• They think I'm stupid: Dealing with supervisor feedback.

      Lee, Amanda; University of Derby (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018-01-31)
      This chapter reflects upon the author’s personal experiences of dealing with supervisor feedback as she progressed through her doctoral studies. Feelings of inadequacy are addressed and advice is given on how to deal with this and move forward. Finally, practical hints and tips for dealing with supervisor feedback are provided.
    • Threats to auditor independence: Evidence from Iran

      Fashami, Ashkan Mirzay; Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Omoteso, Kamil; University of Derby; Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia (Athens Institute for Education and Research, 2019-12-23)
      This paper aims to examine threats to auditor independence in Iran. A mixed questionnaire, including both quantitative closed-ended questions and an open-ended qualitative question, is developed to investigate threats to auditor independence. Moreover, thematic analysis is used to triangulate the results against financial media articles throughout 1994 – 2014. Findings suggest that while bribery, non-audit services, and economic condition are key threats to auditor independence in Iran, gifts and presents do not compromise independence given the Iranian culture. This study contributes to a better understanding of auditor independence in Iran, which may apply to other regional settings. Moreover, it provides some suggestions to improve the current Iranian Audit Organisation’s auditor independence framework. (JEL M32)
    • Time, place, space and the academic labour process.

      Lee, Amanda; DiDomenico, MariaLaura; Saunders, Mark N. K.; University of Surrey; University of Birmingham (2017-04-10)
      Drawing on empirical findings from a longitudinal ethnographic study of a post 1992 UK university business school, we argue that structural and organisational changes taking place in the working environment have implications for the way in which time, place and space are experienced, articulated and conceptualised by academics and the organisation. Our research examined the impact of formalised location independent working (LIW) practices on the lives, relationships and identities of academics in the case study institution.
    • To agree or disagree? An analysis of CSR ratings firms

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2019-05-16)
      With the increasing use of CSR ratings firms' data to guide ethical investing and to derive findings in academic studies, there has been a growth in the number of ratings firms. These firms use differing methodologies and data to derive their ratings. Therefore, it is important to understand whether ratings are commensurable, as decisions made on the basis of the ratings data used may differ. This paper assesses the level of agreement between two ratings firms, Bloomberg and CSR Hub across three main CSR subcategories and an overall score. It uses Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient on continuous ratings, and cross-tabulation and Cohen’s kappa on ranked ratings within a sample of 720 US and EU companies. For both continuous and ranked data, there is most agreement on Employees/Social, Community/Social and Overall categories and weaker agreement on Environmental and Governance categories. Firms in the German DAX are most consistently rated, as are large and medium-sized firms. These findings propose a degree of caution for investors and academics using only one rater as the basis for their decisions/inferences. Accounting practitioners should be aware their CSR disclosures result in differing ratings and should consider which raters their key investors use. This paper is original in the comprehensive range of methods used to analyse two ratings firms across all CSR sub-categories, in samples from both the US and EU.
    • Tourism and ethnodevelopment: Inclusion, empowerment and self determination – a case study of the Chatham Islands of New Zealand/Aotearoa.

      Cardow, Andrew; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Goodfellow Publishers, 2017-08)
      In the twenty-first century indigenous tourism development research has focused on projects aligned with planning destinations diversifying and regenerating using tourism as a lever. There is an obvious impact upon indigenous and imported destination culture and society because of the effect of increased economic and environmental activities (Moyle & Evans 2008; Brown, 2009; Gurung & Seeland 2008; Hinch & Butler, 2009). This research examines public and private sector responses to the diversification of a sub-Antarctic island community through tourism. In particular the research will examine the policy changes undertaken by local government in respect to the indigenous tourism offering on the Islands. Since a more public and efficient transportation opened the Chatham Islands up to visitors, public sector policy has reinforced bi-culturalism in the vernacular, idiosyncratic and contingent approach to tourism. The focus however remains on economic and environmental sustainability based upon the conservation of indigenous tracts of land and sea with marine reserves and scarce and sacred territorial ambitions reigned in by the Moriori and the later Maori invaders (King, and Morrison 1990). Concurrently the private sector response has been driven by new migrants with ideologically confrontational demands that have both irked long-term residents and cut across public policy.
    • Tourism to religious sites, case studies from Hungary and England: exploring paradoxical views on tourism, commodification and cost–benefits

