• On alternative approaches to 3D image perception: Monoscopic 3D techniques.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Auckland University of Technology (Springer, 2015-04-28)
      In the eighteenth century, techniques that enabled a strong sense of 3D perception to be experienced without recourse to binocular disparities (arising from the spatial separation of the eyes) underpinned the first significant commercial sales of 3D viewing devices and associated content. However following the advent of stereoscopic techniques in the nineteenth century, 3D image depiction has become inextricably linked to binocular parallax and outside the vision science and arts communities relatively little attention has been directed towards earlier approaches. Here we introduce relevant concepts and terminology and consider a number of techniques and optical devices that enable 3D perception to be experienced on the basis of planar images rendered from a single vantage point. Subsequently we allude to possible mechanisms for non-binocular parallax based 3D perception. Particular attention is given to reviewing areas likely to be thought-provoking to those involved in 3D display development, spatial visualization, HCI, and other related areas of interdisciplinary research.
    • On the uncertain future of the volumetric 3D display paradigm.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-03-16)
      Volumetric displays permit electronically processed images to be depicted within a transparent physical volume and enable a range of cues to depth to be inherently associated with image content. Further, images can be viewed directly by multiple simultaneous observers who are able to change vantage positions in a natural way. On the basis of research to date, we assume that the technologies needed to implement useful volumetric displays able to support translucent image formation are available and so primarily focus on other issues that have impeded the broad commercialization and application of this display paradigm. This is of particular relevance given the recent resurgence of interest in developing commercially viable, general purpose, volumetric systems. We particularly consider image and display characteristics, usability issues and identify several advantageous attributes that need to be exploited in order to effectively capitalize on this display modality.
    • The online and campus (OaC) model as a sustainable blended approach to teaching and learning in higher education: A response to COVID-19

      Petronzi, Rebecca; Petronzi, Dominic; University of Derby (Journal of Pedagogical Research, Turkey, 2020-11-10)
      The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented challenge for wider society and has impacted all facets of life, including Higher Education Institution (HEIs) provision for teaching and learning – demanding an immediate digital response. The core challenge lies with the inherent choice made by students upon embarking on an undergraduate degree; that face-to-face learning was their preference. Now, HEIs must address this by utilising a range of digital solutions – that crucially, must also be embraced by those that no longer have the luxury to be risk averse or believe that digital solutions align with their existing pedagogical approaches. Higher Education Institutions should be – to an extent – well placed to deliver online provision. This paper aims to explore pertinent literature surrounding blended approaches with regards to key pedagogical and learning theories, with an overall aim of suggesting the Online and Campus (OaC) model as a potential ‘blueprint’ that incorporates campus, synchronous and asynchronous learning experiences. We refer to asynchronous as flexible, self-paced learning, and synchronous as an environment in which learners are in the same place at a given time (either online or campus) and accessing the same materials. For the purposes of this paper – and the OaC model – both asynchronous and synchronous learning refers to online provision, and we make the distinction between face-to-face teaching by reference to ‘Campus’.
    • Online research methods: An interview with Dr Neil Coulson

      Williams, Sophie; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2014)
      Dr Neil Coulson, Associate Professor in Health Psychology at the University of Nottingham, is at the forefront of online research methods. His primary research explore the role of online support communities, online surveys, and the role of social networking sites for people with a range of health conditions. As part of the Working Party on Internet Mediated Research (a committee of the BPS Research Board), Dr Coulson has recently helped to revise the Ethics Guidelines for Conducting Internet Mediated Research.
    • Online social networks for patient involvement and recruitment in clinical research

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (RCNi, 2013-09)
      Aim To review current literature and discuss the potential of online social networking to engage patients and the public and recruit and retain participants in clinical research. Background Online social networking is becoming a large influence on people’s daily lives. Clinical research faces several challenges, with an increasing need to engage with patients and the public and for studies to recruit and retain increasing numbers of participants, particularly in under-served, under-represented and hard to reach groups and communities. Data sources Searches were conducted using EMBASE, BNI, ERIC, CINAHL, PSYCHinfo online databases and Google Scholar to identify any grey or unpublished literature that may be available. Review methods This is a methodology paper. Discussion/Conclusion Online social networking is a successful, cost-effective and efficient method by which to target and recruit a wide range of communities, adolescents, young people and underserved populations into quantitative and qualitative research. Retention of participants in longitudinal studies could be improved using social networks such as Facebook. Evidence indicates that a mixed approach to recruitment using social networking and traditional methods is most effective. Implications for practice/research Further research is required to strengthen the evidence available, especially in dissemination of research through online social networks. Researchers should consider using online social networking as a method of engaging the public, and also for the recruitment and follow up of participants.
    • Ontological Addiction Theory and Mindfulness-Based Approaches in the Context of Addiction Theory and Treatment

