• Videoconferencing for Home Care Delivery in Japan: Observational Study

      Miyatake, Hirotomo; Kosaka, Makoto; Arita, Satoshi; Tsunetoshi, Chie; Masunaga, Hidehisa; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Akihiko; Beniya, Hiroyuki; Orange Home-Care Clinic , Fukui , JP; et al. (JMIR Publications Inc., 2021-09-01)
      Telemedicine has been increasingly used in many health care fields, including home care, where patients receive medical care at home. Owing to the current COVID-19 crisis, the value of telemedicine via videoconferencing is more recognized, particularly in allowing immobile patients to continue receiving care. However, the efficacy of telemedicine in home care settings in Japan remains to be fully appraised. This study aims to identify the use and impact of telemedicine in a singular home care delivery setting in Japan. A retrospective observational study was conducted using patient and other administrative records from a home care clinic. We considered patients who were involved in videoconferencing with home care physicians and telepresenters serving patients during 2018 and 2019. We extracted sociodemographic data of the patients and details of the videoconferencing and descriptively illustrated some specific cases. In a home care clinic in Japan, videoconferencing was conducted in 17 cases (involving 14 patients) over a 2-year period. Of all the cases, 12% (2/17) required emergency transfers and were hospitalized. A total of 88% (15/17) of cases remained; 71% (12/17) of cases were found to need extra medication or to go to a medical facility for consultation, whereas 18% (3/17) of cases were found not to be in need of urgent attention and were asked to rest. Problematic symptoms subsequently improved in 82% (14/17) of cases, and only 6% (1/17) of cases were later hospitalized. Telemedicine was deemed effective for assessing patients’ conditions in the home care setting in situations where home visits by a physician cannot be carried out. Our findings indicate that consultations via videoconferencing are safe and effective, suggesting more active use of videoconferencing in other clinical contexts.
    • The Engage-Disengage Model as an Inclusive Model for the Promotion of Healthy and Successful Aging in the Oldest-old

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-01)
      Theories relating to healthy and successful aging do not specifically cater for the oldest-old. This predominantly theoretical research considers the relevance of existing healthy and successful aging theories in the oldest-old. It explores a small sample of interviews of independently living oldest-old using Differential Qualitative Analysis. The Activity Theory and the Disengagement Theory were particularly relevant to investigate differences. The Engage-Disengage model was conceived as a pragmatic holistic model to address specific challenges facing the oldest-old. Engage-Disengage reflects attainable healthy and successful aging in the oldest-old according to individual abilities (intrinsic physical and mental capacities), values, and external resources (social, material, and environmental).
    • Development of the external and internal shame scale: Japanese version

      Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Asano, Kenichi; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Endo, Ayumu; Shimizu, Eiji; Matos, Marcela; Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan; The Japanese Centre for Compassionate Mind Research and Training, Tokyo, Japan; Komachi Clinical Psychology Office, Japan; Mejiro University, Japan; et al. (Springer, 2021-08-03)
      Shame contains external and internal aspects. However, a Japanese language scale for simultaneously assessing both aspects of shame has not been developed to date. This study aimed to standardize the Japanese version of the External and Internal Shame Scale (EISS-J). An online survey was conducted among university students (N = 203) at six universities in Japan (Study 1). A retest questionnaire was sent to the participants by email three weeks after the first survey (Study 2). Study 1 examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and criterion-related validity of the EISS-J, while Study 2 examined its test-retest reliability. Moreover, an additional study was conducted to examine the criterion-related validity of the scale. Study 1 demonstrated the high internal consistency of the EISS-J. Moreover, confirmatory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model: external and internal shame. However, exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure. Study 2 confirmed the test-retest reliability of the scale. Furthermore, both studies indicated correlations between the EISS-J and fear of compassion, anger, humiliation, depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the study established the criterion-related validity of the scale. These results confirmed adequate reliability and validity of the EISS-J.
    • Self-compassion in Irish social work students: Relationships between resilience, engagement and motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Edwards, Ann-Marie; Bhandari, Divya; Maughan, Geraldine; University of Derby; Medical Governance Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan; Limerick Institute of Technology, Limerick, Ireland (MDPI AG, 2021-08-02)
      Self-compassion recognises a meaning of life's suffering, aligning with existential positive psy-chology. Although this construct is known to protect our mental health, how to augment self-compassion remains to be evaluated. Social work students suffer from high rates of mental health problems, however research into self-compassion in this population remains to be devel-oped. This study aimed to evaluate i) relationships between self-compassion and more tradition-al positive constructs—resilience, engagement and motivation, and ii) differences of these con-structs between the levels of studies, to inform how self-compassion can be enhanced in social work students. One hundred twenty-nine Irish social work students completed self-report scales regarding self-compassion, resilience, engagement and motivation. Correlation, regression, and one-way MANOVA were conducted. Self-compassion was associated with gender, age, resili-ence, engagement and intrinsic motivation. Resilience and intrinsic motivation were significant predictors of self-compassion. There was no significant difference in the levels of these constructs between the levels of studies. Findings suggest that social work educators across different levels can strengthen students’ resilience and intrinsic motivation to cultivate the students' self-compassion. Moreover, the close relationships between self-compassion, resilience and in-trinsic motivation indicate that orienting students to a meaning of the studies helps their mental health.
    • Ontological Addiction Theory and Mindfulness-Based Approaches in the Context of Addiction Theory and Treatment