      Wiltshier, Peter; Clarke, Alan; University of Derby (Inderscience Publishers, 2012-09-10)
      The application of systems theory to tourism development has a pedigree that has largely been derived from econometrics and macro–economic theory (Baggio et al., 2010; Franch et al., 2010; Choi and Sirakaya, 2006; Schianetz and Kavanagh, 2007, 2008; Dwyer et al., 2010). This paper identifies opportunities and some barriers to developing sites of religious worship for tourism to maximise income and engage appropriate resources allocation strategies. The authors have investigated tourism development that is sympathetic to sacred purposes at these sites over several years. Religious sites are now acknowledging that homogeneous supply responses may no longer be appropriate. Each special site demands a heterogeneous response of site guardians to changeable demand and careful evaluation of how to maximise income generated from very limited resources. This necessitates improved skills in guardians to build appropriate point of sale products and services that fit with consumption expectations and are congruent with sacred purpose.
    • Tourism, health, wellbeing and protected areas.

      Azara, Iride; Michopoulou, Eleni; Niccolini, Federico; Taff, B. Derrick; University of Derby (CABI, 2018-05-01)
      Around the world, there is mounting evidence that parks and protected areas contribute to a healthy civil society, thus increasing the economic importance of cultural and nature-based tourism. Operating at the intersection of business and the environment, tourism can improve human health and wellbeing as well as serve as a catalyst for increasing appreciation and stewardship of the natural world. While the revenues from nature-based activities help to make the case for investing in park and protected area management; the impacts they have need to be carefully managed, so that visitors do not destroy the natural wonders that attracted them to a destination in the first place. This book features contributions from tourism and recreation researchers and practitioners exploring the relationship between tourism, hospitality, protected areas, livelihoods and both physical and emotional human wellbeing. The book includes sections focused on theory, policy and practice, and case studies, to inform and guide industry decisions to address real-world problems and proactively plan for a sustainable and healthy future.
    • Tourism, indigenous peoples and endogeneity in the Chatham Islands.

      Wiltshier, Peter; Cardow, Andrew; University of Derby; Massey University (Emerald, 2008)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight indigenous and endogenous components of community capacity development through a focus on enterprise with renewed vigour and fervency attributable to local power elites and local collaboration and cooperation. Design/methodology/approach – The twenty‐first century identifies good practices in many aspects of bottom‐up planning and implementation in neoliberal political economies. New Zealand is for many reasons, due to scale, skills and education, an example of endogenous development that is used globally for best practice studies. This paper specifically identifies and explores the local responses to the challenge of democracy and opportunities for diversification through tourism services provision on the Chatham Islands. Findings – The paper notes that community capacity and governance on the Chathams has been the subject of discussion in recent years and the focus has been directed to conflicts in governance and possibly inappropriate policy and practice coordination. Although the refocus on endogenous development, empowerment and devolution of responsibility has a long pedigree in the context of the neoliberal economy, insufficient attention has been paid to the skills, inclination, social and economic capital for indigenous enterprise, more so in an environment of isolation, relative deprivation and dependence. Originality/value – This paper highlights indigenous and endogenous components of community capacity development through a focus on enterprise with renewed vigour and fervency attributable to local power elites and local collaboration and cooperation. A useful model of indigenous tourism development and its endogenous antecedents is considered at the conclusion.
    • Towards a Deeper Understanding of 21st Century Global Terrorism