      Barrows, Paul; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-07-30)
      Buddhist-derived interventions have increasingly been employed in the treatment of a range of physical and psychological disorders, and in recent years, there has been significant growth in the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for this purpose. Ontological Addiction Theory (OAT) is a novel metaphysical approach to understanding psychopathology within the framework of Buddhist teachings and asserts that many mental illnesses have their root in the widespread mistaken belief in an inherently existent self that operates independently of external phenomena. OAT describes how different types of MBI can help undermine these beliefs and allow a person to reconstruct their view of self and reality to address the root causes of suffering. As well as proving effective in treating many other psychological disorders, MBIs based on OAT have demonstrated efficacy in treating conventional behavioural addictions, such as problem gambling, workaholism, and sex addiction. The goal of this paper is to (i) discuss and appraise the evidence base underlying the use of MBIs for treating addiction; (ii) explicate how OAT advances understanding of the mechanisms of addiction; (iii) delineate how different types of MBI can be employed to address addictive behaviours; and (iv) propose future research avenues for assessing and comparing MBIs in the treatment of addiction.
    • Ontological addiction theory: Attachment to me, mine, and I.

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Diouri, Sofiane; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Griffiths, Mark D.; University of Derby; Centre for Psychological Research, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research, Ragusa, Italy; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research, Ragusa, Italy; et al. (Akadémiai Kiadó, 2018-06-07)
      Background: Ontological addiction theory (OAT) is a novel metaphysical model of psychopathology and posits that human beings are prone to forming implausible beliefs concerning the way they think they exist, and that these beliefs can become addictive leading to functional impairments and mental illness. The theoretical underpinnings of OAT derive from the Buddhist philosophical perspective that all phenomena, including the self, do not manifest inherently or independently. Aims and methods: This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of OAT along with indicative supportive empirical evidence from studies evaluating meditation awareness training as well as studies investigating non-attachment, emptiness, compassion, and loving-kindness. Results: OAT provides a novel perspective on addiction, the factors that underlie mental illness, and how beliefs concerning selfhood are shaped and reified. Conclusion: In addition to continuing to test the underlying assumptions of OAT, future empirical research needs to determine how ontological addiction fits with extant theories of self, reality, and suffering, as well with more established models of addiction.
    • Pandemic burnout in frontline healthcare professionals: Can Meditation Help?

      Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-17)
    • Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Rhodes, Christine; UDOL; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-01)
      Research about sex addiction and its relationships with other constructs remains unexplored. We recruited a gender-balanced sample (53 men, 51 women) who responded to measures of sex addiction, adverse childhood experience, adult attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation. Sex addiction was found to be statistically significantly associated with these constructs. Anxious attachment statistically significantly mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experience and sex addiction and the relationship between narcissism and sex addiction. Self-compassion did not statistically significantly moderate the relationship between anxious attachment and sex addiction. Therapeutic approaches targeting attachment and narcissism such as relation-based or mindfulness-based interventions are recommended.
    • Patterns of value change during the life span.

      Gouveia, Valdiney V.; C. Vione, Katia; Milfont, Taciano L.; Fischer, Ronald; Federal University of Paraiba; Cardiff University; Victoria University of Wellington; Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil; Cardiff University, UK; Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand; et al. (Sage, 2015-07-17)
      Little research has examined mean-level change in values across the life span. Using large cross-sectional data (N = 36,845) from the five geo-social regions in Brazil, this study examines how mean levels of basic values differ as a function of age (from age 12 to 65; M = 28) and whether age effects are moderated by gender. Results show that mean-level value change is substantial throughout the life course. We observed both linear and curvilinear patterns of change as well as differential patterns by gender. The observed value change is consistent with age-related life circumstances and psychosocial development. Age effects are also value dependent, supporting the notion that values have different functions for different developmental stages.
    • Perceptions around adult and child sex offenders and their rehabilitation as a function of education in forensic psychology independent of traditionalism and perpetrator sex  

      Rothwell, Megan; Fido, Dean; Heym, Nadja; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-12-15)
      Literature pertaining to individuals with sexual convictions typically reports punitive views about their crimes, sentences, and effectiveness of rehabilitation. However, such perceptions may be a function of offense demographics, such as victim age and perpetrator sex, and perceiver characteristics, such as their traditionalism or forensic awareness/education. Participants (N=101; 60% forensic psychology student; 40% general public) read online vignettes related to sexual offences (manipulating perpetrator sex and victim age), and completed measures of perceptions of sex offenders, perceived rehabilitation efficacy and traditionalism. Members of the general population (without forensic education background) reported harsher views towards individuals with sexual convictions and their rehabilitation, relative to students of forensic psychology, independent of their greater traditionalism. There was no main effect of or interaction with perpetrator sex. Whilst participants endorsed more negative perceptions towards sex offenders of child than adult victims, this did not extent to differences in perceptions regarding their rehabilitation. Findings reported here indicate a need for greater understanding as to the factors that might moderate perceptions towards individuals with sexual convictions, and have implications for the promotion of sex offender rehabilitation programmes. Understanding the root of such public attitudes is a key step for creating and improving associated policies.
    • Persation: an IoT based personal safety prediction model aided solution

