• Oil on troubled waters: Multi-national corporations and realising human rights in the developing world, with specific reference to Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (2008-04-23)
      This article examines the current state of tension in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. It locates the current unrest in the continued denial of economic, social and cultural rights to the oil-rich communities in the area. The author argues that this denial happened with the complicity and acquiescence of the international community. The Nigerian government as well as multinational corporations operating in the area have not been responsive to the development needs of the people. The article argues that, although the primary obligation for realising the economic, social and cultural rights of host communities rests on the government, multi-national corporations in developing countries, considering their awesome resources and influence on government policies, should be similarly obligated to respect, promote and protect those rights.
    • On the association between routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintance violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Tilley, Nick; Farrell, Graham; Nottingham Trent University; Loughborough University; University College London; Simon Fraser University (2015-11-18)
      Crime rates have fallen dramatically over the past two decades. This phenomenon is typically referred to as the crime drop. What still remains puzzling, however, is why most crimes – including violent crimes – have fallen in recent years. The current gap in knowledge impedes violence reduction opportunities not just in the UK but across the world. To understand better why violence has fallen in the past decades, the current study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council Secondary Data Analysis Initiative Phase 2, investigates the relationship between changes in routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintances in the past two decades. In particular, insights from the routine activity theories will be used (Cohen & Felson, 1979) to explain the decline in both types of violence. To examine violence trends, the study uses rich data stemming from the Crime Survey for England & Wales (CSEW). Findings show that an important relationship exists between changes in routine activities and the fall in violence.
    • On the productive efficiency of Australian businesses: firm size and age class effects

      Cowling, M; Tanewski, G.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 22/06/2018)
      After 26 years of growth, the Australian economy is beginning to show signs of stress and declining productivity. In this paper, we consider aspects of productive efficiency using an Australian business population data set. Using a production function approach, several key findings are uncovered. Firstly, decreasing returns to scale are identified as a significant feature of the Australian business sector. This implies that not all firm growth will lead to productivity gains. Secondly, there are significant differences in the way value added is created between small and large firms. In the largest 25% of firms, the capital contribution to value added is four times that of the smallest 25% of firms. Thirdly, efficiency follows an inverted ‘U’ shaped in firm age with the youngest (0–2 years) and oldest (> 9 years) firms being less productive than the middle 50% of firms. Fourthly, there are also huge industry sector variations in productivity. In particular, financial services appears to be the most productively efficient sector in the Australian economy and mining the least efficient.
    • On whom does the burden of crime fall now? Changes over time in counts and concentration.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University College London; University of Huddersfield, UK; University College London, UK (Sage, 2015-11-03)
      A recent publication (Ignatans and Pease, 2015) sought to examine the changed distribution of crime across households in England and Wales over a period encompassing that of the crime drop common to Western countries (1982–2012). It was found that while crime against the most victimised households declined most in absolute terms, the proportion of all crime accounted for by those most victimised increased somewhat. The characteristics associated with highly victimised households were found to be consistent across survey sweeps. The pattern suggested the continued relevance to crime reduction generally of prioritising repeat crimes against the same target. The present paper analyses the changed distribution of crime by offence type. Data were extracted from a total of almost 600,000 respondents from all sweeps of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 1982–2012 to determine which types of victimisation became more or less concentrated across households during the overall crime drop. Methodological issues underlying the patterns observed are discussed. Cross-national and crime type extension of work of the kind undertaken here are advocated as both intrinsically important and likely to clarify the dynamics of the crime drop.
    • One country two systems as bedrock of Hong Kong's continued success: Fiction or reality?

