• Police interrogation practice in Slovenia

      Areh, Igor; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (2015-12-23)
      Interrogation techniques are well explored, but in Slovenia it has remained unknown what interrogation techniques are used and what the basic characteristics of suspect interrogations are. The Slovenian interrogation manual proposes some coercive interrogation techniques and neglects their weaknesses. The aim of the current study was to examine Slovenian police officers’ beliefs as to the basic characteristics of their interrogations and whether techniques proposed by the manual are used in practice to begin to provide some insight into what actually happens in such interrogations. A survey instrument was used to obtain selfreport data from a sample of criminal investigators. From 86 completed questionnaires it was found that a typical interrogation of a suspect lasts around 90 minutes and is not recorded. Interviewers typically use three interrogation techniques namely (i) conducting interrogations in isolation; (ii) identifying contradictions in the suspect’s story; and (iii) confronting the suspect with evidence. Findings suggest that some coercive interrogation techniques are used in practice (e.g. offering moral justifications, alluding to have evidence of guilt, good cop/bad cop routine, and minimization). The study is the first insight into the practices of Slovenian investigators when questioning suspects. Differences among general, white-collar and organized crime investigators are also discussed.
    • Police interview of suspects in China: developments and analyses

      Zeng, Fanging; Huang, Ching-Yu; Bull, Ray; University of China; Keele University; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-13)
      This paper investigates the power dynamics in police interviews with suspects in China by examining a real-life sample. It first overviews some recent developments and legislation in China regarding police interviewing of suspects, followed by outlining the linguistic and psychological research which the analyses are based upon. The interviews are examined using critical discourse analysis that reveals the high-power position of the Chinese police in suspect interviews. However, the large proportion of open questions found in the interviews is encouraging, as this suggests that the regulations outlawing use of evidence obtained by torture or other illegal means is taking effect. This paper is the very first to empirically examine actual Chinese police interviews with suspects, providing valuable insights for theories and practice.
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John L.M.; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; University of Wolverhampton; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-02-25)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and well-being of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.
    • Police Officers with degrees: the plan, challenges and (missing) evidence

      Wond, Tracey; University of Derby (CoPaCC, 2015-11-14)
      In early September 2015, I was fortunate enough to be present at one of the first consultations of the College of Policing’s ‘Educational Qualifications Framework’ (EQF). This piece explores the consultation and what this may mean for policing.
    • Police overestimation of criminal career homogeneity

      Pease, Ken; Roach, Jason; University of Derby (Wiley, 2013-10-07)
      Police presumptions about criminal career trajectories have been little studied. The exploratory study reported here involved 42 police staff of varying rank and experience. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that asked them to predict the type of offence that an individual with a specified prior record would most probably commit next. Participating police personnel substantially overstated the homogeneity of criminal careers, that is, the nature of prior offences determined their prediction of their next offence more than available official data would deem reasonable. An incidental finding was that officers who rated the probability of further offending highest were also those who thought criminal careers most specialised. The implications for operational police decision-making were discussed and held to be profound.
    • Police perceptions of rape victims and the impact on case decision making: A systematic review

      Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray; Coventry University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-02-24)
      Police officers are frequently perceived to hold negative attitudes about rape victims. The aim of this systematic review is to: (1) synthesise the current literature on police officers' attributions of rape victim blame, assessments of rape victim credibility, and rape myth acceptance; and, (2) examine the evidence that holding these attitudes impacts on police investigative decision making in rape cases. Twenty-four articles published between 2000 and 2016 were included following a systematic search of the available literature. The findings highlight that some police officers do hold problematic attitudes about rape victims e.g., blame, rape myth acceptance, although they are frequently noted to be at a low level. Furthermore, characteristics of the victim, e.g., alcohol intoxication and emotional expression, can affect attributions of victim credibility. Assessments of victim credibility were related to police investigative decision making e.g., recommendations to charge the perpetrator, perceptions of guilt. However, the impact of rape victim blaming and rape myth acceptance is less clear. Given that the literature was predominantly vignette-based, it is unclear how these judgements have an impact in real rape investigations.
    • Police strategies and suspect responses in real-life serious crime interviews