      Barrows, Paul; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-07-30)
      Buddhist-derived interventions have increasingly been employed in the treatment of a range of physical and psychological disorders, and in recent years, there has been significant growth in the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for this purpose. Ontological Addiction Theory (OAT) is a novel metaphysical approach to understanding psychopathology within the framework of Buddhist teachings and asserts that many mental illnesses have their root in the widespread mistaken belief in an inherently existent self that operates independently of external phenomena. OAT describes how different types of MBI can help undermine these beliefs and allow a person to reconstruct their view of self and reality to address the root causes of suffering. As well as proving effective in treating many other psychological disorders, MBIs based on OAT have demonstrated efficacy in treating conventional behavioural addictions, such as problem gambling, workaholism, and sex addiction. The goal of this paper is to (i) discuss and appraise the evidence base underlying the use of MBIs for treating addiction; (ii) explicate how OAT advances understanding of the mechanisms of addiction; (iii) delineate how different types of MBI can be employed to address addictive behaviours; and (iv) propose future research avenues for assessing and comparing MBIs in the treatment of addiction.
    • Policing in a pandemic: a commentary on officer well-being during COVID-19

      Edwards, Ann-Marie; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-24)
      The role of police officers during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is challenging, faced with the difficult task of keeping communities safe and preventing the spread of COVID-19 while putting their physical and mental health at risk. Emerging evidence points to the stress experiences of officers during the COVID-19 pandemic. With cases now surpassing 174 million and close to four million deaths worldwide, as well as stringent lockdown measures, police officers are faced with unprecedented challenges resulting from the pandemic. This commentary suggests police departments strengthen resources by putting in place appropriate emergency planning for future public health incidents, in addition to preparing for temporary or permanent loss of human resources. It is important to implement robust training plans post-pandemic to allow officers to offer better care for communities when faced with future public health emergencies. Finally, police officers should be provided with the resources and support to cope with the stresses associated with COVID-19.
    • Cross-Cultural Comparison of Mental Health Shame: Negative Attitudes and External, Internal, and Reflected Shame About Mental Health in Japanese and UK Workers

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; Green, Pauline; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby; Mejiro University, Tokyo, Japan (Springer International Publishing, 2021-07-22)
      Although often categorised by cultural differences (e.g., collectivism and individualism), Japan and the United Kingdom have several cultural commonalities. One of them is that both countries are known to have a ‘shame culture’; people in these countries often recognise shame in their lives relating to their cultural virtues. While shame can lead to social conformity, this negative affect associated with a sense of inadequacy can also damage our wellbeing. Because of the rapid advancement of technologies in these economically developed countries in the 4IR, workers are put under greater pressure, which is associated with more mental health problems. Their challenged mental health is further exacerbated by strong shame associated with mental health problems. Accordingly, we examined mental health shame in UK and Japanese workers. Four hundred workers (131 Japanese and 269 UK workers) completed measures of mental health and mental health shame, specifically negative attitudes, external, internal, and reflected shame. The results showed that Japanese workers had higher levels of mental health problems and shame than UK workers. In both countries, mental health and shame were overall associated with each other, apart from some family-related variables in Japanese workers. Family reflected shame was a significant predictor in Japanese workers, while self reflected shame was a significant predictor in UK workers. We discuss the implications of these findings with particular reference on how to reduce mental health shame in Japanese and UK workplaces and the provision of solutions for better work mental wellbeing, relating to the advantages of technologies. Because shame often involves perception of others, online interventions may be useful as they can be undertaken by each worker at a private place (instead of their office). Such individualised interventions enabled by the technologies of the 4IR may help to address shame-associated mental health problems in modern workplaces.
    • Study protocol: psychoeducation on attachment and narcissism as treatment of sex addiction

