UK nursing students at a university in East Midlands completed self-report measures about these constructs. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Self-compassion was positively related to resilience, engagement, intrinsic motivation and mental wellbeing, while negatively related to amotivation. Resilience and mental wellbeing were identified as significant predictors of self-compassion. As resilience and mental wellbeing are relatively familiar to many nursing lecturers and students, educators can incorporate a self-compassion component into the existing resilience training and/or mental wellbeing practices.
    • Prescribing laughter to increase well-being in healthy adults: an exploratory mixed methods feasibility study of the Laughie

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-02-16)
      Calls for a practical laughter prescription have been made by the medical community. This research developed the Laughie and evaluated its impact to elicit laughter and increase well-being in healthy adults. The Laughie is a user-created one minute recording of the user’s laughter, operated by re-playing it while laughing simultaneously. A mixed methods preliminary feasibility study was conducted between March and May 2018. Twenty-one participants aged 25–93 (x = 51, SD = 20) created a Laughie and were instructed to laugh with it three times a day for seven days, documenting each trial. Well-being was measured prior to and post-intervention using the World Health Organization (WHO five-item) well-being index. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Evaluation considered the Feasibility, Reach-out, Acceptability, Maintenance, Efficacy, Implementation and Tailorability (FRAME-IT) of the Laughie. The Laughie elicited laughter for most of the one minute in 89% of 420 Laughie trials; immediate well-being increased in 70% of them. Absolute overall WHO well-being scores increased post-intervention by 16%. Laughie evaluation using FRAME-IT showed the Laughie was feasible, acceptable, and tailorable. Four smart laughter techniques that facilitated maintenance/usage were identified. The Laughie was feasible, enjoyable, and effective as a laughter prescription in eliciting laughter. Fourteen participants reported absolute well-being increases of 10% or more. Ten participants found their laughter self-contagious. Smart laughter (laughing in a smart way for a smart reason on a smartphone) is a convenient way to harness the benefits of laughter. FRAME-IT is proposed as a practical planning and evaluation framework.
    • The prevalence, communicability and co-occurrence of inverted hallucinations: an overlooked global public health concern

      Van Gordon, William; Sapthaing, Supakyada; Ducasse, Deborah; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2019-05)
      While scientific understanding concerning the role of biological pathogenic agents in the transmission of communicable diseases has increased markedly in recent decades, the possibility of a psychological pathogenic agent that underlies the transmission of a number of key global public health concerns has largely been overlooked. The present paper identifies inverted hallucinations as a novel category of hallucination that not only reflect a key public health concern in their own right, but also appear to play an active role in the gradual transmission of diseases traditionally deemed to be non-communicable, such as mental health problems, obesity, and social media addiction. More specifically, the present paper delineates the assumptions and indicative empirical support underlying inverted hallucination theory as well as the characteristic features, functional consequences, prevalence, communicability, and co-occurrence of inverted hallucinations in the general population. Inverted hallucinations appear to be both globally prevalent and communicable, and are estimated to affect the average person on at least an occasional basis. Inverted hallucinations cause individuals to succumb to states of mind wandering that distorts their perception of what is happening in the present moment and increases their susceptibility to other deleterious health conditions. Moreover, inverted hallucinations appear to reflect a key overlooked public health need that not only stunt human potential and quality of life but also pose a risk to the wellbeing of the population globally.
    • Psychological Impacts of the New Ways of Working (NWW): A Systematic Review

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Correa Vione, Katia; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2020-07-14)
      Digitalization of knowledge work is essential for today’s organizations, responding todiversified employee needs. Many organizations are already implementing some form of flexibility tohelp workers perform work and non-work duties, while maintaining high productivity. While thesechanges in workplaces, “New Ways of Working (NWW)”, have been discussed in the literature,a systematic appraisal of evidence of NWW has not been conducted. Relating to poor work-relatedmental health worldwide, this systematic review analyzed the psychological impacts of NWW, andthe quality and quantity of NWW research. Following the preferred reporting items for systematicreviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, NWW studies targeting psychological outcomeswere evaluated. Initial literature search on ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholarretrieved 308 titles, from which seven articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Our appraisal revealedthat NWW research evaluated diverse psychological outcomes. While NWW can help workers’engagement, work-related flow, and connectivity among staff, NWW can also increase blurredwork-home boundary, fatigue, and mental demands. The quality of NWW research was overallmedium, needing more rigorous studies. Our findings can inform decision-makers in the workplaceto effectively implement NWW, and researchers to improve the quality and the usefulness of futureNWW studies.
    • Psychometric properties of the 15-item five facet mindfulness questionnaire in a large sample of Spanish pilgrims

