• A flexible framework for planning and evaluating early-stage health interventions: FRAME-IT

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda N.; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-07-27)
      Health interventions exhibit three stages of maturity: early-, mid-, and late-stages. Early-stage interventions have innovative content necessitating evaluation; however existing evaluation frameworks omit constructs and guidelines relevant to this evaluation. Early-stage interventions require planning and evaluation that supports creating, testing, and exploring content to establish general feasibility and enable refinement for further testing, prior to randomised controlled trialling and wider dissemination. Feasibility, Reach-out, Acceptability, Maintenance, Efficacy, Implementation, Tailorability (FRAME-IT) was developed for a mixed methods feasibility study of a novel well-being intervention. FRAME-IT was conceived as a complementary framework to Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM; Glasgow et al., 1999) which is better suited for mid- and late- stage interventions. FRAME-IT is proposed to support: (1) early-stage intervention planning and design, by guiding research focus and data sourcing strategy with relevant constructs; (2) comprehensive evaluation, by including constructs appropriate for early-stage interventions, i.e. feasibility, acceptability, and tailorability; (3) future intervention scalability, by including and adapting some of RE-AIM’s constructs to encourage a smoother translation of research into practice as interventions are scaled-up.
    • Flourishing scale: Evidence of Its suitability to the Brazilian context.

      da Fonseca, Patricia Nunes; da Silva Nascimento, Bruna; Macêdo Barbosa, Larisse Helena Gomes; C. Vione, Katia; Veloso Gouveia, Valdiney; Federal University of Paraíba; University of Stirling; Faculdades Integradas de Patos; Cardiff University (Mykolas Romeris University, 2015)
      The present study aimed to support the psychometric adequacy of the Flourishing Scale in the Brazilian context. It counted with a non-probabilistic sample of 171 undergraduate students (Study 1) and 177 individuals from the general population (Study 2). Participants answered to the Flourishing Scale, the Positivity Scale, and demographic questions. The studies showed a one-factor solution, with satisfactory internal consistency, providing empirical evidence of convergent validity through the average variance extracted and showing positive correlation with the construct of positivity. Furthermore, a confirmatory factor analysis (ML) corroborated the recommended one-factor model. This measure demonstrated to be psychometrically suitable for use in the Brazilian context. Thus, this study provided a brief and low-cost measure of well-being from the perspective of flourishing, being adequate to be used in the research field.
    • Forget cancer, let's MOVE: a behaviour change support model for physical activity for young people during and after cancer

      Cross, Ainslea; Sheffield, David; Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2017-09)
      Abstract: This paper describes a model of behaviour change support for a referral physical activity cancer service for young people. The service is underpinned by the self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 2008) principles of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. A range of tailored physical activity programmes are provided in community, in-patient and online settings. Each young person receives behaviour change support from motivational interviewing, which incorporates mental contrasting and implementation intentions. This paper seeks to share practice on how health psychology theory and techniques have been applied in order to support young people to be more physically active, both during and after their cancer treatment. Additionally, we share our experiences of providing consultancy to shape service development and planning.
    • Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic

      Harper, Craig A.; Satchell, Liam; Fido, Dean; Latzman, Robert; Nottingham Trent University; University of Winchester; Georgia State University; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-04-27)
      In the current context of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), health professionals are working with social scientists to inform government policy on how to slow the spread of the virus. An increasing amount of social scientific research has looked at the role of public message framing, for instance, but few studies have thus far examined the role of individual differences in emotional and personality-based variables in predicting virus-mitigating behaviors. In this study we recruited a large international community sample (N = 324) to complete measures of self-perceived risk of contracting COVID-19, fear of the virus, moral foundations, political orientation, and behavior change in response to the pandemic. Consistently, the only predictor of positive behavior change (e.g., social distancing, improved hand hygiene) was fear of COVID-19, with no effect of politically-relevant variables. We discuss these data in relation to the potentially functional nature of fear in global health crises.
    • Further development of the Children’s Mathematics Anxiety Scale UK (CMAS-UK) for ages 4–7 years