      Alofe, Olasunkanmi Matthew; Fatema, Kaniz; Azad, Muhammad Ajmal; Kurugollu, Fatih; University of Derby; Aston University, Birmingham (University of Bahrain, 2020)
      The number of attacks on innocent victims in moving vehicles, and abduction of individuals in their vehicles has risen alarmingly in the past few years. One common scenario evident from the modus operandi of this kind of attack is the random motion of these vehicles, due to the driver’s unpredictable behaviours. To save the victims in such kinds of assault, it is essential to offer help promptly. An effective strategy to save victims is to predict the future location of the vehicles so that the rescue mission can be actioned at the earliest possibility. We have done a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art personal safety solutions and location prediction technologies and proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) based personal safety model, encompassing a prediction framework to anticipate the future vehicle locations by exploiting complex analytics of current and past data variables including the speed, direction and geolocation of the vehicles. Experiments conducted based on real-world datasets demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed framework in accurately predicting future vehicle locations. In this paper, we have a risk assessment of our safety solution model based on OCTAVE ALLEGRO model and the implementation of our prediction model.
    • Persistence in silver prices and the influence of solar energy

      Apergis, Nicholas; Gil-Alana, Luis; Carmona-González, Nieves; University of Derby; University of Navarra; University Francisco de Vitoria (Elsevier, 2020-09-14)
      This paper deals with the analysis of silver prices and the influence of solar energy production on its behaviour. For this purpose, the analysis uses long memory methods based on fractional integration and cointegration. The results indicate that the two variables are very persistent, though any long run equilibrium relationship between them is not observed. Nevertheless, the results illustrate some short-run negative effects from solar energy capacity on silver prices.
    • The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics

      Maratos, Frances A.; Duarte, Joana; Barnes, Christopher; McEwan, Kirsten; Sheffield, David; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; University of Coimbra (Elsevier, 2017-01-25)
      Research demonstrates that highly self-critical individuals can respond negatively to the initial introduction of a range of therapeutic interventions. Yet touch as a form of therapeutic intervention in self-critical individuals has received limited prior investigation, despite documentation of its beneficial effects for well-being. Using the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, 15 high- and 14 low- self-critical individuals (from a sample of 139 females) were recruited to assess how self-criticism impacts upon a single instance of focused touch. All participants took part in a hand massage- and haptic control- intervention. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, as well as questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken before and after the interventions. Following hand massage, analyses revealed cortisol decreased significantly across all participants; and that significant changes in emotional responding reflected well-being improvements across all participants. Supplementary analyses further revealed decreased alpha amylase responding to hand massage as compared to a compassion-focused intervention in the same (highly self-critical) individuals. Taken together, the physiological and emotional data indicate high self-critical individuals responded in a comparable manner to low self-critical individuals to a single instance of hand massage. This highlights that focused touch may be beneficial when first engaging highly self-critical individuals with specific interventions.
    • Policing in a pandemic: a commentary on officer well-being during COVID-19

      Edwards, Ann-Marie; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-24)
      The role of police officers during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is challenging, faced with the difficult task of keeping communities safe and preventing the spread of COVID-19 while putting their physical and mental health at risk. Emerging evidence points to the stress experiences of officers during the COVID-19 pandemic. With cases now surpassing 174 million and close to four million deaths worldwide, as well as stringent lockdown measures, police officers are faced with unprecedented challenges resulting from the pandemic. This commentary suggests police departments strengthen resources by putting in place appropriate emergency planning for future public health incidents, in addition to preparing for temporary or permanent loss of human resources. It is important to implement robust training plans post-pandemic to allow officers to offer better care for communities when faced with future public health emergencies. Finally, police officers should be provided with the resources and support to cope with the stresses associated with COVID-19.
    • Positive psychology for mental wellbeing of uk therapeutic students: Relationships with engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-01-12)
      This study aimed to examine the relationships between mental wellbeing and positive psychological constructs in therapeutic students (psychotherapy and occupational therapy students). The number of therapeutic students has increased recently, however they suffer from poor mental health, which may be improved by potentiating their positive psychological constructs, bypassing mental health shame. Therapeutic students (n=145) completed measures regarding positive psychological constructs, namely mental wellbeing, engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion. Resilience and self-compassion predicted mental wellbeing, explaining a large effect. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between resilience and mental wellbeing. This study highlights the importance of positive psychological constructs, especially resilience and self-compassion, for mental wellbeing of therapeutic students.
    • Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Ting, Su-Hie; University of Derby; Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (Springer, 2019-12-18)
      Malaysia plays a key role in education of the Asia Pacific, expanding its scholarly output rapidly. However, mental health of Malaysian students is challenging, and their help-seeking is low because of stigma. This study explored the relationships between mental health and positive psychological constructs (academic engagement, motivation, self-compassion, and wellbeing), and evaluated the relative contribution of each positive psychological construct to mental health in Malaysian students. An opportunity sample of 153 students completed the measures regarding these constructs. Correlation, regression, and mediation analyses were conducted. Engagement, amotivation, self-compassion, and wellbeing were associated with, and predicted large variance in mental health. Self-compassion was the strongest independent predictor of mental health among all the positive psychological constructs. Findings can imply the strong links between mental health and positive psychology, especially selfcompassion. Moreover, intervention studies to examine the effects of self-compassion training on mental health of Malaysian students appear to be warranted.
    • Postcolonial Theory and Canada’s Health Care Professions: Bridging the Gap

