• The need for new criminal justice & criminological approaches to end the ‘War on Terror’

      Patton, David; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2016)
      Violent attacks in the West in recent years by terrorist groups have reinforced the fact that acts of violence by extremist groups are increasingly becoming a feature of 21st Century life. Understandably, such acts have been met with outrage, condemnation, horror and fear. In addition, the West's responses to such events have been amongst other things, more bombing for Syria; more resources given to the police; more powers for security agencies, greater surveillance employed and new laws passed which highlight that the war on terror is active. However, George Bush’s declaration that the ‘war on terror’, "will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated" is unrealistic. The state response to terrorism broadly follows a ‘war on terror’ approach; similarly current criminal justice and criminological approaches also broadly follow a retributive style approach. This paper will argue that a new paradigm for an emotionally intelligent CJS is needed, one which utilises theories and models of criminal justice that are also emotionally intelligent, in order to put an end to the patterns of separation, exclusion, excessive punishment, shaming and humiliation and thus end the misguided approach used at present specifically in relation to terrorism (and more generally in relation to criminality).
    • Neoliberalisation, fast policy transfer and the management of labor market services

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-27)
      Neoliberalism has been a core concern for IPE for several decades, but is often ill-defined. Research offering greater definitional clarity stresses the role of contingent and local level factors in diverse processes of neoliberalisation. This paper contributes to that literature, addressing a surprising gap in critical IPE knowledge; the management practices by which pressures to activate the unemployed and to make them more competitive, are implemented. The paper suggests that performance management, is significant as both a depoliticising policy coordination mechanism and a highly politicised policy implementation practice. The paper invokes a scalar-relational approach which sees the pressure to innovate and compete at lower scales as driven by the political economy of competitiveness at the system scale. The paper reports on research undertaken within the empirical frame of EU meta-governance, showing how performance management is part of lower-scale attempts to adapt to system-scale pressures. It is neoliberalising in both form and content. It concludes by showing that while performance management may be a significant component of neoliberalisation there is scope for engagement and contestation motivated by egalitarian ideals. Critical IPE scholars interested in contesting neoliberalisation should therefore engage with the political economy of management practice as well as policy design.
    • Neoliberalism, prisons and probation in the USA and England and Wales

      Teague, Michael; Whitehead, Philip; Crawshaw, Paul; Teesside University (Anthem Press, 2012-09)
      The correctional populations of the USA and England and Wales have undergone substantial and relentless expansion over the last forty years. Throughout this period, these countries have also experienced neoliberal governments. This chapter aims to analyse the impact of those governments upon the criminal and community justice systems of the USA and of England and Wales with a particular focus on prisons, probation, and privatization, and to consider whether neoliberalism has undermined liberal and rehabilitative approaches.IIn particular, this chapter explore the way in which neoliberalism has prioritised punitiveness, de-prioritised rehabilitation, fostered a growing incarcerated population, and engaged in the pursuit of private profit at the expense of social justice within the carceral and probation systems.
    • New Age visitors and the tourism industry.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2018-12-31)
      This conceptual paper establishes a framework for socially constructed research activity to help gauge the intention of travellers in more-developed countries (MDC) of the wealthy and largely affluent North to undertake forms of continuing personal and professional development (CPD) through their travel experiences. Human physiological needs have in large already been achieved for many in more developed countries and exceeded in terms of nourishment and entertainment. Humans are social and societal creatures and in need of realisation of their spiritual, intellectual and societal choices and selections. New spiritual values are threatened by monetarism, by an ‘enveloping outside world’, as Giddens terms it (Giddens, 1991; Giddens, 1994). We must look to the South for inspiration, for restoration of group values and creation of acceptable norms that define society and are elemental in the construction of society from the bottom up.
    • NGO accountability on environmentalism: a literature review of relevant issues and themes

      Yekini, Liafisu Sina; Yekini, Kemi, C; University of Derby (Emerald Publishing, 2021-01-04)
      This chapter, which is in themes, starts with a survey of the rise of environmentalism for the purpose of sustainability. It then evaluates the roles of nongovernmental organisations' (NGOs') self-regulation and government regulation on the need for accountability that ensures sustainability. NGOs' accountability is a way of making sure that stakeholders' social, environmental and economic sustainability are protected and rigorously evaluated. This chapter further examines what the enduring mechanisms should be if true accountability, which leads to sustainability, will be achieved to suggest a holistic accountability that involves downward and upward accountability. In doing so, this chapter utilised the identified five mechanisms that ensure the continuity of world sustainability, which is prima-facie, the objective of funders/donors, beneficiaries/stakeholders and the NGO's loop.
    • NHS values of data management

      Grace, Jamie; University of Derby (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2009-02)
    • A non- conference review: a note on conferences that never were, those that may be and those that will be in 2021

      Azara, Iride; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-07-02)
      A non-traditional conference review offering a synthetic update on the latest academic and industry conference developments in the areas of wellness and wellbeing as well as some thoughts on what future conferences may look like in the near and long term future.
    • Non-founder human capital and the long-run growth and survival of high-tech ventures

      Siepel, J; Cowling, M; Coad, A.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 16/11/2016)
      This paper considers the impact of non-founder human capital on high-tech firms' long-run growth and survival. Drawing upon threshold theory, we explore how lack of access to complementary skills at different points in the life course impacts founders' thresholds for exit. We examine these factors using a unique longitudinal dataset tracking the performance and survival of a sample of UK high-tech firms over thirteen years as the firms move from youth into maturity. We find that firms that survive but do not grow are characterized by difficulty in accessing complementary managerial skills in youth, while firms that grow but subsequently exit are characterized by shortfalls of specialized complementary skills during adolescence. Firms that grow and survive do not report skills shortfalls. We discuss the implications of these resource constraints for entrepreneurs’ decisions to persist or exit through the life course.
    • Not everything in textbooks is true: teaching discourse analysis to undergraduate business students

