• The regulation of illegal fundraising in China

      Huang, Flora; Liu, Xinmin; Yeung, Horace; University of Essex (Taylor and Francis, 2018-10-03)
      The rise of financial technology means that it is easier than ever to raise funds from a large group of people, notably via peer-to-peer lending or crowdfunding platforms. This article seeks to discuss the law on illegal fundraising, which has existed for some time before the boom of the Internet, as a legal response to the increasing number of fundraising from the public. Regulation is necessary to ensure market order and investor protection. Virtually in all markets, there are restrictions on how entities can make a public offer of shares, bonds and/or other investment schemes. There are several laws, most notably criminal law, in China that are relevant to illegal fundraising. An individual/company can poten- tially breach one or more of these rules as long as they attempt to raise funds from a non-conventional (i.e. not stock markets or banks) route. The worst outcome of this used to be death penalty. There has been a degree of ambiguities in the application of these laws. The article will attempt to clarify these ambiguities. The regulation of illegal fundraising can have a far reaching conse- quence on the financial markets in China, considering that non- state entities, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises, have limited access to conventional finance. The article will con- sider whether China is on the right track in terms of regulation to allow alternative fundraising channels to thrive. This article is the first ever to present a holistic account of the regulation of illegal fundraising in China.
    • Rehabilitation, punishment and profit: The dismantling of public-sector probation

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (British Spciety of Criminology, 2013-06)
      Probation has been nurtured and developed for over a century as the key cornerstone of our community justice system in England and Wales. However, a fundamental transformation in the way in which offenders are managed in the community is underway. After 106 years of rehabilitative intervention, the Probation Service is about to be dismantled - at least, in its traditional public sector incarnation. On 9 May 2013, Justice Secretary Chris Grayling formally confirmed the Conservative-Liberal Democratic coalition government's plans to privatise the majority of probation work by 2015. While few would argue with the principle of supporting rehabilitation, there was controversy over both how this could be achieved and which agencies might deliver it. The privatisation of probation was viewed as a key component of the government’s “rehabilitation revolution”.
    • Reinforcing users’ confidence in statutory audit during a post-crisis period: An empirical study.

      Aziz, U.A.; Omoteso, Kamil; De Montfort University; Coventry University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014-11-04)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that are perceived as important for the statutory audit function to restore confidence in the financial statements, its value relevance and decision usefulness in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Design/methodology/approach – This research used a structured questionnaire to collect data from practising accountants, auditors and accounting academics within the UK. A factor analysis was undertaken to examine the potential inter-correlations that could exist between different factors obtained from the literature. The analysis reduced these variables into the more important factors which were subsequently modelled in a logistic regression analysis. Findings – The paper identified, as critical factors for enhancing statutory audits, “a continuously updated accounting curriculum”, “expansion of the auditor's role”, “frequent meetings between regulators and auditors”, “mandatory rotation of auditors”, “limiting the provision of non-audit services”, “knowledge requirements from disciplines other than accounting” and “encouraging joint audits”. It is hoped that addressing these issues might improve confidence in the audit profession, thereby reinforcing its value relevance. Research limitations/implications – The study's findings imply that professional accountancy bodies, accounting educators and accounting firms will need to incorporate the key factors identified in this study into their curriculum and training schemes. However, the generalisability of these findings might be limited as the research data were primarily obtained from UK accountants alone. Originality/value – This study extends the frontiers of knowledge on critical factors that could reinforce users’ confidence in the statutory audit function and have implications for policy and practice.
    • The relationship between a person’s criminal history, immediate situational factors, and lethal versus non-lethal events.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University; Loughborough University, UK; Leiden University, The Netherlands; Leiden University, The Netherlands (Sage, 2015-07-20)
      When investigating serious violence, studies tend to look primarily at offenders and their background. This study investigates the influence of offenders’ and victims’ criminal history and immediate situational factors on the likelihood that violent events will end lethally. For this purpose, we compare lethal with non-lethal events, and combine Dutch criminal records with data from court files of those involved in lethal (i.e., homicide, n = 126) versus non-lethal events (i.e., attempted homicide, n = 141). Results reveal that both criminal history and immediate situational factors clearly matter for the outcome of violent events; however, immediate situational factors have the strongest effect on violent outcomes.
    • The relationship between empathy and prison bullying in a sample of Croatian prisoners

