• Health Benefits of Ikigai: A Review of Literature

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Kaluzeviciute, Greta; Garip, Gulcan; McEwan, Kirsten; Chamberlain, Katy; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society Publishing, 2021)
      Recently, the concept of ikigai has attracted international scholarly attention. Originally, researchers have focused on its impact on longevity; however, contemporary approaches to ikigai include career guidance, wellbeing training and clinical practice. That said, much of the existing literature on ikigai has relied on anecdotal episodes, without a clear focus on scientific or clinical literature. In this chapter, we (a) define ikigai, (b) explore the health benefits of ikigai regarding its impact on both physical health and mental health, and (c) discuss how to enhance ikigai and future research, based on scientific findings. Ikigai— originally identified in difficult life experiences among leprosy patients—is defined as an experiential, everyday life phenomena that relates to a reason for your being. Based on a number of meta-analyses and longitudinal studies, evidence suggests a protective benefit and positive correlation between ikigai and better physical health, and an inverse relationship with all-cause mortality. Psychologically, ikigai may be important in developing one's sense of self-understanding, goal attainability, and problem-solving skills. Interventions such as life crafting are deemed helpful to enhance ikigai, although further research (e.g., cross-culture, longitudinal) needs to be conducted to further support the utility of this construct. Our findings can help healthcare workers and researchers to further advance the science of this experiential wellbeing construct.
    • Health school-based mindfulness interventions for improving mental health: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

      Sapthiang, Supakyada; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby; University of Essex; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research, Ragusa, Italy (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-06-05)
      School-based mindfulness interventions have recently shown promise for treating and preventing mental health issues in young people. However, the literature lacks a high-level perspective of the impact of mindfulness on young people’s mental health according to their own first-hand accounts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct the first systematic review and thematic synthesis to rigorously evaluate the qualitative evidence pertaining to students’ experiences of school-based MBIs. The following electronic databases were searched for qualitative school-based mindfulness intervention papers published up until the end of March 2019: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar. An assessment of study quality was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. The initial literature search returned 4102 papers and seven studies met all of the inclusion criteria. The thematic synthesis identified four major themes of (i) using attentional processes to regulate emotions and cognitions, (ii) stress reduction, (iii) improved coping and social skills, and (iv) calming and/or relaxation. Findings show that school-based MBIs are experienced by students as having a range of benefits to mental health, including in both preventative and treatment contexts. However, efforts should be made to improve methodological quality, including taking steps to minimise recall bias and provide a greater degree of transparency regarding how students are selected to attend qualitative interviews or focus groups.
    • The Hero’s Journey: constructing continuity from discontinuity in millennial career changers’ narratives

      Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-06-06)
      Although career construction theory is relevant to today's vocational climate, empirical research into it is scarce. Accordingly, we explored this theory by investigating the concepts, structures and processes that UK-based millennial career changers use to construct narratives allowing for continuity of plot and discontinuity of career direction. Interpretative phenomenological analysis on semi-structured interviews (N = 6) identified four themes: dissatisfaction, realisation, sacrifice and return. The Hero’s Journey was identified as an overarching structure for meaning making in career change. Participants assimilated instability and discontinuity into a broader framework of continuity, through narrating a quest for closer alignment between their work and personality. This study provides useful insights into career construction theory and suggests further utility of The Hero’s Journey in career counselling/guidance.
    • How do cultural factors influence the teaching and practice of mindfulness and compassion in Latin countries?

      Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo; Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; University of Zaragoza; University of Federal Sao Paolo; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2017-07-11)
    • How gender-expectancy affects the processing of “them”

      Doherty, Alice; Conklin, Kathy; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Taylor and Francis, 2016-03-15)
      How sensitive is pronoun processing to expectancies based on real-world knowledge and language usage? The current study links research on the integration of gender stereotypes and number-mismatch to explore this question. It focuses on the use of them to refer to antecedents of different levels of gender-expectancy (low–cyclist, high–mechanic, known–spokeswoman). In a rating task, them is considered increasingly unnatural with greater gender-expectancy. However, participants might not be able to differentiate high-expectancy and gender-known antecedents online because they initially search for plural antecedents (e.g., Sanford & Filik), and they make all-or-nothing gender inferences. An eye-tracking study reveals early differences in the processing of them with antecedents of high gender-expectancy compared with gender-known antecedents. This suggests that participants have rapid access to the expected gender of the antecedent and the level of that expectancy.
    • How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Van Gordon, William; UDOL; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-07-03)
      This chapter draws on the first author’s experience as an neurolinguistic programming (NLP) researcher and practitioner and outlines real and hypothetical examples in order to explicate how Japanese managers use NLP skills in their day-to-day work. The chapter also outlines recommendations for practitioners wishing to introduce and utilise NLP approaches in their own occupational and/or healthcare settings.
    • How will education 4.0 influence learning in higher education?