      Petronzi, Dominic; Staples, Paul; Sheffield, David; Hunt, Thomas E.; Fitton-Wilde, Sandra; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-10-31)
      There are currently many mathematics anxiety rating scales designed typically for adult and older children populations, yet there remains a lack of assessment tools for younger children (< 7 years of age) despite a recent focus on this age range. Following previous testing and validation, the 26-item iteration of the Children’s Mathematics Anxiety Scale UK (CMAS-UK) for ages 4–7 years was further validated with 163 children (4–7 years) across two schools in the UK to test the validity and reliability of the items through subsequent exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The predictive validity of the scale was also tested by comparing scale scores against mathematics performance on a mathematics task to determine the relationship between scale and mathematics task scores. Exploratory factor analysis and associated parallel analysis indicated a 19-item scale solution with appropriate item loadings (> 0.45) and high internal consistency (α = 0.88). A single factor model of Online Mathematics Anxiety was related to the experience of an entire mathematics lesson, from first entering the classroom to completing a task. A significant negative correlation was observed between the CMAS-UK and mathematics performance scores, suggesting that children who score high for mathematics anxiety tend to score to perform less well on a mathematics task. Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test a range of module structures; the shortened 19-item CMAS-UK was found to have similar model indices as the 26-item model, resulting in the maintenance of the revised scale. To conclude, the 19-item CMAS-UK provides a reliable assessment of children’s mathematics anxiety and has been shown to predict mathematics performance. This research points towards the origins of mathematics anxiety occurring when number is first encountered and supports the utility of the CMAS-UK. Subsequent research in the area should consider and appropriately define an affective component that may underlie mathematics anxiety at older ages. Mathematics anxiety relates to more complex procedures that elude the experiences of younger children and may instead be the result of number-based experiences in the early years of education.
    • Health Benefits of Ikigai: A Review of Literature

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Kaluzeviciute, Greta; Garip, Gulcan; McEwan, Kirsten; Chamberlain, Katy; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society Publishing, 2021)
      Recently, the concept of ikigai has attracted international scholarly attention. Originally, researchers have focused on its impact on longevity; however, contemporary approaches to ikigai include career guidance, wellbeing training and clinical practice. That said, much of the existing literature on ikigai has relied on anecdotal episodes, without a clear focus on scientific or clinical literature. In this chapter, we (a) define ikigai, (b) explore the health benefits of ikigai regarding its impact on both physical health and mental health, and (c) discuss how to enhance ikigai and future research, based on scientific findings. Ikigai— originally identified in difficult life experiences among leprosy patients—is defined as an experiential, everyday life phenomena that relates to a reason for your being. Based on a number of meta-analyses and longitudinal studies, evidence suggests a protective benefit and positive correlation between ikigai and better physical health, and an inverse relationship with all-cause mortality. Psychologically, ikigai may be important in developing one's sense of self-understanding, goal attainability, and problem-solving skills. Interventions such as life crafting are deemed helpful to enhance ikigai, although further research (e.g., cross-culture, longitudinal) needs to be conducted to further support the utility of this construct. Our findings can help healthcare workers and researchers to further advance the science of this experiential wellbeing construct.
    • Health school-based mindfulness interventions for improving mental health: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

      Sapthiang, Supakyada; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby; University of Essex; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research, Ragusa, Italy (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-06-05)
      School-based mindfulness interventions have recently shown promise for treating and preventing mental health issues in young people. However, the literature lacks a high-level perspective of the impact of mindfulness on young people’s mental health according to their own first-hand accounts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct the first systematic review and thematic synthesis to rigorously evaluate the qualitative evidence pertaining to students’ experiences of school-based MBIs. The following electronic databases were searched for qualitative school-based mindfulness intervention papers published up until the end of March 2019: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar. An assessment of study quality was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. The initial literature search returned 4102 papers and seven studies met all of the inclusion criteria. The thematic synthesis identified four major themes of (i) using attentional processes to regulate emotions and cognitions, (ii) stress reduction, (iii) improved coping and social skills, and (iv) calming and/or relaxation. Findings show that school-based MBIs are experienced by students as having a range of benefits to mental health, including in both preventative and treatment contexts. However, efforts should be made to improve methodological quality, including taking steps to minimise recall bias and provide a greater degree of transparency regarding how students are selected to attend qualitative interviews or focus groups.
    • The Hero’s Journey: constructing continuity from discontinuity in millennial career changers’ narratives

      Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-06-06)
      Although career construction theory is relevant to today's vocational climate, empirical research into it is scarce. Accordingly, we explored this theory by investigating the concepts, structures and processes that UK-based millennial career changers use to construct narratives allowing for continuity of plot and discontinuity of career direction. Interpretative phenomenological analysis on semi-structured interviews (N = 6) identified four themes: dissatisfaction, realisation, sacrifice and return. The Hero’s Journey was identified as an overarching structure for meaning making in career change. Participants assimilated instability and discontinuity into a broader framework of continuity, through narrating a quest for closer alignment between their work and personality. This study provides useful insights into career construction theory and suggests further utility of The Hero’s Journey in career counselling/guidance.
    • How do cultural factors influence the teaching and practice of mindfulness and compassion in Latin countries?

      Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo; Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; University of Zaragoza; University of Federal Sao Paolo; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2017-07-11)
    • How gender-expectancy affects the processing of “them”

      Doherty, Alice; Conklin, Kathy; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Taylor and Francis, 2016-03-15)
      How sensitive is pronoun processing to expectancies based on real-world knowledge and language usage? The current study links research on the integration of gender stereotypes and number-mismatch to explore this question. It focuses on the use of them to refer to antecedents of different levels of gender-expectancy (low–cyclist, high–mechanic, known–spokeswoman). In a rating task, them is considered increasingly unnatural with greater gender-expectancy. However, participants might not be able to differentiate high-expectancy and gender-known antecedents online because they initially search for plural antecedents (e.g., Sanford & Filik), and they make all-or-nothing gender inferences. An eye-tracking study reveals early differences in the processing of them with antecedents of high gender-expectancy compared with gender-known antecedents. This suggests that participants have rapid access to the expected gender of the antecedent and the level of that expectancy.
    • How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Van Gordon, William; UDOL; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-07-03)
      This chapter draws on the first author’s experience as an neurolinguistic programming (NLP) researcher and practitioner and outlines real and hypothetical examples in order to explicate how Japanese managers use NLP skills in their day-to-day work. The chapter also outlines recommendations for practitioners wishing to introduce and utilise NLP approaches in their own occupational and/or healthcare settings.
    • How will education 4.0 influence learning in higher education?

      Williams, Alan; Windle, Richard; Wharrad, Heather; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Association for Learning Development in Higher Education, 2020-05-29)
      Higher education at the start of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Schwab, 2015) is undergoing unprecedented change because of the opportunities revealed through the use of digital technology. Though societies throughout time have undergone seismic change, it is the speed and magnitude of change now because of technology that is challenging higher education. The changes include access to knowledge, how that knowledge is shared and the increasing demand by students’ for their voice to be heard in their education and to be integral to the design of their learning. The opportunities revealed by the use of digital technology can lead to good and bad effects and it is essential academics and higher education investigate the design of learning objects used by students in higher education.
    • An Identity Process Theory Account of the Impact of Boarding School on Sense of Self and Mental Health: an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

      Simpson, Frances; Haughton, Melanie; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-03-08)
      Boarding schools exist to provide education for children, but this involves the child leaving the family home and residing in an educational institution. Identity Process Theory suggests that such a change in circumstances can threaten the child’s identity, which triggers coping strategies and impacts on the individual’s self-concept during both childhood and adulthood. This study undertook an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with five adults who boarded as children. The focus was on exploring participants’ beliefs in terms of how the boarding experience affected their sense of self. Emerging themes relate to the (i) coping strategies used by participants during childhood, such as amnesia, compartmentalising, compliance and acceptance, and (ii) long-term effects of boarding on identity, self-concept and intimate relationships. Findings also highlight the interplay of factors such as privilege and social class, which were reported as motives for participants’ parents choosing boarding for their children. The study raises important questions about the long-term health impacts of sending children away to board.
    • Ikigai and existential positive psychology: Recurrence of meaning for wellbeing

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (International Network of Personal Meaning, 2021-03-04)
    • An illness-specific version of the revised illness perception questionnaire in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF-IPQR): Unpacking beliefs about treatment control, personal control and symptom triggers

