• A behavioral modeling approach to bicycle level of service

      Griswold, Julia B.; Grembek, Offer; Yu, Mengqiao; Filingeri, Victoria; Walker, Joan L.; Safe Transportation Research and Education Center, University of California, Berkeley, 2614 Dwight Way, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 116 McLaughlin Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; University of Derby Online Learning, Enterprise Centre, Bridge Street, Derby DE1 3LD, United Kingdom; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 111 McLaughlin Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States (Elsevier, 2018-06-22)
      Bicycle level of service (LOS) measures are essential tools for transportation agencies to monitor and prioritize improvements to infrastructure for cyclists. While it is apparent that different types of cyclists have varying preferences for the facilities on which they ride, in current research and practice, measures are used that are either insufficiently quantitative and empirical or lack cyclist segmentation. In this study, we conducted a detailed survey on cyclist habits, preferences, and user experience, capturing responses to videos of a bicycle traveling on road segments in the San Francisco Bay Area. The survey provided rich behavioral data, which invited both quantitative and qualitative exploration. We compared facility preferences from the survey to scores from two common measures, NCHRP bicycle level of service (NCHRP BLOS), and level of traffic stress (LTS); and we examined the responses to open-ended questions to gain insights about heterogeneity of preferences among cyclists. Finally, we applied behavioral analysis tools as a proof of concept for a new bicycle level of service measure that accounts for the segmentation of cyclist types via a latent class choice model. Combining statistics and behavioral analysis, we can improve the quality of bicycle level of service measures to make decisions driven by empirically measured cyclist preferences.
    • Beyond disciplinarity: Historical evolutions of research epistemology

      Hayes, Catherine; Fulton, John; Livingstone, Andrew; Todd, Claire; Capper, Stephen; Smith, Peter; University of Sunderland (Routledge, 2020-12-23)
      This book provides a means of comprehensively grounding and considering the epistemological and philosophical underpinnings of practice-based research epistemologies. By introducing readers to the diverse array of methodological tools and concepts that are necessary to underpin postgraduate research, this book develops an understanding of the distinctions between practice-led research, practice-based research and question-led research, and the contextual significance of each, as well as enabling students to comprehend the historical relationships between academic disciplines and the value of reconnecting them at an epistemological and philosophical level. Through illustrated examples from applied practice across disciplines such as art, social sciences and medical and allied healthcare sciences, readers are encouraged to develop the capacity to not only think conceptually about their own research, but to systematically evaluate that of others. With this focus on descriptive studies from practice, the book fosters higher-order critical thinking in relation to implications for methodological implementation, encouraging deep learning processes and the confidence to transcend the limits of one’s own discipline in order to work collaboratively with researchers in different fields.
    • Borderline personality disorder: from understanding ontological addiction to psychotherapeutic revolution

      Ducasse, Déborah; Van Gordon, William; Brand-Arpon, Véronique; Courtet, Philippe; Olié, Emilie; University of Derby; CHU Montpellier, Lapeyronie Hospital, France; INSERM U1061, Neuropsychiatry: Epidemiological and Clinical Research Montpellier France (Springer, 2019-06-04)
      Bypassing a reductionist view of existing diagnostic categories, ontological addiction theory (OAT) is a new psychological model of human functioning. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), defined as “a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects, and marked impulsivity”, is not only common (up to 20% of psychiatric inpatients), but also strongly associated with suicide attempts and death by suicide. Therefore, BPD constitutes a major public health concern. As a consequence of an underlying condition of ontological addiction, self-harming behaviors can be conceptualized as addictions, suicidal acts reflecting an experiential avoidance strategy against unbearable psychological pain. The present paper aims at: (1) understanding BPD daily life experiences from the perspective of OAT; (2) offering psychotherapeutic perspectives for this mental disorder. The diagnostic category of BDP may be understood as a simple label reflecting several extreme types of manifestations resulting from the Self-grasping ignorance that underpins ontological addiction. Therefore, development of psychotherapeutic interventions targeting ontological addiction appears to be a promising future direction.
    • A brain-based pain facilitation mechanism contributes to painful diabetic polyneuropathy.