      Williams, Alan; Windle, Richard; Wharrad, Heather; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Association for Learning Development in Higher Education, 2020-05-29)
      Higher education at the start of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Schwab, 2015) is undergoing unprecedented change because of the opportunities revealed through the use of digital technology. Though societies throughout time have undergone seismic change, it is the speed and magnitude of change now because of technology that is challenging higher education. The changes include access to knowledge, how that knowledge is shared and the increasing demand by students’ for their voice to be heard in their education and to be integral to the design of their learning. The opportunities revealed by the use of digital technology can lead to good and bad effects and it is essential academics and higher education investigate the design of learning objects used by students in higher education.
    • An Identity Process Theory Account of the Impact of Boarding School on Sense of Self and Mental Health: an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

      Simpson, Frances; Haughton, Melanie; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-03-08)
      Boarding schools exist to provide education for children, but this involves the child leaving the family home and residing in an educational institution. Identity Process Theory suggests that such a change in circumstances can threaten the child’s identity, which triggers coping strategies and impacts on the individual’s self-concept during both childhood and adulthood. This study undertook an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with five adults who boarded as children. The focus was on exploring participants’ beliefs in terms of how the boarding experience affected their sense of self. Emerging themes relate to the (i) coping strategies used by participants during childhood, such as amnesia, compartmentalising, compliance and acceptance, and (ii) long-term effects of boarding on identity, self-concept and intimate relationships. Findings also highlight the interplay of factors such as privilege and social class, which were reported as motives for participants’ parents choosing boarding for their children. The study raises important questions about the long-term health impacts of sending children away to board.
    • Ikigai and existential positive psychology: Recurrence of meaning for wellbeing

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (International Network of Personal Meaning, 2021-03-04)
    • An illness-specific version of the revised illness perception questionnaire in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF-IPQR): Unpacking beliefs about treatment control, personal control and symptom triggers

      Taylor, Elaina C; O'Neill, Mark; Hughes, Lyndsay D; Moss-Morris, Rona; King's College London (Routledge, 2017-09-11)
      This study modified the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in patients with persistent Atrial Fibrillation (AF). Qualitative interviews and think-aloud techniques informed modification of the IPQ-R to be specific to AF patients. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) (n=198) examined the validity of the modified IPQ-R (AF-IPQ-R). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) examined the new AF-triggers scale. Construct validity examined associations between the AF-IPQ-R, quality of life (QoL) and beliefs about medicines. Test-retest and internal reliability were examined. Interviews indicated that patients viewed triggers of AF rather than initial causes of illness as more applicable. Patients believed specific behaviours such as rest could control AF. Treatment control beliefs related to pharmacological and procedural treatments. These data were used to modify the IPQ-R subscales and to develop a triggers of AF scale. CFA indicated good model fit. EFA of the triggers scale indicated 3 factors: emotional; health behaviours; and over-exertion triggers. Expected correlations were found between the AF-IPQ-R, QoL and treatment beliefs, evidencing good construct validity. The AF-IPQ-R showed sound psychometric properties. It provides more detailed specification than the IPQ-R of beliefs that may help to understand poor QoL in AF patients, and guidance for future interventions in this area.
    • Image-based sexual abuse: A psychological perspective

      Fido, Dean; Harper, Craig, A; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-11-01)
    • The impact of a school-based gardening intervention on intentions and behaviour related to fruit and vegetable consumption in children

      Duncan, Michael J.; Eyre, Emma; Bryant, Elizabeth; Clarke, Neil; Birch, Samantha; Staples, Vicki; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Coventry University (Sage Publications, 2015-06-01)
      A total of 77 children (34 boys, 43 girls, mean age ± standard deviation = 9 ± 1 years) participated in this study; 46 children (intervention) undertook a 12-week school gardening programme and 31 children acted as controls. Measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and fruit and vegetable consumption were taken pre- and post-intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the intervention group increased daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased intentions, attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption.
    • The Impact of Children’s Connection to Nature: A Report for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; Harvey, Caroline; Petronzi, Dominic; University of Derby (RSPB, 2016-02-16)
      Connecting with nature should be part of every child’s life as it has the potential to aid nature’s revival while benefiting the child. To embed nature connection within our social norms, there is a need to be able to understand the benefits and set targets for levels of nature connection. This report presents findings on the impact of connection to nature from a survey of 775 children, using the child as the unit of analysis, rather than aggregated data. The results demonstrated that children who were more connected to nature had significantly higher English attainment, although this wasn’t repeated for Mathematics. Further, the 1.5 Connection to Nature Index (CNI) level was found to be a significant threshold across other measures, with those children with a CNI of 1.5 or above having significantly higher health, life satisfaction, pro-environmental behaviours and pro-nature behaviours. The analysis found strong correlations between CNI and pro-nature behaviours and pro-environmental behavior. A positive correlation was also evident between CNI and days spent outdoors and days spent in nature over the past week, suggesting that the more time spent in nature is associated with child’s connection to nature. Finally, weak correlations were found between connection to nature, health and life satisfaction. When more refined attainment results for English were explored, (n = 512) further weak correlations were found between English attainment and attendance, English and life satisfaction, and between English attainment and connection to nature. There are a multitude of factors associated with a child’s English attainment, so, although the correlations are weak, it is noteworthy that connection to nature is as important to children’s achievement in English as life satisfaction and attendance at school.
    • Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal

