Now showing items 1-20 of 855

    • Predicting future default on the Covid-19 bounce back loan scheme: The 46.5 billion question

      Cowling, Marc; Wilson, N; Nightingale, P; Kacer, M; University of Derby; University of Leeds (SAGE, 2022)
      The UK has had a commitment to loan guarantee schemes since 1981 when it introduced the Small Firms Loan Guarantee (SFLG) scheme to address access to debt finance issues for smaller firms. Over the last 40 years its’ support has been unwavering and in the Covid-19 crisis it once again turned to loan guarantees as a means of supporting smaller firms through the crisis induced slump in trading activities. Of its three core Covid-19 guarantee schemes, the Bounce Back Loan scheme was the most numerous with 1,531,095 loans issued amounting to a total of £46.5bn in lending. The BBL scheme provided a 100% capital guarantee on loans between £2,000 and £50,000, and firms were allowed to borrow up to 25% of their trading income, with a fixed interest rate of 2.5% of which the first years interest was paid by the government to the lending bank. Our findings suggest that the government losses may range between £7bn and £12bn depending on the underlying assumptions. But we estimate Covid-19 guarantee schemes may have protected 118,639 businesses and 1,117,849 jobs. Looking to the future we suggest that a new loan guarantee is justified which is more like the former SFLG than the restrictive EFG as more than 1 million small businesses will be heavily indebted and unable to borrow to invest in future growth opportunities. This would support the 'levelling-up' agenda and help prevent a post-Covid-19 low investment - low growth scenario.
    • Has previous loan rejection scarred firms from applying for loans during Covid-19?

      Cowling, Marc; Calabrese, Raffaella; Liu, Weixi; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh; University of Bath (Springer, 2021-12-18)
      The concept of the ‘discouraged’ borrower is well documented. In this paper we consider whether smaller firms in the UK who have been previously rejected for bank loans have been scarred by the experience so badly that even in the presence of two exceptionally generous Covid-19 loan guarantee schemes they still refuse to make an application. Further, we also consider what happens when they do. As banks have either zero or minimal loss exposure, do they still maintain their normal strict lending protocols or do they relax their standards to fulfil the governments’ objective of supporting struggling businesses through the crisis? Our findings show that 72% of previously rejected borrowers are reluctant to request loans. We find some evidence that previously scarred firms faced such severe liquidity problems that they relaxed their distrust of banks during the Covid-19 crisis. However, their share of the governments guaranteed loan portfolio was slightly lower suggesting that banks were treating each new loan application on its merits.
    • Understanding the Dynamics of UK Covid-19 SME Financing

      Calabrese, Raffaella; Cowling, Marc; Liu, Weixi; University of Edinburgh; University of Derby; University of Bath (Wiley, 2021-12-14)
      The scale of the UK government’s response to the Covid-19 crisis after the first lockdown in March 2020 was unprecedented. For the business sector two financing schemes were particularly relevant, the Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan (CBILS) and the Bounce Back Loan (BBLS). Both were designed to support the capitalisation of businesses through this difficult trading period. In this paper we use data covering the first two quarters of the Covid-19 crisis to explore the dynamics of SME financing and in particular the role of government support schemes. Our findings show that 92.1% of all debt funds provided in this period were backed by the UK government which compares to less than 5% under normal circumstances. We find that the demand, supply, and government share of SME lending increased from Covid-19 quarter 1 (April to June 2020) to quarter 2 (July to September 2020), that micro and small businesses had the highest demand for loans, and that better-performing firms were more likely to receive loans. Further, in a world where more loan requests than ever were granted the government share of this pool of loans had a different risk profile than the small pool of non-government backed loans.
    • Global Pressures, Household Social Reproduction Strategies and Compound Inequality