      Taylor, Elaina C; O'Neill, Mark; Hughes, Lyndsay D; Moss-Morris, Rona; King's College London (Routledge, 2017-09-11)
      This study modified the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in patients with persistent Atrial Fibrillation (AF). Qualitative interviews and think-aloud techniques informed modification of the IPQ-R to be specific to AF patients. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) (n=198) examined the validity of the modified IPQ-R (AF-IPQ-R). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) examined the new AF-triggers scale. Construct validity examined associations between the AF-IPQ-R, quality of life (QoL) and beliefs about medicines. Test-retest and internal reliability were examined. Interviews indicated that patients viewed triggers of AF rather than initial causes of illness as more applicable. Patients believed specific behaviours such as rest could control AF. Treatment control beliefs related to pharmacological and procedural treatments. These data were used to modify the IPQ-R subscales and to develop a triggers of AF scale. CFA indicated good model fit. EFA of the triggers scale indicated 3 factors: emotional; health behaviours; and over-exertion triggers. Expected correlations were found between the AF-IPQ-R, QoL and treatment beliefs, evidencing good construct validity. The AF-IPQ-R showed sound psychometric properties. It provides more detailed specification than the IPQ-R of beliefs that may help to understand poor QoL in AF patients, and guidance for future interventions in this area.
    • Image-based sexual abuse: A psychological perspective

      Fido, Dean; Harper, Craig, A; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-11-01)
    • The impact of a school-based gardening intervention on intentions and behaviour related to fruit and vegetable consumption in children

      Duncan, Michael J.; Eyre, Emma; Bryant, Elizabeth; Clarke, Neil; Birch, Samantha; Staples, Vicki; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Coventry University (Sage Publications, 2015-06-01)
      A total of 77 children (34 boys, 43 girls, mean age ± standard deviation = 9 ± 1 years) participated in this study; 46 children (intervention) undertook a 12-week school gardening programme and 31 children acted as controls. Measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and fruit and vegetable consumption were taken pre- and post-intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the intervention group increased daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased intentions, attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption.
    • The Impact of Children’s Connection to Nature: A Report for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; Harvey, Caroline; Petronzi, Dominic; University of Derby (RSPB, 2016-02-16)
      Connecting with nature should be part of every child’s life as it has the potential to aid nature’s revival while benefiting the child. To embed nature connection within our social norms, there is a need to be able to understand the benefits and set targets for levels of nature connection. This report presents findings on the impact of connection to nature from a survey of 775 children, using the child as the unit of analysis, rather than aggregated data. The results demonstrated that children who were more connected to nature had significantly higher English attainment, although this wasn’t repeated for Mathematics. Further, the 1.5 Connection to Nature Index (CNI) level was found to be a significant threshold across other measures, with those children with a CNI of 1.5 or above having significantly higher health, life satisfaction, pro-environmental behaviours and pro-nature behaviours. The analysis found strong correlations between CNI and pro-nature behaviours and pro-environmental behavior. A positive correlation was also evident between CNI and days spent outdoors and days spent in nature over the past week, suggesting that the more time spent in nature is associated with child’s connection to nature. Finally, weak correlations were found between connection to nature, health and life satisfaction. When more refined attainment results for English were explored, (n = 512) further weak correlations were found between English attainment and attendance, English and life satisfaction, and between English attainment and connection to nature. There are a multitude of factors associated with a child’s English attainment, so, although the correlations are weak, it is noteworthy that connection to nature is as important to children’s achievement in English as life satisfaction and attendance at school.
    • Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal

      Sah, Ranjit; Sigdel, Shailendra; Ozaki, Akihiko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Bhandari, Divya; Regmi, Priyanka; Mehta, Rachana; Adhikari, Mahesh; Roy, Namrta; Dhama, Kuldeep; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-07-07)
    • The impact of patient participation direct enhanced service on patient reference groups in primary care: a qualitative study.

      Pollard, Lorraine; Agarwal, Shona; Harrad, Fawn; Lester, Louise; Cross, Ainslea; Wray, Paula; Smith, Gordon; Locke, Anthony; Sinfield, Paul; University of Leicester (Radcliffe Publishing, 2014)
      NHS policy documents continue to make a wide-ranging commitment to patient involvement. The Patient Participation Direct Enhanced Service (PP-DES), launched in 2011, aimed to ensure patients are involved in decisions about the range and quality of services provided and commissioned by their practice through patient reference groups (PRGs). The aim of this exploratory study is to review the impact of the PP-DES (2011-13) on a sample of PRGs and assess how far it has facilitated their involvement in decisions about the services of their general practices.