      Segerdahl, Andrew R.; Themistocleous, Andreas C.; Fido, Dean; Bennett, David L.; Tracey, Irene; University of Oxford; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2018-01-15)
      The descending pain modulatory system represents one of the oldest and most fundamentally important neurophysiological mechanisms relevant to pain. Extensive work in animals and humans has shown how a functional imbalance between the facilitatory and inhibitory components is linked to exacerbation and maintenance of persistent pain states. Forward translation of these findings into clinical populations is needed to verify the relevance of this imbalance. Diabetic polyneuropathy is one of the most common causes of chronic neuropathic pain; however, the reason why ∼25–30% of patients with diabetes develop pain is not known. The current study used a multimodal clinical neuroimaging approach to interrogate whether the sensory phenotype of painful diabetic polyneuropathy involves altered function of the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey—a key node of the descending pain modulatory system. We found that ventrolateral periaqueductal grey functional connectivity is altered in patients suffering from painful diabetic polyneuropathy; the magnitude of which is correlated to their spontaneous and allodynic pain as well as the magnitude of the cortical response elicited by an experimental tonic heat paradigm. We posit that ventrolateral periaqueductal grey-mediated descending pain modulatory system dysfunction may reflect a brain-based pain facilitation mechanism contributing to painful diabetic polyneuropathy.
    • Brief report: self-compassion, physical health and the mediating role of health-promoting behaviours

      Dunne, Sara; Sheffield, David; Chilcot, Joseph; University of Derby (2016-04-26)
      To test the hypothesis that self-compassion predicts better physical health and that this is partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours, 147 adults completed self-report measures of self-compassion, health-promoting behaviours and physical health. Self-compassion and health-promoting behaviours were negatively associated with physical symptom scores. Self-compassion was positively associated with health-promoting behaviours. A bootstrapped mediation model confirmed a significant direct effect of self-compassion on physical health through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.13, b = -8.98, p = 0.015), which was partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.06, b = -3.16, 95 per cent confidence interval [-6.78, -0.86]). Findings underscore the potential health-promoting benefits of self-compassion.
    • Burnout in Professional Psychotherapists: Relationships with Self-Compassion, Work–Life Balance, and Telepressure

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Maxwell-Jones, Robert; Edwards, Ann-Marie; Knutton, Natalie; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-05-17)
      Though negative impacts of COVID-19 on occupational mental health have been reported, the mental health of psychotherapists has not been evaluated in depth. As this occupational group treats ever-increasing mental health problems, it is essential to appraise key factors for their mental health. Accordingly, this study aimed to explore burnout of professional psychotherapists. A total of 110 participants completed self-report measures regarding burnout, self-compassion, work-life balance and telepressure. Correlation, regression and moderation analyses were conducted. Both of the burnout components-emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation-were positively associated with weekly working hours and telepressure, and negatively associated with age, self-compassion and work-life balance. Weekly working hours and work-life balance were significant predictors of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Lastly, self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between work-life balance and emotional exhaustion but did not mediate the relationship between work-life balance and depersonalisation. The findings suggest that maintaining high work-life balance is particularly important for the mental health of psychotherapists, protecting them from burnout. Moreover, self-compassion needs to be cultivated to mitigate emotional exhaustion. Mental health care for this occupational group needs to be implemented to achieve sustainable mental health care for workers and the public.
    • Call for papers: case studies of applied health psychology practice, implementation and knowledge translation experiences

      Cross, Ainslea; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-03-01)
      Since our Spring 2019 call for papers (Cross & Sheffield, 2019) for the new Health Psychology Practice, Consultancy and Training section of Health Psychology Update (HPU) we have been fortunate to receive articles highlighting the value and impact of health psychology in practice within varied settings and contexts. We have featured practice articles on working as a health psychologist in community settings for adults with learning disabilities (Bains & Turnbull, 2019), public health (Lawes-Wickwar & Begum, 2020), the NHS (Anderson 2019) and the development of a student-delivered University health coaching service (Cooper, Allan, Dunsmore, Johnston & Leighton-Beck, 2020). To build on our progress in raising the profile of applied health psychology practice, we would like to invite articles on the following themes: (1) knowledge translation, featuring experiences of translating research into practice; (2) implementation, experiences of designing and delivering applied health psychology practice or interventions. We invite a range of flexible formats for presenting your work such as reflective accounts, case study reports or protocols of works in progress and lessons learned to date. HPU aims to provide an opportunity for anyone working in applied health psychology to share their work and projects in order to raise the profile of health psychology. If you would like to share your work with the health psychology community, please email your expression of interest to: hpu.professional@outlook.com and hpu.editor@outlook.com.
    • Can mindfulness help address the global obesity epidemic in children and adolescents?