      Rhodes, Christine; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-07-22)
      This study protocol reports a research design to examine the effects of a psycho-educational programme about attachment and narcissism on sex addiction. Previous research highlighted the great impacts of anxious attachment and narcissism on sex addiction. Unlike therapeutic approaches, where a therapist intervenes the client, psychoeducation can influence clients’ symptoms more subtly related to their less resistance. Further, considering a strong association between sex addiction and narcissism, such an approach may be more conducive. Given high shame associated with sex addictions and clients existing in many countries, the programme is implemented online using recorded videos, delivered four times weekly. Findings from this study can inform utility of this original intervention for sex addiction.
    • Systematic review: self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with Type 2 Diabetes

      Chircop, James; Sheffield, David; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Wolters Kluwer, 2021-07-20)
      The benefit of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the reduction of HbA1c in non-insulin-treated participants remains unclear. HbA1c may be improved in this population with SMBG. We aimed to investigate this. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed comparing SMBG versus usual care and structured versus unstructured SMBG; the effect of clinician therapy adjustment based on SMBG readings was examined. Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central were electronically searched to identify articles published from 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2020. Trials investigating changes in HbA1c were selected. Screening was performed independently by two investigators. Two investigators extracted HbA1c at baseline and follow-up for each trial. Nineteen RCTs, involving 4,965 participants were included. Overall, SMBG reduced HbA1c. Preplanned subgroup analysis showed that using SMBG readings to adjust therapy contributed significantly to the reduction. No significant improvement in HbA1c was shown in SMBG without therapy adjustment). The same difference was observed in structured SMBG compared to unstructured SMBG. HbA1c is improved with therapy adjustment based on structured SMBG readings. Implications are for clinicians to prescribe structured SMBG with an aim for therapy adjustment based on the readings, and not prescribing unstructured SMBG. Participants with suboptimal glycemic control may benefit most. A SMBG regimen that improves clinical- and cost-effectiveness is presented. Future studies can investigate this regimen specifically.
    • “We All Need Purpose and Reason to Be Here.”: A Qualitative Investigation of How Members of Alcoholics Anonymous with Long-term Recovery Experience Aging

      mcinerney, Kevin; Garip, Gulcan; benson, tony; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-09)
      Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and theoretically framed within Frankl’s logotherapy, the current paper explored how members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) with long-term recovery (LTR) experience aging and health-related issues. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore the lived experiences of three older members of AA with LTR. IPA revealed five higher-order group concepts: spirituality, being in the present, acceptance, self-esteemandfellowship: a support network. Interpretation of the themes revealed that LTR in AA is beneficial in helping individuals transition to later life, develop coping mechanisms for poor health and find a purpose and meaning to life.
    • Mapping urban greenspace use from mobile phone GPS data