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Nunn, Alex; Tepe-Belfrage, Daniela; University of Derby; University of Liverpool (Taylor and Francis, 2021-12-22)
      There is increasing interest in social reproduction and the international political economy of the everyday and the ways that the global economy rests on domestic foundations not just including state institutions but micro-social structures such as households and families. This paper uses data derived from the UK Millennium Cohort Study to explore the way that different types of household (using proxies for social class) one aspect of their social reproduction strategies. It argues that under conditions of increased global competitiveness, the UK state has successfully embedded a politics of competitiveness at the household scale. Households of all types are aspirational for their children and invest parental time in helping their children with educational activities. However, parents in middle class occupations, with higher levels of qualifications and income have advantageous informational, cultural and financial resources and use these in a variety of ways to support their social reproduction strategies. The result is that agential responses to competitiveness result in ‘compound inequalities’. We theorise this as demonstrating variegation across different household social reproduction strategies and embodying the violence of social reproduction, even where there is no violent intent. We speculate that compound inequality may be causing a breakdown in the stable reproduction of society as a whole.
    • A Study Space Analysis of Interpretation Service Needs and Optimisation

      Amurun, Oghene-Ovoh Tyson; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-12-02)
      The paper reports a study space analysis (SSA) of 117 published investigations of the need for interpretation services and approaches to their optimisation. The study explores literature on the adequacy and ecological validity of interpretation service and interpretation optimisation. Research on rapport building appears to be the most investigated issue. Studies on interpretation services need and planning are infrequently researched, and there exist little or no study investigating police diversity effects on interpretation service needs and the planning effects. Studies investigating cognitive load, language, and gender effects on interpreting accuracy are sparse, with most research effort concentrated in conference interpreting settings.
    • Time wasters? The Dark Tetrad and active procrastination

      Hughes, Sara; Adhikari, Joanna; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (Hogrefe Publishing Group, 2021-12-10)
      The Dark Triad personality traits have previously been linked with dysfunctional types of procrastination (i.e., delaying certain tasks). From an evolutionary perspective, procrastination is recognized for facilitating a fast life history strategy. The present study investigated links between active and passive procrastination and the extended Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism). Participants (N = 357) were invited via Prolific data collection platform and Survey Circle research sites to participate in an online survey exploring personality and procrastination. Path analyses revealed that all Dark Tetrad traits positively predicted several aspects of active procrastination only. Narcissism emerged as the only negative predictor of passive procrastination. Rather than linking these traits with dysfunctional procrastination types only, our results highlight the importance of considering the Dark Tetrad about functional forms of procrastination, which may be more beneficial for facilitating a fast life history strategy
    • Social media and tourists’ behaviors: post-COVID-19

      Majeed, Salman; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby (Edward Elgar, 2022-02)
      We develop and propose a conceptual model to integrate the constructs of use of social media information, perceived travel risk of epidemic-hit destinations, anxiety, intentions to visit, and eWOM. The framework is intended to assist researchers to progress this field of study. Our framework is also important for tourism and hospitality stakeholders to better understand tourists’ perceptions and behaviors during and after destination crises, in order to devise appropriate strategies for destination competitiveness (Ramkissoon and Nunkoo, 2008, 2012; Ramkissoon and Uysal, 2011; Ramkissoon and Mavondo, 2017). Our study encourages future empirical testing of the proposed theoretical framework.
    • Sustainable Development and the African Union Legal Order

      Ekhator, Eghosa; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2021-10-21)
      Sustainable development has been at the centre of discourse in the African Union (AU) and its Member States in recent times. Over time, the AU has developed mechanisms on sustainable development including conventions and different policies and programmes. This chapter critically analyses these mechanisms and their possible implications on the development of sustainable development norms in Africa. This chapter argues that the various AU treaties on the environment and initiatives on sustainable development are an integral part of the emergent AU legal order on the continent. This chapter discusses the utility of the African Charter on Human and People’s Right and Agenda 2063 as integral aspects of sustainable development under the AU and hence contributing to the emergent AU legal order. This chapter focuses on the contribution of the African Charter and Agenda 2063 to the development of sustainable development norms under the AU’s framework.
    • Contextual factors predict self-reported confession decision-making: A field study of suspects’ actual police interrogation experiences.