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2016)
      This paper examines essential issues relating to the rise and nature of violent extremism involving non-state actors and groups in the early 21st century. The global trends in terrorism and violent extremism are examined in relation to Western governments' counter terror operations. The paper analyses the existing legal framework for fighting violent extremism and terrorism and highlights the inherent limitations of the current International Law of War in dealing with the growing challenges posed by terrorists and violent extremist groups. The paper discusses how terrorist groups use civilians, women and children as tools and weapon of war to fuel their campaign of terror and suggests ways in which the international community could deal with the challenge of fighting terrorist groups without putting civilians, women and children in harm way. The paper emphasises the need to uphold human rights values and respect for the law of war in our response to global terrorism. The paper poses the question as to whether the current legal framework for dealing with terrorist groups is sufficient without contravening the essential provisions and ethos of the International Law of War and Human Rights. While the paper explains how terrorist groups flagrantly disregard the rule of law and disrespect human rights in their campaign of terror, it also notes instances in which the current Western strategy in fighting terrorism may be viewed or considered as conflicting with human rights and international law.
    • Towards conceptualizing reverse service supply chains

      He, Qile; Ghobadian, Abby; Gallear, David; Beh, Loo-See; O'Regan, Nicholas; Coventry University; University of Reading; Brunel University; University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; University of the West of England (Emerald, 2016-03-14)
      Recognizing the heterogeneity of services, this paper aims to clarify the characteristics of forward and the corresponding reverse supply chains of different services. The paper develops a two-dimensional typology matrix, representing four main clusters of services according to the degree of input standardization and the degree of output tangibility. Based on this matrix, this paper develops a typology and parsimonious conceptual models illustrating the characteristics of forward and the corresponding reverse supply chains of each cluster of services. The four main clusters of service supply chains have different characteristics. This provides the basis for the identification, presentation and explanation of the different characteristics of their corresponding reverse service supply chains. The findings of this research can help future researchers to analyse, map and model forward and reverse service supply chains, and to identify potential research gaps in the area. The findings of the research can help managers of service firms to gain better visibility of their forward and reverse supply chains, and refine their business models to help extend their reverse/closed-loop activities. Furthermore, the findings can help managers to better optimize their service operations to reduce service gaps and potentially secure new value-adding opportunities. This paper is the first, to the authors ' knowledge, to conceptualize the basic structure of the forward and reverse service supply chains while dealing with the high level of heterogeneity of services.
    • Transformation of destination leadership networks

      Hristov, D; Minocha, S; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Elsevier, 09/10/2018)
      This paper investigates the transformation of a destination leadership network within a new funding and governance landscape for Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) and destinations in England. Current longitudinal evidence into the transformation of destination leadership networks and emergent Distributed Leadership (DL) in the literature domain of DMOs and destinations is thin. This study adopts a longitudinal case study and ego-network Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach, drawing on the perspectives of the founding and current Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of a DMO coupled with semi-structured expert interviews with policy makers from VisitEngland. Longitudinal data findings provide useful insights into the transformation of DMOs and their wider networks through the enactment of DL in order to cope with change and uncertainty.
    • Transgenerational business legacies and intergenerational succession among the Igbos (Nigeria)

      Igwe, Paul; Madichie, Nnamdi; Amoncar, Nihar; University of Lincoln; Abertay University Dundee; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-17)
      The main purpose of this study is to highlight the entrepreneurial exploits of an ethnic group within the African context. The research context is the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria who have been celebrated as the pinnacle of African entrepreneurship. The study also draws on the narratives of 25 experienced business owners, and the emerging data thematically analysed to identify key variables associated with transgenerational business legacies and succession. Additional insight on salient cultural and community nuances like the role of Di-okpara (first son), Umunna (sons of the land), Ikwu (members of a Kindred) and Umuada (daughters of the land) were unravelled through interview transcripts and validated by respondents. These insights inform a contribution to the discourse of ethnic or indigenous entrepreneurship, which has both theoretical and policy implications.
    • The transition to a low carbon economy: a call for collaborative action towards the ‘new normal’.

      Conway, Elaine; Paterson, Fred; Baranova, Polina; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-12)
    • Transition to a low carbon economy: an SME perspective.