      Sekol, Ivana; University of Osijek (2018)
      This paper examined the relationship between empathy and bullying amongst Croatian prisoners. Four hundred and ninety-three prisoners from 11 Croatian prisons filled in a battery of questionnaires including the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe and Farrington, 2005) and Direct and Indirect Prisoner Behaviour Checklist- Revised (Ireland, 2002). The results demonstrated that empathy was unrelated to bullying amongst prisoners. However, lower affective empathy was found amongst prisoners who: a) served their first prison sentence at a younger age ; b) spent time in psychiatric hospitals prior to their imprisonment ; c) had substance abuse problems before entering the prison ; and d) spent time in solitary confinement during their imprisonment. Prisoners who scored high on affective empathy have had more regular contact with their friends and family during their imprisonment, but were also more likely to attempt suicide prior to their incarceration. The results are discussed in light of previous research on the relationship between empathy and behavioural outcomes amongst prisoners. It is concluded that empathy might better distinguish between behavioural outcomes of various groups of prisoners prior to their incarceration, while prisoners’ behaviour within the prison setting might be more determined by contextual factors. More research is, however, needed to examine this hypothesis.
    • Relationship between routines of supplier selection and evaluation, risk perception and propensity to form buyer–supplier partnerships

      Gallear, David; Ghobadian, Abby; He, Qile; Kumar, Vikas; Hitt, Michael; Brunel University London; University of Reading; University of Derby; University of the West of England; Texas A&M University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-01-25)
      Supply chain partnership is viewed as an important contributor to superior competitiveness, yet the knowledge of ex-ante factors contributing to the deployment of supply chain partnership is nascent. This paper examines the influence of the current supplier selection routines, supplier evaluation routines, and managerial attitude towards relational and performance risks on the future intention to form buyer–supplier partnerships, based on relational and evolutionary economics theory. The analysis is based on 156 questionnaires received from senior executives and supply/logistics managers of UK firms. We found that partner selection routine positively influences firms’ propensity (future intention) to form buyer–supplier partnerships, unlike the supplier evaluation routine and perceptions of both relational risk and performance risk, which were not found to have a significant role. Our findings suggest that firms wishing to initiate buyer–supplier partnerships can increase the likelihood of doing so by ensuring that their supplier selection routines incorporate efforts to establish potential suppliers’ inclination for openness in a relationship, to establish their track record of demonstrating a high degree of integrity with other buyers, and to confirm that potential suppliers have a deep knowledge and understanding of the buyer’s business, a recognized strong reputation, and demonstrable financial stability.
    • Religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and wales religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and Wales: interim findings and emergent themes

      Weller, Paul; Contractor, Sariya; University of Derby (AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society Research Programme Podcasts, 2012-09-05)
      Issues around discrimination and equality in religion or belief are sensitive and highly contested, involving freedom of conscience and speech; religious activity in community and public life; employer and service provider responsibilities. They connect with understandings of religion, social policy and the law. Put alongside issues of gender and sexual orientation, there has often been tension and conflict. The “Religion and Belief, Discrimination and Equality in England and Wales: Theory, Policy and Practice (2000-2010)” research project is in its final year. It aims to be a benchmark study, including comparison with results of 1999-2001 research on “Religious Discrimination in England in Wales”. The completed research includes a national questionnaire survey of religious organisations and fieldwork among religious, public, private and voluntary sector groups (including focus groups with the “non-religious”). Review of legal cases and policy developments continues while a review on religious discrimination evidence was published in 2011 by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/research_report_73_religious_discrimination.pdf). At the conference it will be possible to present some provisional findings and emergent themes which will then be tested further during Autumn 2012 in a series of Knowledge Exchange Workshops with practitioners from the public, private, voluntary, religion and belief, and legal sectors.
    • Religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and wales religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and Wales: interim findings and emergent themes