      Huang, Flora; Yeung, Horace; University of Essex (Boston College, 2015-05-01)
      Despite the handover of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China in 1997, the principles of “one country two systems” reaffirmed the autonomy of Hong Kong in a number of respects. In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration and Basic Law of Hong Kong, the city is able to enjoy a high degree of autonomy over the systems and policies practiced locally, including social and economic systems, as well as the executive, legislative and judicial systems. Additionally, with its image as a robust financial market largely thanks to the institutions inherited from its colonial era, Hong Kong is able to attract a number of financial activities from China and has firmly established itself as a leading international financial center. Nonetheless, there have been concerns that the advantages of Hong Kong started to fade after its reunification with China. This Article seeks to analyze how Hong Kong’s capitalist system shields the city from the socialist system of China under the principles of “one country two systems,” allowing the city to maintain its position as a premier financial center. It explores the regulatory gap between Hong Kong and China, illustrating that Hong Kong’s strength stems from the operation of a strong company and financial law regime independent of the legal regime in China.
    • One way or another? Criminal investigators' beliefs regarding the disclosure of evidence in interviews with suspects in England and Wales

      Walsh, Dave; Milne, Becky; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (Springer, 2015-07-11)
      The research base concerning interviews with suspects remains to be comprehensively developed. For example, the extant literature provides differing views regarding how best to undertake the important interview task of disclosing evidence. In the current study, using a self-report questionnaire, 224 investigators based in England and Wales were asked as to their own preferred methods. Most respondents advocated a gradual method of disclosing evidence, stating that this approach would better reveal inconsistencies and obtain a complete version of events (similar to the reasoning of those who preferred disclosing evidence later). Those who advocated revealing evidence early stated this approach would more likely elicit confessions. Several respondents would not commit to one single method, arguing that their chosen strategy was contextually dependent. The study’s findings suggest that it remains arguable as to whether there is one best approach to evidence disclosure and/or whether particular circumstances should influence interviewing strategies.
    • Online social networks, media supervision and investment efficiency: An empirical examination of Chinese listed firms

      Yang, Zonghan; Bass, Tina; Yang, Xiaoping; Andrikopoulos, Panagiotis; Cao, Dongmei; Zhejiang Yuexiu University of Foreign Language; Coventry University; University of Shanghai for Technology and Science; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-02-22)
      Prior literature suggests that media reports acting as external supervision improve information transparency and corporate governance leading to increased investment efficiency. This study empirically tests this hypothesis in the context of online social networks by investigating the combined effects of online social networking and media reports on investment efficiency using a sample of Chinese listed firms. Our results show that the interaction of media reports and Tobin's q ratio is negatively related to corporate investment efficiency. However, the introduction of online social networks turns this relationship from a negative to a positive and statistically significant one. The combined factors significantly increase investment efficiency in non-SOEs (State Owned Enterprises) but not in SOEs. We provide evidence that online social networking effectively mitigates the negative effect of media supervision on investment efficiency, further advancing knowledge of the link of external supervision and corporate governance.
    • Online tourism information and tourist behavior: a structural equation modeling analysis based on a self-administered survey

      Majeed, Salman; Zhou, Zhimin; Lu, Changbao; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China; Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China; University of Derby; Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa (Frontiers in Psychology, 2020-04-21)
      This study presents the interacting phenomena of perceptions of tourist destination online content (TDOC) and tourists’ behavioral intentions with a mediating role of tourists’ satisfaction, which is as yet under-explored in hospitality and tourism research. A model based on three main constructs, namely TDOC (with sub-constructs of online information quality and user-friendly accessibility), satisfaction, and tourists’ behavioral intentions [with sub-constructs of intentions to visit a tourist destination and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM)], is presented to determine the growth of tourism business with the internet. Data were collected via a questionnaire-based survey from 413 tourists staying at hotels in Lahore city in Pakistan. Partial least square structural equation modeling was used to statistically analyze the gathered data. The findings indicate that tourists’ perceptions of TDOC directly influence their behavioral intentions, while tourists’ satisfaction exerts a mediating influence between tourists’ perceptions of TDOC and their behavioral intentions. Taking advantage of an economical and widespread online environment, destination marketing organizations could attract more tourists by fostering confidence in TDOC and positive eWOM to remain competitive in the long run. Important theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    • Opportunities for use of blockchain technology in supply chains: Australian manufacturer case study