      Leahy-Harland, Samantha; Bull, Ray; Bournemouth University; University of Derby (Springer, 2016-09-13)
      This research focuses exclusively on real-life taped interviews with serious crime suspects and examines the strategies used and types of questions asked by police, and suspects’ responses to these. The information source was audio-tape-recorded interviews with 56 suspects. These recordings were obtained from 11 police services across England and Wales and were analysed using a specially designed coding frame. It was found that interviewers employed a range of strategies with presentation of evidence and challenge the most frequently observed. Closed questions were by far the most frequently used, and open questions, although less frequent, were found to occur more during the opening phases of the interviews. The frequency of ineffective question types (e.g. negative, repetitive, multiple) was low. A number of significant associations were observed between interviewer strategies and suspect responses. Rapport/empathy and open-type questions were associated with an increased likelihood of suspects admitting the offence whilst describing trauma, and negative questions were associated with a decreased likelihood.
    • Political discontent and the 21st Century's threats to global peace, security and human progress

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (College of Law, Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Derby, 2016)
      This paper examines 21st century relations between the State and the communities over which it, nominally at least, has jurisdiction. More specifically the aim of the paper is to explain both why and how so called mainstream politics is failing to engage with many peoples and communities around the world. To this end the paper identifies key areas of conflicts, tensions, mistrusts and other issues in both the domestic and international politics that could compromise the long term stability of nation states and threatens the peace, and security of peoples around the world. Cases are sited of hostile and un-diplomatic relations between states and ill-considered foreign policies that focus on narrow national interests rather than wider societal good. Based on the analysis presented, the paper concludes that the way politics is being played in the 21st century is a principal contributing factor to the current sense of despair and disconnection between the State and the governed. Tentative proposals are advanced towards forming a new politics which addresses the fear and concerns of other states, cultures and peoples as an integral part of any foreign policy and diplomatic relations.
    • The political economy of competitiveness and continuous adjustment in EU meta-governance.

      Nunn, Alex; Beeckmans, Paul; Leeds Beckett University (Taylor and Francis, 2015-10-23)
      This article asserts that attempts to resolve the crisis through recent changes in European meta-governance are just the latest phase in a project to secure “continual adjustment” in European societies to the systemic demands of competitiveness. The structural pressures experienced at the scale of European societies are located in the process and scale of world market integration. This New Materialist scalar-relational approach sees adjustment to the systemic demands of competitiveness as likely to continue into the future and suggests that the scope for alternative more Keynesian programs of reform through EU meta-governance is highly constrained.
    • The political economy of competitiveness and social mobility

      Nunn, Alex; Leeds Beckett University (Springer, 2012)
      Social mobility has become a mainstream political and media issue in recent years in the United Kingdom. This article suggests that part of the reason for this is that it can serve as a mechanism to discuss policy concerns that appear to be about social justice without questioning important aspects of neo-liberal political economy. The article charts the policy rhetoric on social mobility under both New Labour and the current Coalition Government. It is argued first that under New Labour the apparent commitment to social mobility was in fact subsumed beneath the pursuit of neo-liberal competitiveness, albeit imperfectly realised in policy. Second, the article suggests that under the Coalition Government the commitment to raising levels of social mobility has been retained and the recently published Strategy for Social Mobility promises that social mobility is what the Coalition means when it argues that the austerity programme is balanced with ‘fairness’. Third, however, the Strategy makes clear that the Coalition define social mobility in narrower terms than the previous government. It is argued here that in narrowing the definition the connection with the idea of competitiveness, while still clearly desirable for the Coalition, is weakened. Fourth, a brief analysis of the Coalition's main policy announcements provides little evidence to suggest that even the narrow definition set out in the Strategy is being seriously pursued. Fifth, the international comparative evidence suggests that any strategy aimed at genuinely raising the level of social mobility would need to give much more serious consideration to narrowing levels of inequality. Finally, it is concluded that when considered in the light of the arguments above, the Strategy for Social Mobility – and therefore ‘Fairness’ itself – is merely a discursive legitimation of the wider political economy programme of austerity.
    • The political economy of public employment services: measurement and disempowered empowerment?