      Weller, Paul; Contractor, Sariya; University of Derby (2012-09-05)
      Issues around discrimination and equality in religion or belief are sensitive and highly contested, involving freedom of conscience and speech; religious activity in community and public life; employer and service provider responsibilities. They connect with understandings of religion, social policy and the law. Put alongside issues of gender and sexual orientation, there has often been tension and conflict. The “Religion and Belief, Discrimination and Equality in England and Wales: Theory, Policy and Practice (2000-2010)” research project is in its final year. It aims to be a benchmark study, including comparison with results of 1999-2001 research on “Religious Discrimination in England in Wales”. The completed research includes a national questionnaire survey of religious organisations and fieldwork among religious, public, private and voluntary sector groups (including focus groups with the “non-religious”). Review of legal cases and policy developments continues while a review on religious discrimination evidence was published in 2011 by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/research_report_73_religious_discrimination.pdf). At the conference it will be possible to present some provisional findings and emergent themes which will then be tested further during Autumn 2012 in a series of Knowledge Exchange Workshops with practitioners from the public, private, voluntary, religion and belief, and legal sectors.
    • Religion and belief, equality and inequality in UK higher education

      Weller, Paul; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (Routledge, 2016-07-22)
    • Religion and belief-related hate incidents in higher education: a research and evaluation report

      Aune, Kristin; Peacock, Lucy; Cheruvallil-Contractor, Sariya; Weller, Paul; Coventry University (Coventry University, 2019)
      The research report is informed by the findings of two surveys, both of which were available both online and on paper. The surveys aimed to recruit as many Coventry University students as were interested in participating, including distance learning students, across all of its campuses. The baseline survey - which secured 612 useable responses - aimed at understanding Coventry University students’ attitudes to, direct experiences of, and experiences of witnessing hate incidents related to religion or belief, irrespective of whether or not they are themselves religious or subscribe to a particular belief system. The follow-up survey (which secured 286 responses) aimed to assess the impact of the project, including of the religion and other harassment case manager’s work, in raising the visibility of religion or belief hate crime and hate crime reporting. While the numbers involved in the surveys are too small for statistically reliable conclusions to be drawn, the results taken across the two surveys have indicative value.
    • Religion and state in marriage, cohabitation and civil partnership

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Springer Verlag, 2015)
      I explore several case studies on the relationship between the state, marriage, cohabitation and civil partnership as points of intersection between religious tradition, personal belief and commitment, familial and social belonging, the conditions of modernity, and the structures and laws of modern bureaucratic states. The first example highlights the plurality of legal traditions that can exist within single polities by referencing the historic example of Greta Green in Scotland where, historically, young people under marriageable age in English law eloped and married under Scots law. The second is the controversy generated in the UK in 2007 when the then Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Rowan Williams, explored whether some personal law aspects of the Muslim Shariah might be recognized within English law. Next I outline some of the principal meanings attributed to marriage particularly by Christianity in Europe, and where Christian views are generally contractual, companionate or sacramental. In most societies informed by Christianity, the principal form has been monogamy between a man and a woman. There is sharp debate and controversy around emergent forms for the public recognition of relationships between individuals of homosexual and lesbian sexual orientation. What are often popularly called gay marriages highlight the more general problematics involved in questions how marriage, cohabitation and civil partnership are handled in relation to religion, tradition and modernity. Most social, legal and state systems include elements of more than one model and it is unlikely that any one model will be suitable in all circumstances. At issue are how far the state can and/or should impose unitary legal and social policy frameworks and what exceptions and plural approaches can be accepted and implemented? I argue for the development of an appropriate religious literacy among policy makers and civil servants who deal with the above issues. This is not on the basis that social policy and legal developments should necessarily endorse religious perspectives, but because democratic societies need to be capable of connecting with the perspectives and realities of those who organize their personal and social lives according to such perspectives.
    • Religious freedom in the Baptistic vision and in Fethullah Gülen: Resources for Muslims and Christians.