      Feliu-Soler, A; Pérez-Aranda, A; Luciano, J.V.; Demarzo, M; Mariño, M; Soler, J; Van Gordon, William; García-Campayo, J; Montero-Marín, J; Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute, Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain; et al. (Springer, 2020-11-20)
      There is burgeoning interest in studying the effectiveness of mindfulness-based and traditional contemplative practices, and brief yet suitably and comprehensive measures of mindfulness are needed to assess related changes. There is preliminary evidence that pilgrimage may share some aspects with contemplative practices. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the 15-item Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-15) in a large sample of pilgrims and explored the effects of pilgrimage on mindfulness. The FFMQ-15 along with distress and wellbeing measures were administered via online to a large sample of participants undertaking a pilgrimage (i.e., the Way of Saint James) in Spain (baseline: n = 800; pre-post analyses: n = 314). Confirmatory factor analyses were computed to find the best-fitting model of the FFMQ-15; reliability and construct validity analyses were also performed. The four-facet bifactor structure (mindfulness plus four specific facets, excluding observing) was the best-fitting model for the FFMQ-15 (CFI = .956; TLI = .931; RMSEA = .058 [.048–.068]; SRMR = .046). Overall, we found satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s α ranged from .56 to .85) and small to moderate correlations with distress and wellbeing measures. The FFMQ-15 showed a four-facet bifactor structure and an overall satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity despite its shortness. We observed that mindfulness can be cultivated by pilgrimage, but further studies including long-term assessments and control groups are warranted before firm conclusions can be drawn.
    • Psychopathy moderates the relationship between nature connectedness and cognitive reappraisal

      Fido, Dean; Rees, Alice; Wallace, Louise; Mantzorou, Lamprini; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh; Nottingham Trent University (Mary Anne Liebert Inc, 2020-12-02)
      The innate relationship that humans share with the natural world is becoming increasingly strained. Our connection to nature - reflected through the psychological construct of nature connectedness - has been shown to benefit areas of physical and mental wellbeing; of which, several relationships are thought to be mediated by ones’ adaptive ability to regulate emotion. Emerging research has also indicated that nature connectedness and proficiency in emotion regulation share inverse relationships with deviant personality traits, such as psychopathy. However, it remains to be seen whether psychopathy, specifically, has a moderating role on the association between nature connectedness and emotion regulation. Three-hundred and nine participants completed an online survey whereby they were asked to self-report nature connectedness, emotion regulation strategy use, and psychopathy. Pearson correlations indicated a positive association between scores on nature connectedness and the use of cognitive reappraisal, but not expressive suppression strategies; a relationship found to be weaker in individuals scoring higher in psychopathy through moderation analysis. Evidence reported here support our hypotheses and indicate the necessity to acknowledge a more diverse array of personality constructs both when discussing the potential benefits of nature connectedness, and when testing the efficacy of nature-based interventions as a means of bringing about health- and wellbeing-related change.
    • The psychosocial impact of caregiving in dementia and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

      Cross, Ainslea; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-09-27)
      A systematic meta-synthesis of qualitative studies was conducted to interpret and synthesise findings from studies investigating the experiences, quality of life, and psychosocial impact of caregiving on adult informal caregivers of people with dementia.
    • The Psychosocial Impact of Instagram on Female Body Image: Literature Review and Proposal

      Knowles, Eve; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Kaluzeviciute, Greta; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society Publishing, 2021-06-01)
      Instagram is one of the most popular photo sharing social networking platforms used by the younger population. However, research exploring the socio-psychological impact of this platform on younger populations is scarce. It is particularly important to assess how Instagram affects perceptions of body image in female populations who make up the majority of Instagram users. Accordingly, this study will seek to explore the impact engagement with Instagram has on female body image through qualitative semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with young female individuals aged eleven to twenty-five years over a period of three months. The findings from the interviews will be analysed using the interpretative phenomenological analysis framework and disseminated to schools, university teachers, education researchers, health care professionals and social media platforms. We believe the findings from this study will help protect young female populations from experiencing negative impact on their body image via Instagram.
    • A Qualitative Exploration of CBT and Psychodynamic Therapists’ Views, Experiences and Perceptions of Integrating Different Therapeutic Modalities into their Private Practice with Adult Clients: Study Protocol

      Kaluzeviciute, Greta; Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-06-05)
      Background: CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and psychodynamic psychotherapy are two most frequently used therapeutic modalities in private and public clinical practice. CBT is currently considered to be a ‘gold standard’ therapy, culminating in a wide scale training and dissemination of research. Psychodynamic psychotherapy has also amassed increasing systematic research, yielding significant longitudinal outcomes. However, the co-existence of the two therapeutic modalities is not without controversies. Although few authors in psychotherapy suggested that CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapy should be viewed as complementary rather than dichotomous paradigms, little is known about how concepts and techniques from these two different approaches are integrated (if at all) by therapists in private practice. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a pilot study, which aims to qualitatively explore how CBT therapists experience and make sense of psychodynamic concepts and vice versa in private practice. Our study is particularly interested in how therapists conceptualise psychodynamic and CBT concepts, and whether they might integrate techniques from different therapeutic modalities in their practice formally or informally. We anticipate that the findings will be relevant for further theoretical and clinical recommendations on how CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapies can be integrated in a pragmatic manner to address individual patient treatment needs. Study Design: A qualitative survey method will be used to explore how qualified BABCP accredited CBT therapists and BCP accredited psychodynamic practitioners understand, perceive and, potentially, integrate, psychodynamic and CBT principles in private practice. The data collected will be analysed using thematic analysis in order to construct themes and generate implications for therapeutic integration and practice. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are discussed, with awareness of characteristics of our target sample.