      Nunn, Alex; Morgan, Jamie; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-21)
      Active labour market policies (ALMPs) and Public Employment Services are related components of European Union and member state labour market policy. Typically, PES are analysed in terms of a narrow concern with efficiency and effectiveness of service. In this paper we argue that PES are constituents in broader processes. They are not just means to facilitate employment, they are also part of transmission mechanisms for a political economy of competitiveness. They play a particular role in governance processes, and so serve to produce and reproduce power relations that are intrinsic to those processes. We argue that the technical ways that PES have been managed over recent decades has contributed to broader processes of disempowering labour, through depoliticised management practices. We argue that attempts at even limited re-empowerment of labour would require a repoliticisation of these management practices.
    • Political socialization, worry about crime and antisocial behaviour: an analysis of age, period and cohort effects.

      Gray, Emily; Grasso, Maria; Farrall, Stephen; Jennings, Will; Hay, Colin; University of Sheffield; Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK; Department of Politics, University of Sheffield, Northumberland Road, Sheffield, UK; Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK; Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, UK; et al. (Oxford University Presss, 2018-08-07)
      Fear of crime occupies a substantial area of research and theorizing in criminology. Yet, it has not been examined within a longitudinal framework of political socialization. Using insights from generational modelling, we explore how political cohorts influence the fear of crime and perceptions of antisocial behaviour. This ‘age, period and cohort’ (APC) approach recognizes the distinct temporal processes of (1) individual ageing, (2) current contexts and (3) generational membership and is crucial to understanding the origins and shape of social change. We employ repeated cross-sectional data from the British Crime Survey in an APC analysis to explore how worry about crime and perceptions of antisocial behaviour were impacted by the sociopolitical environment in which respondents spent their ‘formative years’. Our results underline the theoretical significance of political socialization and the methodological consequence of longitudinal analyses when exploring public perceptions of crime. We find that political socialization can have a distinctive and enduring impression on public perceptions of crime from childhood into middle age.
    • The politics of fear: Religion(s), conflict and diplomacy

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2016)
      As historical phenomena, religions (as well as ideologies) have played varied and often ambiguous roles in the context of international relations, violent conflicts, peace-making and diplomacy (Ferguson, 1977; Haynes, 1988), and especially so at the interface between civilisations informed by Christianity and those informed by Islam (Armstrong, 1988; Partner, 1997). This paper focuses on aspects of those roles as the context for these has changed over the past half a century within the context of a broader setting shaped by what has come to be known as the “politics of fear” (Furedi, 2006), originally shaped by the threat of nuclear Mutually Assured Destruction and now by the threat of global terror attacks.
    • The politics of migration in the UK from an artist's perspective - a conversation place No. 6, with a French artist Chris Dugrenier on migration and dance streamed live on May 5, 2015

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Dance4, 2015)
      In this video, Dr Francis Jegede from the University of Derby and a Latin Dance enthusiast, explores the intersection of International Relations, Dance and Politics within the context of current debate and controversies surrounding the issue of migration in the UK. The video was produced by Dance4 under their Conversation Place project. A Conversation Place is a Dance4 project that brings together intriguing and provoking combinations of people who wouldn't normally meet face-to-face to shine a new light on the discourse that surrounds contemporary dance and choreographic practice. Project was set up with the hope that brief glimpses of the lives and ideas of Dance4 guest speakers and friends, shared online, can open up different perspectives on social issues and challenges facing society in Great Britain and beyond. Dance4 is an international centre for the development of extraordinary 21st century dance. A unique voice in the UK dance sector. Their work supports artists and practitioners who are interested in the development of dance as a tool for community development.
    • Politics, research design, and the ‘architecture’ of criminal careers studies

      Farrall, Stephen; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2021-04-22)
      Criminal careers research is one of the bedrocks – if not the bedrock – of criminology. It remains a key focal point of criminological research, and has embraced ideas and theorising from sociology, psychology, psychiatry and urban and community studies. Despite the widening of the landscape of what might be termed ‘the criminological enterprise’ (to include victimology, prisons research, punishment, deterrence, and environmental criminology), criminal careers (now differentiated into studies of onset, persistence and desistance) remains a key plank of criminology. This article critiques the research design of longitudinal studies of criminal careers, arguing that a key explanatory factor has been consistently overlooked in criminal careers research, due, in part, to the research design of such studies. In focussing on the role of politically-motivated changes to economic policies and the re-structuring of the industrial base this produced, I empirically relate individual offending careers to politics in way very few have done before. The article touches upon a series of suggestions for how empirical studies of criminal careers might be improved.
    • Politics, social and economic change and crime: exploring the impact of contextual effects on offending trajectories