      Mears, Meghann; Brindley, Paul; Barrows, Paul D.; Richardson, Miles; Maheswaran, Ravi; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021-07-07)
      Urban greenspace is a valuable component of the urban form that has the potential to improve the health and well-being of residents. Most quantitative studies of relationships between health and greenspace to date have investigated associations only with what greenspace exists in the local environment (i.e. provision of greenspace), rather than to what extent it is used. This is due to the difficulty of obtaining usage data in large amounts. In recent years, GPS functionality integrated into mobile phones has provided a potential solution to this problem by making it possible to track which parts of the environment people experience in their day-to-day lives. In this paper, we demonstrate a method to derive cleaned, trip-level information from raw GPS data collected by a mobile phone app, then use this data to investigate the characteristics of trips to urban greenspace by residents of the city of Sheffield, UK. We find that local users of the app spend an average of an hour per week visiting greenspaces, including around seven trips per week and covering a total distance of just over 2.5 km. This may be enough to provide health benefits, but is insufficient to provide maximal benefits. Trip characteristics vary with user demographics: ethnic minority users and users from more socioeconomically deprived areas tend to make shorter trips than White users and those from less deprived areas, while users aged 34 years and over make longer trips than younger users. Women, on average, make more frequent trips than men, as do those who spent more time outside as a child. Our results suggest that most day-to-day greenspace visits are incidental, i.e. travelling through rather than to greenspace, and highlight the importance of including social and cultural factors when investigating who uses and who benefits from urban greenspace.
    • Cross-Cultural Comparison of Mental Health Between German and South African Employees: Shame, Self-Compassion, Work Engagement, and Work Motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Vanderheiden, Elisabeth; University of Derby; University of Johannesburg; Europa Universität Viadrina (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-06-22)
      The negative impact of the coronavirus disease outbreak 2019 (COVID-19) on work mental health is reported in many countries including Germany and South Africa: two culturally distinct countries. This study aims to compare mental health between the two workforces to appraise how cultural characteristics may impact their mental health status. A cross-sectional study was used with self-report measures regarding (i) mental health problems, (ii) mental health shame, (iii) self-compassion, (iv) work engagement and (v) work motivation. 257 German employees and 225 South African employees have completed those scales. This study reports results following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. T-tests, correlation and regression analyses were performed. German employees had lower mental health problems and mental health shame, and higher self-compassion than South Africans. Mental health problems were positively associated with mental health shame and amotivation, and negatively associated with work engagement and intrinsic motivation in both groups. Lastly, self-compassion, a PP 2.0 construct, was the strongest predictor for mental health problems in both countries. Our results suggest (i) that German culture’s long-term orientation, uncertainty avoidance and restraint may help explain these differences, and (ii) that self-compassion was important to mental health in both countries. While the levels of mental health differed between the two countries, cultivating self-compassion may be an effective way to protect mental health of employees in those countries. Findings can help inform managers and HR staff to refine their wellbeing strategies to reduce the negative impact of the pandemic, especially in German-South African organizations.
    • A Qualitative Study Comparing Mindfulness and Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing): Practitioners’ Perspectives

      Clarke, Fiona J.; Kotera, Yasuhiro; McEwan, Kirsten; University of Birmingham; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-06-15)
      The boundary between mindfulness and forest bathing, two conceptually related therapies, is unclear. Accordingly, this study reports the strengths and challenges, similarities and differences, and barriers and facilitators for both. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven trained and experienced practitioners of both mindfulness and forest bathing. Reflexive thematic analysis revealed four main themes: (i) differences between the approaches; (ii) the benefits of forest bathing; (iii) biophilia through forest bathing; and (iv) inward versus outward attentional focus as a distinction between the approaches. Both practices were found to benefit well-being, but practitioners revealed key barriers to mindfulness. For vulnerable groups experiencing mental health challenges or difficulties achieving a meditative state, mindfulness may introduce well-being risks. By offering a gentler, more intuitive approach that encourages outward attentional focus, forest bathing was found to overcome this barrier. Forest bathing is suitable for all groups, but adaptations are recommended for those expressing fear or discomfort in forested environments. The findings inform how to position both approaches in practice, as a first step towards social prescribing recommendations. Wider implications concern forest bathing’s potential to impact environmental well-being. Future research must garner comparative data, involve young people, and explore the feasibility of a forest bathing social prescription.
    • Using the Five Pathways to Nature to Make a Spiritual Connection in Early Recovery from SUD: a Pilot Study