      wilmot, stephen; University of Derby (springer, 2021-05-12)
      In recent years there have been several calls in professional and academic journals for healthcare personnel in Canada to raise the profile of postcolonial theory as a theoretical and explanatory framework for their practice with Indigenous people. In this paper I explore some of the challenges that are likely to confront those healthcare personnel in engaging with postcolonial theory in a training context. I consider these challenges in relation to three areas of conflict. First I consider conflicts around paradigms of knowledge, wherein postcolonial theory operates from a different base from most professional knowledge in health care. Second I consider conflicts of ideology, wherein postcolonial theory is largely at odds with Canada’s political and popular cultures. And finally I consider issues around the question of Canada’s legitimacy, which postcolonial theory puts in doubt. I suggest ways in which these conflicts might be addressed and managed in the training context, and also identify potential positive outcomes that would be enabling for healthcare personnel, and might also contribute to an improvement in Canada’s relationship with its indigenous peoples.
    • Predicting self-compassion in UK nursing students: Relationships with resilience, engagement, motivation, and mental wellbeing

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Cockerill, Vicky; Chircop, James; Kaluzeviciute, Greta; Dyson, Sue E.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-02-11)
      Self-compassion, being kind towards oneself, has been identified as a key protective factor of mental health. This is consistent with students’ experiences in the study of nursing, which attracts a large number of students in the United Kingdom. Despite the importance of self-compassion, knowledge in how to enhance self-compassion is under-researched. Self-compassion interventions are commonly related to meditative exercises. In order to suggest alternative approaches, relationships between self-compassion and more established constructs need to be appraised. Accordingly, this study evaluated predictors of self-compassion, examining its relationships with more established constructs examined in other healthcare student populations: resilience, engagement, motivation and mental wellbeing. An opportunity sample of 182 UK nursing students at a university in East Midlands completed self-report measures about these constructs. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Self-compassion was positively related to resilience, engagement, intrinsic motivation and mental wellbeing, while negatively related to amotivation. Resilience and mental wellbeing were identified as significant predictors of self-compassion. As resilience and mental wellbeing are relatively familiar to many nursing lecturers and students, educators can incorporate a self-compassion component into the existing resilience training and/or mental wellbeing practices.
    • Prescribing laughter to increase well-being in healthy adults: an exploratory mixed methods feasibility study of the Laughie

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-02-16)
      Calls for a practical laughter prescription have been made by the medical community. This research developed the Laughie and evaluated its impact to elicit laughter and increase well-being in healthy adults. The Laughie is a user-created one minute recording of the user’s laughter, operated by re-playing it while laughing simultaneously. A mixed methods preliminary feasibility study was conducted between March and May 2018. Twenty-one participants aged 25–93 (x = 51, SD = 20) created a Laughie and were instructed to laugh with it three times a day for seven days, documenting each trial. Well-being was measured prior to and post-intervention using the World Health Organization (WHO five-item) well-being index. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Evaluation considered the Feasibility, Reach-out, Acceptability, Maintenance, Efficacy, Implementation and Tailorability (FRAME-IT) of the Laughie. The Laughie elicited laughter for most of the one minute in 89% of 420 Laughie trials; immediate well-being increased in 70% of them. Absolute overall WHO well-being scores increased post-intervention by 16%. Laughie evaluation using FRAME-IT showed the Laughie was feasible, acceptable, and tailorable. Four smart laughter techniques that facilitated maintenance/usage were identified. The Laughie was feasible, enjoyable, and effective as a laughter prescription in eliciting laughter. Fourteen participants reported absolute well-being increases of 10% or more. Ten participants found their laughter self-contagious. Smart laughter (laughing in a smart way for a smart reason on a smartphone) is a convenient way to harness the benefits of laughter. FRAME-IT is proposed as a practical planning and evaluation framework.