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Blue Dome Press, 2017-07-10)
      The chapter explores the place of religious freedom in both the Baptistic vision of Christianity and the teaching of the Turkish Muslim scholar, Fethullah Gulen. It does so by outlining the historic roots of the Baptistic vision of religious freedom in an England in which one form of Christianity was the established religion, and of Fethullah Gulen's teaching on religious freedom, emerging as it does out of the crucible of modern Turkish society and its encounter with the "secular". Also uncovered are their specific epistemological and hermeneutical roots which are discussed in relation the imperatives that both Islam and Christianity have towards Muslim "dawah" and Christian witness/mission. All of this leads into a summative critical discussion of the way in which both the Baptistic vision and Gulen's teachings on religious freedom can act as positive resources in the development of a plural and global society in which the exercise of religious freedom can take place in ways appropriate to a healthy relationship between the state and civil society, including the religious believers within it.
    • Religious minorities and freedom of religion or belief in the UK

      Weller, Paul; Coventry University; University of Derby; Regent's Park College, University of Oxford (Brill, 2018-03-27)
      By particular reference to the polity of the UK, this article discusses issues and options for groups identified as "religious minorities" in relation to issues of "religious freedom". It does so by seeking to ensure that such contemporary socio-legal discussions are rooted empirically in the full diversity of the UK's contemporary religious landscape, while taking account of (especially) 19th century (mainly Christian) historical antecedents. It argues that properly to understand the expansion in scope and substance of religious freedom achieved in the 19th century that account needs to be taken of the agency of the groups that benefited from this. Finally, it argues this history can be seen as a "preconfiguration" of the way in which religious minorities have themselves acted as key drivers for change in relevant 20th and 21st century UK law and social policy and could continue to do so in possible futures post-Brexit Referendum.
    • Religious organizations and the impact of human rights and equality laws in England and Wales.

      Kingsley, Purdam; Cheruvallil-Contractor, Sariya; Ghanea, Nazila; Weller, Paul; University of Manchester (2017-03-21)
      The framework for equality and the multiple aspects of identity that are protected in law, including on the basis of religion and belief, are continuously being redefined and reshaped through ongoing legal claims in England and Wales. In this article, we examine how religious organizations view equality and the extent to which different identity rights can be protected. We conducted a survey of religious organizations in England and Wales to examine attitudes and experiences in relation to changes in the equality laws. We found that equality is variously understood and many religious organizations give only limited recognition to certain legally protected characteristics including gender, sexual orientation and also the identities of other religious organizations. If the integration of equality in the form of identity rights is to be fully achieved within the legal framework of a liberal democratic state and alongside so-called British values, both religious and non-religious citizens alike need to take a greater responsibility for the understanding and recognition of identity differences. Equalities legislation is creating a constitutional framework for citizenship and it is important this new citizenship is structured around equality in practice at the individual and organizational level.
    • Remote working in academia: a site of contested identities.

      Lee, Amanda; University of Derby (British Academy of Management, 2018-09-01)
      This development paper discusses the affects and impact of formalised remote (location-independent) working on notions and construction of academic identity. Data is drawn from a six year longitudinal ethnographic study exploring the lived experiences of location-independent and office-based academics. Findings suggest academic identities are being dynamically recreated, with a more or less conscious awareness of how this is being done. The organisational decision to formalise location-independent working (LIW) led to a distinct group of academics identifying themselves as ‘LIW’ and office-based academics identifying themselves as distinct from their LIW colleagues. The dynamic interplay between LIW and office-based academics resulted in contested identities between these two groups. Despite these manufactured and socially constructed divisions, both groups identified strongly with the notion of an overarching academic identity. As such, the notion of academic identity was not contested, but it was seen as threatened and, potentially weakened, by the prevailing managerialist culture.
    • Renewing Criminalized and Hegemonic Cultural Landscapes