      Rhodes, Christine; Lumber, Ryan; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-06-09)
      Spirituality is a broad concept and open to different perspectives. It is associated with a sense of connection to something larger than oneself and a search for life’s meaning. Many people find this meaning through a connection with nature, but less is known about how to create a connection for those who are actively seeking one. Individuals in early recovery from addiction are encouraged to engage in 12 Step programmes (TSPs). However, the spiritual nature of the programme with references to the word “god” can serve as a deterrent. Nature connectedness through the five pathways provides a potential opportunity to introduce the concept of a higher power (HP) through a connection with nature. In this pilot mixed-methods study, a group of participants (n=12) in outpatient treatment for SUD were exposed to the five pathways and compared to a control group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted following the initial intervention. Drawing upon nature as a higher power through the pathways led to significant increases in nature connectedness, well-being, quality of life, and spirituality compared to a control group. The pilot study indicates that nature through the five pathways to nature connectedness provides a potential alternative for a higher power to draw upon within Twelve-Step.
    • The Hero’s Journey: constructing continuity from discontinuity in millennial career changers’ narratives

      Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-06-06)
      Although career construction theory is relevant to today's vocational climate, empirical research into it is scarce. Accordingly, we explored this theory by investigating the concepts, structures and processes that UK-based millennial career changers use to construct narratives allowing for continuity of plot and discontinuity of career direction. Interpretative phenomenological analysis on semi-structured interviews (N = 6) identified four themes: dissatisfaction, realisation, sacrifice and return. The Hero’s Journey was identified as an overarching structure for meaning making in career change. Participants assimilated instability and discontinuity into a broader framework of continuity, through narrating a quest for closer alignment between their work and personality. This study provides useful insights into career construction theory and suggests further utility of The Hero’s Journey in career counselling/guidance.
    • A Qualitative Exploration of CBT and Psychodynamic Therapists’ Views, Experiences and Perceptions of Integrating Different Therapeutic Modalities into their Private Practice with Adult Clients: Study Protocol

      Kaluzeviciute, Greta; Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-06-05)
      Background: CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and psychodynamic psychotherapy are two most frequently used therapeutic modalities in private and public clinical practice. CBT is currently considered to be a ‘gold standard’ therapy, culminating in a wide scale training and dissemination of research. Psychodynamic psychotherapy has also amassed increasing systematic research, yielding significant longitudinal outcomes. However, the co-existence of the two therapeutic modalities is not without controversies. Although few authors in psychotherapy suggested that CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapy should be viewed as complementary rather than dichotomous paradigms, little is known about how concepts and techniques from these two different approaches are integrated (if at all) by therapists in private practice. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a pilot study, which aims to qualitatively explore how CBT therapists experience and make sense of psychodynamic concepts and vice versa in private practice. Our study is particularly interested in how therapists conceptualise psychodynamic and CBT concepts, and whether they might integrate techniques from different therapeutic modalities in their practice formally or informally. We anticipate that the findings will be relevant for further theoretical and clinical recommendations on how CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapies can be integrated in a pragmatic manner to address individual patient treatment needs. Study Design: A qualitative survey method will be used to explore how qualified BABCP accredited CBT therapists and BCP accredited psychodynamic practitioners understand, perceive and, potentially, integrate, psychodynamic and CBT principles in private practice. The data collected will be analysed using thematic analysis in order to construct themes and generate implications for therapeutic integration and practice. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are discussed, with awareness of characteristics of our target sample.
    • The Psychosocial Impact of Instagram on Female Body Image: Literature Review and Proposal

      Knowles, Eve; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Kaluzeviciute, Greta; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society Publishing, 2021-06-01)
      Instagram is one of the most popular photo sharing social networking platforms used by the younger population. However, research exploring the socio-psychological impact of this platform on younger populations is scarce. It is particularly important to assess how Instagram affects perceptions of body image in female populations who make up the majority of Instagram users. Accordingly, this study will seek to explore the impact engagement with Instagram has on female body image through qualitative semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with young female individuals aged eleven to twenty-five years over a period of three months. The findings from the interviews will be analysed using the interpretative phenomenological analysis framework and disseminated to schools, university teachers, education researchers, health care professionals and social media platforms. We believe the findings from this study will help protect young female populations from experiencing negative impact on their body image via Instagram.
    • Social Network Analysis of Alzheimer’s Teams: A Clinical Review and Applications in Psychiatry to Explore Interprofessional Care