      Cleary, Hayley; Bull, Ray; University of Derby; Virginia Commonwealth University (American Psychological Association (APA), 2021-08-01)
      This study examined incarcerated persons’ self-reported interrogation experiences and confession decision-making by investigating which sociodemographic, criminological, and contextual factors were associated with their decisions to deny the allegations, partially admit wrongdoing, or fully confess to the crime. We expected that respondents in this field study would report a wide range of interrogation experiences. Given mixed prior findings, we did not formulate hypotheses for sociodemographic or criminological factors, but based on contextual variable research, we predicted that suspects who perceived the evidence against them as strong and who had already decided to confess prior to their interrogation would be more likely to confess. Participants were 249 individuals (86% male; M age = 34.8 years; 49% Black, 41% White, 10% other racial identities) incarcerated in local jails in the United States who completed a questionnaire about their most recent interrogation. Respondents described their interrogation experiences (e.g., location, duration, custody), perceptions of police evidence against them, and thoughts about confession prior to the interrogation. We examined group differences according to confession decision and used multinomial logistic regression to examine how sociodemographic, criminological, and contextual factors relate to suspects’ self-reported confession decisions. Results: Suspects’ interrogation experiences varied considerably, as did their perceptions of custody, beliefs about incriminating evidence, and preinterrogation intent to confess or deny. Sociodemographic characteristics and criminological factors were unrelated to self-reported confession decision-making, but several contextual factors predicted confession outcome. Signing away one’s Miranda rights and already planning to confess predicted suspects’ self-reported confessions, whereas being physically restrained, believing that police had no evidence of one’s guilt, and intending in advance to deny the allegations predicted suspects’ self-reported denials. Suspects who were undecided about confession prior to interrogation were about as likely to eventually confess as deny. Most suspects followed through with their initial intention to confess or deny, and suspects’ perceptions about evidence predicted their self-reported confession. These findings complement existing work focused on interrogation techniques and inform both police interrogation training and practice.
    • Machine Learning based Forecasting Systems for Worldwide International Tourists Arrival

      Mishra, Ram Krishn; Urolagin, Siddhaling; Jothi, J. Angel Arul; Nawaz, Nishad; Haywantee, Ramkissoon; BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Kingdom University, Riffa, Kingdom of Bahrain; University of Derby (The Science and Information Organisation, 2021-11)
      The international tourist movement has overgrown in recent decades, and travelers are considered a significant source of income to the tourism economy. When tourists visit a place, they spend considerable money on their enjoyment, travel, and hotel accommodations. In this research, tourist data from 2010 to 2020 have been extracted and extended with depth analysis of different dimensions to identify valuable features. This research attempts to use machine learning regression techniques such as Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Random Forest Regression (RFR) to forecast and predict worldwide international tourist arrivals and achieved forecasting accuracy using SVR is 99.4% and using RFR is 84.7%. The study also analyzed the forecasting deadlock condition after covid-19 in the sudden drop of international visitors due to lockdown enforcement by all countries.
    • The Impact of Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Education on Regional Development

      Bozward, David; Rogers-Draycott, Matthew; Smith, Kelly; Mave, Mokuba; Curtis, Vic; Aluthgama-Baduge, Chinthaka Jayananda; Moon, Rob; Adams, Nigel; Royal Agricultural University; University of Birmingham; et al. (ISBE, 2021-10-29)
      The paper explores the ways in which enterprise and entrepreneurial education (EEE), delivered by HEI’s, impacts regional development. To do this we analysed several datasets from The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and the Office for National Statistics (ONS) focusing on the ways in which HEI start-up activity impacts indicators including GDP and employment. This highlights where further research and investment is needed to ensure a consistent regional development policy which we believe aligns with the conference's focus on connecting practitioners and policymakers to create a genuine change in regional disparities.
    • Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria: Barriers, Prospects and Strategies