      Baranova, Polina; Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-09)
      This chapter provides in-depth insights into small and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs) organisational practices and strategies in the context of the transition to a low carbon economy. The focus is drawn towards the importance of SMEs’ role in the development of markets for low carbon products and services as well as their contributions towards a decarbonised economy (DECC 2008, 2011, 2013). A range of case studies presented in the chapter illustrates strategies adopted by SMEs towards achieving advantage in their respective industries through green and/or low carbon innovation and organisational practices towards sustainability. The chapter explores the complexity of challenges and opportunities presented by the transition to a low carbon economy in the UK and internationally. The chapter concludes by developing a range of recommendations towards strengthening SMEs' potential to ensure their competitiveness and their continuous pivotal role as an economic and social force in transition towards a low carbon economy.
    • Transition to a low carbon economy: on the cusp of the emerging challenges and opportunities.

      Baranova, Polina; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-09)
      This chapter sets the context in which the present study of opportunities and challenges presented by the transition to a low carbon economy is undertaken. It outlines the significance of a low carbon economy and the benefits associated with the green growth. The theme of sustainability transitions is explored at the beginning of the chapter. The chapter provides a brief overview of the book chapters outlining their contribution to academic and professional debates. The chapter concludes with emphasising the importance of leadership for sustainability at various levels. It calls to widen the remit of sustainability initiatives associated with the transition to a low carbon economy from narrow view of cost cutting measures to broader initiatives that strengthen competitive success and organisational strategies towards sustainability.
    • Transitional justice in the Middle East and North Africa – taking account of Islam.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Birmingham (De Gruyter, 2017-07-26)
      The core of the argument of this article is that the integration of Islamic notions of justice into transitional justice mechanisms in the MENA makes for a more viable and sustainable transitional justice process in the region. This would mean a critical cultural value in the MENA is given a place in dealing with the past and mapping out a sustainable future in the region. The argument here is premised on the logic that a social transformation-focused enterprise like transitional justice ought to engage with Islam for sustainable outcomes in societies in the MENA where Islam is very influential. Given the significant role and influence of Islam on cultural, socio-political and legal institutions in the MENA, a process of transitional justice that takes account of Islamic values and practices is important for negotiating justice and institutionalising reforms in societies in the region.
    • Travails of truth: achieving justice for victims of impunity in Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (Oxford University Press, 2007-08-10)
      Following its transition from authoritarian military rule marked by gross violations of human rights, Nigeria established the Human Rights Violations Investigations Commission (HRVIC) in 1999. This paper critically examines the contributions of the Commission popularly known as the ‘Oputa Panel’ to the field of transitional justice and the rule of law. It sets out the process of establishing the Commission, the mandate of the HRVIC and how this was interpreted during the course of the Commission’s work. The challenges faced by the Oputa Panel are analysed to serve as signposts for other truth commissions, particularly in relation to its legal status and relationship with the judiciary. Recourse by some powerful individuals to the judicial process in a bid to shield them from the Truth Commission merits particular review as it raises questions regarding the transformation of the judiciary and the rule of law in the wake of an authoritarian regime.
    • Trends and developments in PES partnership working.

      Nunn, Alex; Leeds Beckett University (European Commission, 2015-01)
    • Trends in violence victimisation: Incidence rates, prevalence and crime concentration of stranger and acquaintance violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tilley, Nick; Tseloni, Andromachi; Nottingham Trent University (2016-07-08)
      Violence has fallen in Britain over the last two decades. To understand better why violence has fallen over time, this present paper investigates Britain’s long-term trends in different types of violence crime victimisation, including stranger and acquaintance violence. This study uses data stemming from the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW), which is considered one of the most reliable data source to examine crime trends. It draws on weighted data from 1992-2013/14 and examines prevalence, incidence and crime concentration trends, for victims of six specific age groups (16–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–plus) and separately for males and females. The findings shed important light on differences in the trends of stranger and acquaintance violence during the recent two decades. They also reveal which violence victimised subgroups are potentially the main drivers of the decline in violence. The study emphasizes the importance of making a distinction between different violence crime types when examining violence trends. The present paper is part of a larger project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), Secondary Data Analysis Initiative (SDAI) Phase 2 and continues previous ESRC, SDAI Phase 1 funded work on burglary and ESRC funded work on the international crime drop. Details of the current project as well as previous work on crime trends can be found at: www.ntu.ac.uk/apps/research/groups/4/home.aspx/project/178996/overview/violence_trends_