      Cayli, Baris; University of Stirling (2014)
      The Mafia's long historical pedigree in Mezzogiorno, Southern Italy, has empowered the Mafioso as a notorious, uncontested, and hegemonic figure. The counter-cultural resistance against the mafiosi culture began to be institutionalized in the early 1990s. Today, Libera Terra is the largest civil society organization in the country that uses the lands confiscated from the Mafia as a space of cultural repertoire to realize its ideals. Deploying labor force through volunteer participation, producing biological fruits and vegetables, and providing information to the students on the fields are the principal cultural practices of this struggle. The confiscated lands make the Italian experience of anti-Mafia resistance a unique example by connecting the land with the ideals of cultural change. The sociocultural resistance of Libera Terra conveys a political message through these practices and utters that the Mafia is not invincible. This study draws the complex panorama of the Mafia and anti-Mafia movement that uses the ‘confiscated lands’ as cultural and public spaces for resistance and socio-cultural change. In doing so, this article sheds new light on the relationship between rural criminology and crime prevention policies in Southern Italy by demonstrating how community development practice of Libera Terra changes the meaning of landscape through iconographic symbolism and ethnographic performance.
    • Repeat victimisation.

      Farrell, Graham; Pease, Ken; University of Leeds; Loughborough University (Routledge, 2016-11-01)
    • Research note: Developing ethnographic research on probation

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (De Montfort University and Sheffield Hallam University, 2007)
      Huge cultural changes are underway in probation. At the heart of those changes lie the frontline practitioners who have the daily task of working with offenders. Yet, amidst the plethora of research on probation practice, much of it officially sponsored, the life experiences and motivations of practitioners seem on occasion to be virtually invisible. Some research has been carried out on practitioners’ experience of specific areas (for example, OASys), but very little broad ethnographic research has been undertaken on UK probation practitioners. While much of our academic and criminological knowledge about probation is filtered through officially funded research on particular types of intervention, little is known of probation’s occupational culture. It is argued that ethnographic research with practitioners would substantially enhance our understanding of that occupational culture and help develop our understanding of probation.
    • Research on making the most of HS2 investments and connectivity in the EM Labour Market.

      Nunn, Alex; Hutchinson, Jo; Hobson, Chris; Clark, Elaine; University of Derby; East Midlands Chamber; Rail Forum East Midlands (East Midlands Councils, 2017-05)
    • Researching entrepreneurship: an approach to develop subjective understanding

      Rajasinghe, Duminda; Aluthgama-Baduge, Chinthaka; Mulholland, Gary; University of Northampton, Northampton, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK; AFG College with University of Aberdeen, Doha, Qatar (Emerald, 2021-04-29)
      Entrepreneurship is a complex social activity. Hence, knowledge production in the field requires inclusivity and diversity within research approaches and perspectives to appreciate the richness of the phenomenon. However, the dominance of positivist research in the field is visible, and the current qualitative research is also predominantly restricted to popular templates. This seems to have limited the understanding of entrepreneurship. This paper critically discusses the appropriateness of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) as an innovative qualitative research methodology that facilitates a fuller appreciation of the richness and diversity of entrepreneurship. This conceptual paper critically evaluates IPA's relevance for the stated purpose by reviewing both entrepreneurship and IPA literature. It discusses how IPA's philosophical underpinnings facilitate scholars to appreciate the wholeness of the phenomenon and provides literature informed data analysis guidance, thereby addressing some of the weaknesses of the qualitative research within the field. Critical evaluation of the literature suggests that IPA is an appropriate research methodology for entrepreneurship. It has the potential to address some interesting and timely questions to elaborate, deepen and qualify existing theory or to study relatively unexplored areas within the field. The laid-out guidance helps scholars to develop informed rationale for their research decisions and to ensure quality and rigour in qualitative research. This paper promotes the analysis of how people make sense of their experience as a valid way of knowing. IPA has a unique identity as it incorporates phenomenology, hermeneutics and idiography as a way to explore first-hand human experience to uncover qualitative understanding of entrepreneurship. The clear guidance and justifications in the paper promote scholarly confidence and address some preconceptions related to rigour, quality and validity of qualitative studies. Incorporating IPA into entrepreneurship, the paper also contributes to the demand for diversity, inclusivity and pluralism in qualitative research perspectives and approaches.