      Ekhator, Eghosa; Miller, Servel; Etinosa, Igbinosa; University of Derby; University of Chester; University of Benin, Nigeria (Routledge, 2021-11-08)
      This book explores Nigeria’s progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, presenting key country-specific lessons, as well as providing innovative solutions and practices which are transferrable to other emerging economies. Despite all of Nigeria’s potential, and substantial oil revenues, poverty remains widespread and the country faces many challenges. The contributors to this book provide comparative historical and contemporary analysis of the main challenges for achieving progress in the SDGs, and make recommendations for the most effectives ways of developing, adopting, disseminating and scaling them. Starting with the conceptualisation and evolution of the SDGs, the book goes on to consider the goal on ending poverty, and the urgent need to combat climate change and its impacts. The book also reflects on the role of business and taxation, and the cultural and societal dimensions of the SDGs, including education, gender, and the role of the church. Overall, the book focuses on knowledge/implementation gaps and the role of collaborative partnerships and disruptive technologies in implementing the framework in general. This book will be of interest to scholars, policy makers and practitioners of sustainable development and African studies, as well as those with a particular interest in Nigeria.
    • ThisIsDerby – Reimagine, Year 2 Report

      Nunn, Alexander; Bowers-Brown, Tamsin; Turner, Royce; University of Derby (Derby Theatre, 2021-10)
    • The determinants of aggregate fluctuations: The role of firm‐borrowing channels

      Ghosh Dastidar, Sayantan; Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-10-27)
      The paper examines the empirical relationship between firm-borrowing channels and aggregate fluctuations for the 100 largest US firms over 2000–2018. The motivation for this study originates from the general consensus in macroeconomics that microeconomic shocks to firms cannot generate significant aggregate fluctuations. The analysis extends Gabaix's 2011 baseline model by incorporating measures for “bank shocks” at the firm-level. In addition to supporting the granular hypothesis, the econometric results indicate that bank shocks have a weak impact on GDP fluctuations, whereas non-bank loans exert a strong impact on the same. The above findings survive certain robustness checks associated with the presence of oil and monetary shocks, as well as with the firms’ location factor.
    • The power of PES partnerships

      Davern, Eamonn; Nunn, Alex; Scoppetta, Anette; University of Derby; European Centre for Social Welfare (European Union, 2021-07)
      The labour market is changing very rapidly. Prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the labour mar- ket across Europe was performing strongly overall, and across most member states. Nevertheless, high levels of employment co-existed with some important problems such as inequalities of skills, employment, conditions and pay in relation to gender, ethnicity, disability and partic- ular challenges faced by specific social groups such as migrants or ex-offenders or some ethnic minorities (Eu- ropean Commission, 2020a). Young people have been particularly negatively affected by changes in job security and wages in the so called ‘gig economy’. The current COVID crisis is adding to these vulnerabili- ties, increasing unemployment generally and particular- ly among the insecurely employed, temporary workers, young people and the low to medium skilled. It has in- creased youth unemployment, and the rate of those Not in Employment, Education or Training and households have lost considerable income, especially at lower lev- els of the income distribution (European Commission, 2020b). Further, the range of anticipated future changes that go under the banner of ‘The Future of Work’ may further compound inequalities and insecurities faced by sections of the population. The OECD predicts that around 14% of jobs are at risk due to automation, with signifi- cant variation of this risk between OECD member states, between sectors and occupational roles, with workers in manufacturing, agriculture, food preparation or commu- nications occupations (postal, courier etc) most at risk (Nedelkoska, & Quintini, 2018). While new waves of au- tomation over the last decade have not yet led to signif- icant employment losses in any country, it is influencing" "employment growth between occupations and the skills demands within them. The lowest skilled are becoming more concentrated in the most vulnerable sectors and occupations (OECD, 2021). On the upside, technology acted to protect large numbers of jobs in the Covid 19 crisis, enabling workers to continue even when lockdowns prevented them physically going to work. The uptake of telework will likely lead to accelerated use of new tech- nology after the crisis. While recent job retention schemes have been effective at reducing and slowing redundancies and sustaining employment and business viability, they come at a cost to fiscal balances. The likelihood of slow output growth for several years and the need for further restorative public spending (for e.g., on physical and mental health and education services) will put public finances under considerable pressure for several years to come. All this will have an ongoing impact on PES and acceler- ate pressures that they were already experiencing and responding to. PES will need to continue to demonstrate increasing effectiveness and efficiency and deliver re- sults in helping the workforce and employers to adjust and ‘build back better’. One means of PES responding to the multiple challenges that they and the labour market face is through further development of partnerships. This will involve review of existing partnership arrangements and further learning from the many strong examples of PES facilitating closer working across organisational boundaries. By sharing good examples and best practice PES can highlight and encourage further positive en- gagement between stakeholders in enhancing social and labour market inclusion through delivery of increasingly citizen centric services.
    • Governance thresholds and the human capital–growth nexus