      Sapthaing, Supakyada; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Zangeneh, Masood; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-02-05)
    • Care of the person with dementia : interprofessional practice and education

      Forman, Dawn; Pond, Dimity; University of Derby; Newcastle University Australia (Cambridge University Press, 2015-11)
      Care of the Person with Dementia responds to the urgent need for health practitioners to take an innovative approach to the challenge of dementia. The first Australian text of its kind, it combines evidence-based resources with interprofessional education and practice, exploring the ethical, social and environmental repercussions of dementia to provide a comprehensive overview of dementia care in an Australian context. The text is structured around a model of interprofessional education and practice (IPE) tailored to dementia care. This model incorporates the context of care, an important element missing from other recognised models of IPE. Throughout the book, principles of IPE are explained within the context of dementia, drawing on exemplars from a body of current, well-researched and evaluated dementia practice. Written by experienced academics, and providing national and international perspectives, this is a unique and crucial resource to develop collaborative skills and professional knowledge in the management of dementia.
    • Caregiving in multiple sclerosis and quality of life: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

      Topcu, Gogem; Buchanan, Heather; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Garip, Gulcan; University of Nottingham; Eastern Mediterranean University (Taylor and Francis, 2016-02-09)
      OBJECTIVE: The lack of adequate conceptualisation and operationalisation of quality of life (QoL) limits the ability to have a consistent body of evidence to improve QoL research and practice in informal caregiving for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, we conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative research to improve the conceptual understanding of the experiences of MS carers and to identify factors that affect carers' QoL. DESIGN: Systematic searches of five electronic databases yielded 17 qualitative studies which were synthesised using the principles of meta-ethnography. RESULTS: The synthesis resulted in nine inter-linking themes: Changes and losses; challenges revolving around MS; caregiving demands; burden of care; future concerns; external stressors; experiences of support; strategies used in managing the caregiving role; and motivating factors. Our findings suggest that MS carers can have both positive and negative experiences which may bring challenges and rewards to the carers. CONCLUSION: We present a proposed QoL model for MS caregiving which can be used to inform the development of interventions for MS carers to improve their QoL. However, further empirical research is needed to examine the utility of this model and to explore the concept of QoL in MS carers in more detail.
    • A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders, 2020-04)
      Despite its prevalence, migraine was not regarded as a problematic disease until 2000. This third most common disease in the world is also common in Japan. While effective treatment and interventions are introduced in manuals and guidelines in the West, helpful information to treat migraine targeting Japanese patients is still scarce. Accordingly, this clinical note reports a Japanese female who suffered from long-term migraine. Similar to many Western cases, approaches based on cognitive behavioural therapy were deemed effective in this client’s case as well. Empirical evaluation was recommended.
    • Changes in the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Italy using GIS-based maps

      Martellucci, Cecilia Acuti; Sah, Ranjit; Rabaan, Ali A.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Casalone, Cristina; Arteaga-Livias, Kovy; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Bhandari, Divya; Higuchi, Asaka; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-18)
      Massive spreading of the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in different continents [1, 2], have been observed. Analyses mostly focused on the number of cases per country and administrative levels, multiple times without considering the relevance of the incidence rates. These help to see the concentration of disease among the population in terms of cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Even more using geographical information systems (GIS)-based maps stakeholder may rapidly analyze changes in the epidemiological situation [3, 4]. Although the epidemic of COVID-19 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in Italy on January 31, 2020, no reports on the use of GIS-based maps have been published to analyze the distinct differences in incidence rates across its regions and provinces during the last months. For these reasons, we have developed epidemiological maps of incidence rates using official populations, by regions and provinces, for COVID-19 in Italy using GIS.
    • Children’s well-being and nature connectedness: Exploring the impact of a ‘3-good-things’ writing task on nature connectedness and well-being.