      Maroun, E.A; Daniel, Jay; University of Technology Sydney; University of Derby (IEOM Society, 2019-03)
      The arrival and capabilities of Blockchain is set to change the traditional supply chain activities. The tracking all types of transaction more transparently and securely using Blockchain motivate us to explore the opportunities Blockchain offers across the supply chain. This paper explores opportunities for use of Blockchain technology in supply chains. Particularly, examine whether Blockchain technology makes a good fit for use in an Australian manufacturer supply chain. Blockchain allows us to have permissioned or permission-less distributed ledgers where stakeholders can interact with each other. It details how Blockchain works and the mechanism of hash algorithms which allows for greater security of information. Case study focuses on the supply chain management and looks at the intricacies of an Australian manufacturers supply chain. We present a summary of opportunities for using Blockchain technology in supply chains in an Australian manufacturing case study. The summary is proposed in using private Blockchain in the case study. The opportunities using Blockchain technology has the potential to bring greater transparency, validity across the supply chain, and improvement of communication between stakeholders involved.
    • Out of sight: social control and the regulation of public space in Manchester

      Moss, Christopher J.; Moss, Kate; University of Wolverhampton (MDPI AG, 2019-05-09)
      This paper considers the history and context of the control of public spaces, how this is regulated currently and how it relates to the politics of homelessness and community governance with a specific focus on the regulation of public space in the contemporary city of Manchester.
    • Pathways to Recovery and Desistance: The Role of the Social Contagion of Hope

      Best, David; Sheffield Hallam University (Policy Press, 2019-09-04)
      Using case studies and a strengths-based approach Best puts forward a new recovery and reintegration model for substance users and offenders leaving prison which emphasizes the importance of long-term recovery and the role that communities and peers play in the process.
    • Peasants, bandits, and state intervention: The consolidation of authority in the Ottoman Balkans and Southern Italy

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Wiley, 2017-05-11)
      This paper explores the role of bandits and state intervention in the Ottoman Balkans and Southern Italy in the 19th century by using archival documents. I argue that the states may react similarly and radically when their authority is challenged in the periphery. The Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy developed the same forms of state intervention to fight against the bandits, even though these two states had fundamentally different political, cultural, and socio-legal structures. I present three different forms of state intervention: (i) victim-centred state intervention; (ii) security-centred state intervention; and (iii) authority-centred state intervention. These three forms consolidated the state's authority while making the two states both fragile and dependent on other social agencies in the long term. I further claim that consolidation of the state's authority manifests the paradox of state intervention and creates more vulnerabilities in traumatic geographies.
    • Peer tutoring on Facebook to engage students with flipped classes: A correlational experiment on learning outcomes

      Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Daniel, Jay; University of Technology Sydney (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2016)
      This paper aims to demonstrate the potentials of using Facebook to improve the students’ engagements with the flipped learning materials through implementation of socially enabled peer learning. The article looks at comparing the correlations between the learning outcomes with online quizzes as well as with the Facebook engagement of students. The findings show that although the learning outcomes are correlated with the both of these two interventions, the students’ engagement on Facebook has a stronger correlation with the learning outcomes in the flipped classes. The study also reports the lessons learned in deploying Facebook groups to implement peer learning in flipped classes. The results have been discussed in the lens of Theory of Peer Learning and the future avenues of research have been suggested. This study also motivates teaching practitioners in Information Systems to improve flipped learning by the use of social networking sites in their courses.
    • Penal populism and the public thermostat: crime, public punitiveness, and public policy.

      Jennings, Will; Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Hay, Colin; University of Sheffield; Department of Politics & International Relations; University of Southampton; Centre for Criminological Research; University of Sheffield; Centre for Criminological Research; University of Sheffield; Sciences Po; Paris (Wiley, 2016-06-02)
      This article makes the case that feedback processes in democratic politics—between crime rates, public opinion, and public policy—can account for the growth of penal populism in Britain. It argues that the public recognize and respond to rising (and falling) levels of crime, and that in turn public support for being tough on crime is translated into patterns of imprisonment. This contributes to debates over the crime–opinion–policy connection, unpacking the dynamic processes by which these relationships unfold at the aggregate level. This uses the most extensive data set ever assembled on aggregate opinion on crime in Britain to construct a new over‐time measure of punitive attitudes. The analysis first tests the thermostatic responsiveness of punitive attitudes to changes in recorded crime rates as well as self‐reported victimization, and then examines the degree to which changes in mass opinion impact on criminal justice policy.
    • “People think it’s a harmless joke”: young people’s understanding of the impact of technology, digital vulnerability and cyberbullying in the United Kingdom