      Lazzari, Carlo; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Rabottini, Marco; University of Derby (Bentham Science, 2021-06)
      Understanding the social networks of professionals in psychiatric hospitals and communities working with persons with Alzheimer’s (PWA) disease helps tackle the knowledge management in patient care and the centrality of team members in providing information and advice to colleagues. To use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to confirm or reject the hypothesis that psychiatric professionals have equal status in sharing information and advice on the care of PWA and have reciprocal ties in a social network. The sample consisting of 50 psychiatric professionals working in geriatric psychiatry in the UK completed an anonymous online survey asking them to select the professional categories of the colleagues in the interprofessional team who are most frequently approached when providing or receiving advice about patient care and gathering patient information. SNA is both a descriptive qualitative analysis and a quantitative method that investigates the degree of the prestige of professionals in their working network, the reciprocity of their ties with other team members, and knowledge management. The social network graphs and numerical outcomes showed that interprofessional teams in geriatric psychiatry have health carers who play central roles in providing the whole team with the knowledge necessary for patient care; these are primarily senior professionals in nursing and medical roles. However, the study reported that only 13% of professionals had reciprocal ties with knowledge sharing within teams. The current research findings show that knowledge management in interprofessional teams caring for PWA is not evenly distributed. Those with apparently higher seniority and experience are more frequently consulted; however, other more peripheral figures can be equally valuable in integrated care.
    • Resilience Intervention for Families of Autistic Children: Reviewing the Literature

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Pope, Melanie; Chircop, James; Kirkman, Ann; Bennett-Viliardos, Laura; Sharaan, Shereen; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh (Concurrent Disorders Society Publishing, 2021-05-24)
      Given the rising diagnostic rates of autism, it is imperative to investigate the well-being of families with autistic children. Families of autistic children report more mental health difficulties than families of typically developing children. Resilience is identified as a key protective factor for mental health difficulties in many populations, and research suggests that this construct is effective for coping with mental health difficulties in families of autistic children. However, reviews on resilience interventions for families of autistic children are lacking. Accordingly, this paper aims to report (a) common mental health difficulties that families of autistic children experience, (b) how resilience may reduce mental health difficulties, (c) interventions to enhance resilience in families of autistic children, and (d) discuss implications for practice and future research. Our review identified that mental distress resulting from feelings of uncertainty and helplessness following a diagnosis, in addition to caregiving stressors, is especially common among families of autistic children. Enhancing resilience is suggested to reduce those difficulties by tapping into strengths related to various positive psychological resources such as internal locus of control, positive cognitive appraisal, acceptance and self-efficacy. Interventions such as Dance Movement Psychotherapy and spirituality-based approaches, are deemed especially helpful to families of autistic children. However, research in this area is still under-developed, and there is a pressing need to build a more rigorous evidence base. Findings reviewed in the current work can aid families of autistic children, healthcare practitioners, and researchers to support the mental wellbeing of families of autistic children, which in turn would support the wellbeing of autistic children.
    • Burnout in Professional Psychotherapists: Relationships with Self-Compassion, Work–Life Balance, and Telepressure

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Maxwell-Jones, Robert; Edwards, Ann-Marie; Knutton, Natalie; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-05-17)
      Though negative impacts of COVID-19 on occupational mental health have been reported, the mental health of psychotherapists has not been evaluated in depth. As this occupational group treats ever-increasing mental health problems, it is essential to appraise key factors for their mental health. Accordingly, this study aimed to explore burnout of professional psychotherapists. A total of 110 participants completed self-report measures regarding burnout, self-compassion, work-life balance and telepressure. Correlation, regression and moderation analyses were conducted. Both of the burnout components-emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation-were positively associated with weekly working hours and telepressure, and negatively associated with age, self-compassion and work-life balance. Weekly working hours and work-life balance were significant predictors of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Lastly, self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between work-life balance and emotional exhaustion but did not mediate the relationship between work-life balance and depersonalisation. The findings suggest that maintaining high work-life balance is particularly important for the mental health of psychotherapists, protecting them from burnout. Moreover, self-compassion needs to be cultivated to mitigate emotional exhaustion. Mental health care for this occupational group needs to be implemented to achieve sustainable mental health care for workers and the public.