      Harvey, Caroline; Sheffield, David; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (2016-09-10)
      The health benefits of being connected to nature are well documented amongst both adults and children therefore simple interventions that lead to greater connectedness are valuable. The ‘3-good-things’ writing task is a positive psychology intervention which has been shown to increase happiness and decrease depression. Focusing the 3-good-things writing tasks on nature related good things has been found to increase nature connection in a sample of adults and the present research extends this to explore the impact of the intervention on nature connectedness in children. Children (n= 167) aged 9-11 completed measures of nature connection, mindfulness and life satisfaction at three time points, before and after the intervention, and again approximately eight weeks later. The intervention consisted of writing 3 good things about nature that they noticed every day for 5 days, whilst the control group wrote about 3 things they had noticed. Data will be analysed using factorial mixed design analysis. Relationships between the dependent variables will be explored using multiple regression.
    • Co-constructed dyadic illness experience in the discourse of couples living with severe uncontrolled asthma

      Varkonyi-Sep, Judit; Cross, Ainslea; Howarth, Peter; University of Southampton; University of Derby (European Psychology Society, 2016-08-23)
      Abstract Background: The research aims to explore dyadic constructed illness experiences and identities in couples living with severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA) Methods: Following NHS ethical approval, three couples, where one partner was being treated for SUA, were recruited from an asthma clinic. Each couple took part in a dyadic semi-structured, face-to-face interview. Mean duration since disease onset was 34 years (range 24-49). Patients' mean age was 66 years (range 59-73). Data were analysed using discourse analysis. Expected results: Preliminary results show that couples' dyadically constructed identities are fluid identities that adapt to variable illness severity over the disease course. Couples' dyadically constructed 'coping scripts' emerged from the non-asthmatic partner's expectations for coping strategies. Couples articulated unresolved emotional burden from old illness-related memories around acceptance of condition or traumatic encounters with health services. They highlighted lack of professional psychological support in coping with the illness. Participants perceived unique relationship and rapport with specific physicians. Despite physical suffering and life constrains, couples reported a good quality of life that they actively constructed. Current stage of work: A further 7-10 couples are being recruited to explore the preliminary findings further. Discussion: Exploring co-constructed illness experiences of SUA with dyadic approach provides valuable data on the significant other's influences and the impact of illness on the couple as a unit. Joint dyadic interviewing is useful in exploring the co-construction of illness experience in discourse, potentially applicable to areas of chronic disease management and health behaviour change. Refbacks There are currently no refbacks. Copyright (c) 2016 J. Varkonyi-Sepp, A. Cross, P. Howarth Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
    • Cognitive and affective components of challenge and threat states

      Meijen, Carla; Jones, Marc V.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Sheffield, David; Allen, Mark S.; Staffordshire University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-04)
      This study examined the relationship among cardiovascular responses indicative of challenge and threat states, self-efficacy, perceived control and emotions before an upcoming competition. Using a repeated-measures design, 48 collegiate athletes talked about an upcoming competition (sport-specific speech task) and the topic of friendship (control speech task), whilst cardiovascular responses (heart rate, preejection period, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance) were collected and self-report measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, and emotions completed. Findings showed that participants with a physiological threat response reported higher levels of self-efficacy and excitement. Further, none of the other emotions or the cognitive appraisals of challenge and threat predicted cardiovascular patterns indicative of either a challenge or threat state. Thus, cardiovascular responses and self-report measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, and emotions did not correlate in the manner predicted by the theory of challenge and threat states in athletes. This finding may reflect methodological aspects, or that perhaps highly efficacious individuals believe they can perform well and so the task itself is more threatening because failure would indicate under-performance.
    • Commentary: A wellbeing champion and the role of self-reflective practice for ICU nurses during COVID-19 and beyond

      Wharton, Ciara; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Brennan, Sharon; Adult Intensive Care Unit, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Amersham, UK; University of Derby (Wiley, 2020-10-15)
      The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the importance of an intensive care unit (ICU) wellbeing champion, who promotes self-reflective practice and self-care to protect staff wellbeing. The wellbeing champion provides peer-to-peer support, delivers psychological first aid and through the “Look, Listen and Link” approach, signposts staff towards professional assistance when needed. Our ICU nominated a wellbeing champion from within the nursing team to take a bottom-up approach to staff wellbeing during the COVID-19 crisis where the stress levels in ICU are notably high.
    • Commentary: Suggesting shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) for treating addiction