      Apergis, Nick; Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad; University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece; University of Derby; Queen Mary University of London, UK; IQRA University, Islamabad, Pakistan (Emerald, 2021-10-20)
      The literature that explores the relationship between human capital and economic growth has produced mixed results. It highlights the puzzle on the correlations between human capital and economic growth. This study contributes to this debate by offering an explanation of the puzzling effects. Using the threshold model proposed by Kremer et al. (2013), the results document that there is a threshold effect in the human capital–growth nexus. The findings illustrate that the relationship between human capital and economic growth is weakly positive up to a certain threshold level of governance; however, the relationship turns out to be positive once the threshold level has been achieved. The mixed evidence on the human capital–growth relationship can be explained through institutional quality differences. The findings recommend that better governance is complementary to contribute to the productive use of human capital in achieving higher economic growth.
    • Circular Economy in Agri-Food Sector: Food Waste Management Perspective

      Tanveer, Umair; Ishaq, Shamaila; Gough, Andrew; University of Bristol; University of Derby; University of Northampton (Springer, 2021-09-15)
      Reducing the food waste is the greatest challenge in the present times for sustainable food management systems that have significant economic, environmental and social impact on the food supply chain. The Circular Economy (CE) paradigm advocates the concept of the closed-loop economy endorsing more responsible utilization and appropriate exploitation of resources in contrast to the open-ended linear economic system of take-make-use and dispose. This chapter has explored Agri-Food waste in the context of CE, triple bottom line (TBL), and sustainability. An alignment of circular strategies with the food waste hierarchy is proposed that indicates practical application of the gradations of circularity in the food waste management that could lead to the development of sustainable food management system targeting the sustainable development goals of Zero Hunger and Responsible consumption and production. This chapter also highlights some opportunities and challenges of Agri-Food waste in the application of circular bio-economy.
    • The vision and the mission of the International Journal of Spa and Wellness

      Clarke, Alan; azara, Iride; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2018-06-05)
    • An exploration into Gen Ys attitudes and behaviour towards volunteering whilst backpacking

      Jelaca, Elena; Azara, Iride; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby (Goodfellows, 2021-09-01)
      This study focuses on Generation Ys’ attitudes and behaviour towards engaging in volunteer tourism whilst backpacking. To that end, we first examine Gen Ys’ generational characteristics and the predominant attitudes and behaviours displayed by this generational cohort. Then the focus is shifted to understanding Generation Y as backpackers and their internal and external motivations. These motivations are queried under the prism of volunteer tourism; being seen as factors determining the level of engagement with volunteer tourism and overall backpacking behaviour while travelling. This chapter provides insights into the themes described above by examining the relevant tourism literature. Finally, it summarises the theoretical gaps in the extant literature and sets objectives for future research, whilst signposting authors to key literature sources.
    • How will Blockchain Technology Transform Supply Chains? Science mapping on Blockchain Technology

      Daniel, Jay; University of Derby (Production and Operations Management Society (POMS), 2021-05)
      As most blockchain initiatives are yet at the first outset, this research explores blockchain technology in supply chain through literature survey and bibliometric review. The study reveals some interesting findings of the direction and trends of blockchain technology and emerging research themes, leading countries, key authors and new emerging topics.