      Betts, Lucy R.; Spenser, Karin A.; Nottingham Trent University (Taylor and Francis, 2016-09-24)
      Young people's technology use has increased exponentially over the last few years. To gain a deeper understanding of young peoples' experiences of digital technology and cyberbullying, four focus groups were conducted with 29 11- to 15-year-olds recruited from two schools. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three themes: impact of technology, vulnerability and cyberbullying. Technology was seen as a facilitator and a mechanism for maintaining social interactions. However, participants reported experiencing a conflict between the need to be sociable and the desire to maintain privacy. Cyberbullying was regarded as the actions of an anonymous coward who sought to disrupt social networks and acts should be distinguished from banter.
    • Perceived social impacts of tourism and quality-of-life: A new conceptual model

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby, College of Business, Law, & Social Sciences, Derby Business School; UiT, School of Business & Economics, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johanneshburg, Johannesburg Business School, South Africa (Taylor & Francis, 2020-12-23)
      Residents’ overall well-being and quality-of-life require a deeper understanding of their perceived social impacts of tourism to determine appropriate management strategies to promote behaviours in support of tourism development. Aligning with the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, this paper proposes a new framework for residents’ quality-of-life. Bringing together multi-disciplinary evidence from environmental, social and cognitive psychology, political science and tourism, this study critically examines how residents’ perceived social impacts of tourism and their interpersonal trust can make them become more place attached and protect their tourism resources. The framework proposes that residents’ perceived social impacts of tourism exerts a direct influence on residents’ interpersonal trust. It further posits that residents’ perceived social impacts of tourism and their interpersonal trust exert a direct influence on residents’ place attachment. The proposed model further considers place attachment to exert a direct influence on residents’ pro-social and pro-environmental behavioural intentions. Pro-social behaviour is proposed to influence pro-environmental behaviour. Further pro-social and pro-environmental behaviors are proposed to influence residents’ support for tourism development. The framework then considers residents’ support for tourism development to exert a direct influence on residents’ overall quality-of-life. The theoretical contributions, practical implications for sustainable community tourism and sustainable tourism in general and the limitations of the study are discussed.
    • Perceptions of psychological coercion and human trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to know the unknown

      Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, Dave; Brierley, Robin; University of Derby (Public Library of Science, 2016-05-05)
      Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.
    • Performance Management in Public Employment Services

      Nunn, Alex; Leeds Beckett University (European Commission, 2012)
      There is a wide variety of practice in European PES in institutional design, services provided, welfare and unemployment benefit regimes and welfare spending. Some PES are responsible only for labour market services to the unemployed, while others are also responsible for the administration of unemployment and other welfare benefits, services to employers and occupational or worker licensing. Despite this variation, recent years have seen the increasing adoption of ‘activation’ as an approach to delivering labour market services and the use of performance management or Management By Objectives (MBO) as a management practice. The use of performance management has become more critical and widespread as PES resources have become more limited and there is a resulting increasing emphasis on demonstrating the impact of PES interventions as well as value for money. This report considers the variety of practice across EU Member States and makes suggestions about how all EU PES might learn from one another to strengthen their own practice, specifically in relation to labour market services to jobseekers. It incorporates a review of the research evidence on performance management in EU PES and draws out the practical implications of these approaches for the EU, policy makers, senior PES officials and employment counsellors.
    • Performance matters more than masculinity: violence, gender dynamics and mafia women

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-06-03)
      Narrating the stories of Italian mafia women and classifying their performance, this study shows that mafiosi masculinity creates a violent social atmosphere for women. The performance practised by women may give rise to a higher social status or credibility for the women or may make them vulnerable against violence and risks posed by mafia activity. Women's performances against violent mafia activity can bring definitive failure to the solid structure of the mafia family. Yet, conversely, the performance of women under the influence of mafiosi masculinity can also render the mafia more resilient against threat.