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-11)
      Do government policies increase the likelihood that some citizens will become persistent criminals? What is the role of other organisations and institutions in mediating offending over the life-course? Using concepts derived from criminology (such as the idea of a ‘criminal career’, an individual’s repeated, longitudinal sequence of offending), and concepts such as the life-course from sociology, this paper assesses the outcome of macro-level economic policies on individuals’ engagement in crime from age 10 to 30. Whilst many studies have explored the impact of 1980s ‘New Right’ governments on welfare spending, housing and the economy, few studies in political science, sociology or criminology have directly linked macro-economic policies to individual offending careers. Employing individual-level longitudinal data, we track a sample of Britons born in 1970 from childhood to adulthood, examining their offending trajectories between ages 10 and 30, and hence through a period of dramatic economic and social change in the UK throughout the early-1980s, during which the economy was dramatically restructured. As such, we are primarily concerned with the effects of economic policies on an individual’s repeated offending. Using data from the British 1970 Birth Cohort Study, we develop a model that incorporates individuals, families and schools, and which takes account of national-level economic policies (which were driven by New Right political ideas) and which, we argue, shaped individual offending careers. Our paper suggests that processes of economic restructuring were a key causal factor in offending during this period. This broader framework also emphasises the importance of considering political and economic forces in criminal careers and related research. The paper therefore encourages criminologists to draw upon ideas from political science when developing explanations of offending careers, and shows how the choices over the political management of the economy encourage individual-level responses.
    • Population, resources and development

      Chrispin, Jane; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Collins Educational, 1996)
      Award-winning geography text covers the following themes: global wealth distribution, debt and aid; population structure, dynamics and migration; development strategies and population policies; industrialization and employment; and energy resources, commodities and trade. National Book Award - this book won the Geographical Association’s Silver Award - 1996.
    • Population, resources and development / 2nd. Ed.

      Chrispin, Jane; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Collins Educational, 2000)
      A completely revised edition of this popular A level text.This book covers: 1. Growth, wealth and happiness 2. Colonialism, dependency and aid 3. Population dynamics and structure 4. Population movements and urbanisation 5. Population policies and food supply 6. Human resources and industrialisation 7. Natural resources and development 8. World trade, commodities and communications 9. Regional development policies 10. Tourism as a development strategy 11. Alternative strategies for development
    • Portfolio of major events in Auckland: characteristics, perspectives and issues

      Antchak, Vladimir; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-04-11)
      Although event portfolios have become an integrated part of destination development, a lack of empirical research into the nature of portfolio design exists. A case study was conducted in Auckland, New Zealand, to explore the nature of the applied portfolio strategy in the city. The findings indicate that Auckland employs an outcomes-driven approach which is characterised by the orientation on economic outcomes, an ‘agnostic’ attitude to the compositional structure of the portfolio, an intensive bidding campaign and leveraging strategies. The current city’s reputation awards, successful event bids and positive economic indicators justify this approach. The identified issues, including a supply-led nature of the event portfolio and its predominantly quantitative measures of success, call for a revalidation of the approach. The results of the study contribute to the ongoing discourse about the value of event portfolios and their sustainable design in different urban destinations.
    • Positive engagement through youth work: Working with Roma children and young people in Derby, supporting their wellbeing

      Henry, Philip M.; Williams, Simon; University of Derby (The Center of Research in Child-Parent Interaction (CICOP), 2015-06)
      This article concentrates on the experiences of mainly Slovak and Czech Roma young people and their families who make up the largest population of Roma currently residing in Derby in the UK. It examines the experiences of Roma young people supported by the Multi-Faith Centre at the University of Derby through its outreach organisation Roma Community Care and their partner agencies. The development of a youth work led approach engaging young Roma is designed to enhance the wellbeing of those young people, not just by providing diversionary activities, but also through its holistic support with whole families. The article draws on youth and community studies examining race and ethnicity unpacked through the medium of social identity. It culminates in an assessment of well being of the young people in the case study correlated with the positive engagement of youth work through informal education, examining the experiences of working directly with young people as well as the conceptual frameworks set out herein.