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Rhodes, Christine; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-07-15)
    • Community behavioral and perceived responses in the covid-19 outbreak in Afghanistan: a cross-sectional study

      Mousavi, Sayed Hamid; Delshad, Mohammad Hossein; Acuti Martellucci, Cecilia; Bhandari, Divya; Ozaki, Akihiko; Pourhaji, Fatemeh; Pourhaji, Fahimeh; Reza Hosseini, Sayed Mohammad; Roien, Rohullah; Ramozi, Abass Ali; et al. (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2021-05-05)
      Community responses are important for the management of early-phase outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Perceived susceptibility and severity are considered key elements that motivate people to adopt non-pharmaceutical interventions. This study aimed to i) explore perceived susceptibility and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, ii) examine the practice of non-pharmaceutical interventions, and iii) assess the potential association of perceived COVID-19 susceptibility and severity with the practice of non-pharmaceutical interventions among people living in Afghanistan. Methods: A cross-sectional design was employed, using online surveys disseminated from April to May 2020. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants of this study. The previously developed scales were used to assess the participants' demographic information, perceived risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and perceived severity of COVID-19. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the potential association of perceived COVID-19 susceptibility and severity with the practice of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Results: The internet was the main source for obtaining COVID-19 information among participants in this study. While 45.8% of the participants believed it was "very unlikely" for them to get infected with COVID-19, 76.7% perceived COVID-19 as a severe disease. Similarly, 37.5% believed the chance of being cured if infected with COVID-19 is "unlikely/very unlikely". The majority of participants (95.6%) perceived their health to be in "good" and "very good" status. Overall, 74.2% mentioned that they stopped visiting public places, 49.7% started using gloves, and 70.4% started wearing a mask. Participants who believed they have a low probability of survival if infected with COVID-19 were more likely to wear masks and practice hand washing. Conclusions: It appears that communities' psychological and behavioral responses were affected by the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Afghanistan, especially among young internet users. The findings gained from a timely behavioral assessment of the community might be useful to develop interventions and risk communication strategies in epidemics within and beyond COVID-19.
    • Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sweet, Michael; UDOL; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre (Taylor & Francis, 2019-05-24)
      In this paper we aim to highlight the characteristics of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) and suggest possible directions for future research and study. The majority of NLP studies argue for more rigorous empirical support and standardised regulatory governance, in order to overcome academic biases and general misunderstandings. However, its popular practice for just under half a century and its global usage, suggest there is grounding for NLP to be accepted into the 'mainstream' of psychology. We compare NLP with more ‘accepted’ approaches (cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness, and coaching), and explore its practice regulations. While its efficiency (thorough analysis and applicability) was identified as its strength, more rigorous research and universal regulations of practice are needed for NLP to move onto the next level of acceptance.
    • Competencies and frameworks in interprofessional education: A comparative analysis

      Thistlethwaite, Jill; Forman, Dawn; Matthews, Lynda; Rogers, Gary; Steketee, Carole; Yassine, Tagrid; University of Derby (Wolters Kluwer, 2014-06)
      Health professionals need preparation and support to work in collaborative practice teams, a requirement brought about by an aging population and increases in chronic and complex diseases. Therefore, health professions education has seen the introduction of interprofessional education (IPE) competency frameworks to provide a common lens through which disciplines can understand, describe, and implement team-based practices. Whilst an admirable aim, often this has resulted in more confusion with the introduction of varying definitions about similar constructs, particularly in relation to what IPE actually means.The authors explore the nature of the terms competency and framework, while critically appraising the concept of competency frameworks and competency-based education. They distinguish between competencies for health professions that are profession specific, those that are generic, and those that may be achieved only through IPE. Four IPE frameworks are compared to consider their similarities and differences, which ultimately influence how IPE is implemented. They are the Interprofessional Capability Framework (United Kingdom), the National Interprofessional Competency Framework (Canada), the Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice (United States), and the Curtin University Interprofessional Capability Framework (Australia).The authors highlight the need for further discussion about establishing a common language, strengthening ways in which academic environments work with practice environments, and improving the assessment of interprofessional competencies and teamwork, including the development of assessment tools for collaborative practice. They also argue that for IPE frameworks to be genuinely useful, they need to augment existing curricula by emphasizing outcomes that might be attained only through interprofessional activity