      Sah, Ranjit; Sigdel, Shailendra; Ozaki, Akihiko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Bhandari, Divya; Regmi, Priyanka; Mehta, Rachana; Adhikari, Mahesh; Roy, Namrta; Dhama, Kuldeep; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-07-07)
    • The impact of patient participation direct enhanced service on patient reference groups in primary care: a qualitative study.

      Pollard, Lorraine; Agarwal, Shona; Harrad, Fawn; Lester, Louise; Cross, Ainslea; Wray, Paula; Smith, Gordon; Locke, Anthony; Sinfield, Paul; University of Leicester (Radcliffe Publishing, 2014)
      NHS policy documents continue to make a wide-ranging commitment to patient involvement. The Patient Participation Direct Enhanced Service (PP-DES), launched in 2011, aimed to ensure patients are involved in decisions about the range and quality of services provided and commissioned by their practice through patient reference groups (PRGs). The aim of this exploratory study is to review the impact of the PP-DES (2011-13) on a sample of PRGs and assess how far it has facilitated their involvement in decisions about the services of their general practices.
    • Indigenous 14C-phenanthrene biodegradation in “pristine” woodland and grassland soils from Norway and the United Kingdom.

      Okere, Uchechukwu V.; Schuster, Jasmin K.; Ogbonnaya, Uchenna O.; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T.; University of Derby; Environment Canada; Federal University Oye-Ekiti; Lancaster University; University of Derby; et al. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017-10-04)
      In this study, the indigenous microbial mineralisation of 14C-phenanthrene in seven background soils (four from Norwegian woodland and three from the UK (two grasslands and one woodland)) was investigated. ∑PAHs ranged from 16.39 to 285.54 ng g−1 dw soil. Lag phases (time before 14C-phenanthrene mineralisation reached 5%) were longer in all of the Norwegian soils and correlated positively with TOC, but negatively with ∑PAHs and phenanthrene degraders for all soils. 14C-phenanthrene mineralisation in the soils varied due to physicochemical properties. The results show that indigenous microorganisms can adapt to 14C-phenanthrene mineralisation following diffuse PAH contamination. Considering the potential of soil as a secondary PAH source, these findings highlight the important role of indigenous microflora in the processing of PAHs in the environment.
    • Inflation expectations, volatility and Covid-19: Evidence from the US inflation swap rates

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-28)
      The goal of this work is to explore the role of the Covid-19 pandemic event in the course of inflation expectations and their volatility through US inflation swap rates. The findings document that inflation expectations and their volatility are positively affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. These results have real activity implications, while close monitoring of inflation expectations could signal inflation expectations un-anchoring risks.
    • Influence of Dance on Embodied Self-Awareness and Well-Being: An Interpretative Phenomenological Exploration

      Braun, Nataliya; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-05-13)
      This qualitative research aimed at exploring personal dance experience and influence of dancing on the evolution of embodied self-awareness and well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three participants (one female, two males), and the data were evaluated using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Six themes were identified: (a) freedom of expression through dance, (b) perceptions of fun and partner dance vs. dancing alone, (c) flow in dance, (d) sensations and sexuality in dance, (e) music and rhythm in dance, and (f) impact of dance on life and the self. Participants reported that dance led to higher embodied self-awareness and creative self-expression and was deemed to improve health and well-being. Our findings help increase the utility of dance as a well-being approach, stress coping intervention and countermeasure to depression and loneliness. They make aware of the use of dance as a creative tool in inducing positive transformations on individual and societal levels.
    • International nurses day 2020: The importance of the healthcare sector to society

      Williams, Alan; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-05-11)
      Dr Alan Williams, Academic Lead for Nursing and Perioperative Practice at the University of Derby, marks International Nurses Day 2020 (May 12) by discussing why he is proud of his profession and the wider healthcare sector and why it should be celebrated and appreciated all year round.
    • International perspectives on social media guidance for nurses: a content analysis

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; University of Derby (RCNi, 2016-12)
      Abstract Aim This article reports the results of an analysis of the content of national and international professional guidance on social media for the nursing profession. The aim was to consolidate good practice examples of social media guidelines, and inform the development of comprehensive guidance. Method A scoping search of professional nursing bodies’ and organisations’ social media guidance documents was undertaken using google search. Results 34 guidance documents were located, and a content analysis of these was conducted. Conclusion The results, combined with a review of competency hearings and literature, indicate that guidance should consider the wider context of social media, and support nurses to navigate and negotiate the differences between the real and online domains to help them translate awareness into actions.