      Bass, Tina; Coventry University (Greenleaf Publishing/ Routledge, 2014-09-08)
      Coventry University adopted the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Management in 2007 and the Business School has taken up the challenge to embed these important principles throughout their course offerings in order to provide the very best education for future business leaders. ‘Managing Business Responsibly’ is a final-year, undergraduate module which grew partly out of some of the author's teaching. The module poses a series of critical challenges to students and in the first few weeks many find it uncomfortable as the theories drawn upon are not those generally found within a business course. Within the module students are invited to think of themselves as agents of change in the broadest sense and to carefully consider those aspects of their future organisations that they might be able to influence. The module team have to work extremely hard to manage student anxiety around the coursework and have to repeatedly stress that discourse analysis is an invaluable critical thinking tool.
    • The notion of growth: A research agenda for SMEs and entrepreneurs

      Deacon, Jonathan; Amoncar, Nihar; University of South Wales (AMED and ISBE, 2016-07-15)
      Academics within the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise (SME) sector have been working towards identifying the factors that are impediments to the growth and development of SMEs around the world. This article attempts to understand the ‘notion of growth’ as experienced by SMEs in Wales and East India (particularly West Bengal), by exploring the narratives of entrepreneurs within those regions (see images 1 and 2 below). Our research is primarily qualitative in nature and is based on a semi-structured interview approach in Wales, and on narrative inquiry in India. We believe that such a methodology is critical in understanding the notion of growth, and our method involved interviewing established entrepreneurs in order to ascertain their multiple perspectives on growth. We assert the importance in Government policy formulation of understanding and using the language of growth as defined by the ‘context’ of the entrepreneurs. Our research approach: briefly, our research involved the collection and interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative data. In Wales, we worked with six gender-balanced focus groups, each consisting of eight business-owners who represent a range of MSMEs across the regions. Group discussions were augmented by in-depth 1:1 interviews. We also conducted a comprehensive, questionnaire-based pan-Wales telephone survey. In West Bengal, we engaged in a narrative inquiry, derived from 1:1 conversations and field notes, with a group of eight male entrepreneurs. Requests for confidentiality were a particular issue here. We selected the West Bengal Chamber of Commerce and CREDAI – (the Bengal branch of the Confederation of Real Estate Developers Association of India), as well as other forums that we mention throughout this article, according to their relevance to thematic analysis of the data we collected. If you would like a more detailed account of our sampling and research methods, please feel free to contact Nihar Amoncar.
    • Nutritional benefits of local meat produce

      Cseh, Leonard; Close, Hariett; University of Derby, Buxton (Council for Hospitality Management Education, 2012-05-09)
    • An odd “foreign policy couple”? Syria and Saudi Arabia 1970-1989

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019)
      This paper analyses the alliance between Syria and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the years 1970-1989. The relations between the two Arab powers were characterized by cooperation and support amid ideological and ‘structural’ differences. This was a stark contrast with the conflictual relations of the previous decade. The change was driven mainly by a reshaping in Syria’s regional policy. The new ‘realist’ foreign policy imposed by Hafiz Al-Assad created an overlapping of interests between Syria and the KSA. Riyadh valued Syria’s role in the region and used its support of Damascus vis-à-vis Israel as a tool to obtain domestic and regional legitimacy. On the other hand Syria benefited from the KSA’s generous economic and diplomatic help. This study will use an approach based on neoclassical realism to show how domestic and international factors led to these changes.
    • Oil on troubled waters: Multi-national corporations and realising human rights in the developing world, with specific reference to Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (2008-04-23)
      This article examines the current state of tension in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. It locates the current unrest in the continued denial of economic, social and cultural rights to the oil-rich communities in the area. The author argues that this denial happened with the complicity and acquiescence of the international community. The Nigerian government as well as multinational corporations operating in the area have not been responsive to the development needs of the people. The article argues that, although the primary obligation for realising the economic, social and cultural rights of host communities rests on the government, multi-national corporations in developing countries, considering their awesome resources and influence on government policies, should be similarly obligated to respect, promote and protect those rights.
    • On the association between routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintance violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Tilley, Nick; Farrell, Graham; Nottingham Trent University; Loughborough University; University College London; Simon Fraser University (2015-11-18)
      Crime rates have fallen dramatically over the past two decades. This phenomenon is typically referred to as the crime drop. What still remains puzzling, however, is why most crimes – including violent crimes – have fallen in recent years. The current gap in knowledge impedes violence reduction opportunities not just in the UK but across the world. To understand better why violence has fallen in the past decades, the current study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council Secondary Data Analysis Initiative Phase 2, investigates the relationship between changes in routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintances in the past two decades. In particular, insights from the routine activity theories will be used (Cohen & Felson, 1979) to explain the decline in both types of violence. To examine violence trends, the study uses rich data stemming from the Crime Survey for England & Wales (CSEW). Findings show that an important relationship exists between changes in routine activities and the fall in violence.
    • On the productive efficiency of Australian businesses: firm size and age class effects

      Cowling, M; Tanewski, G.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 22/06/2018)
      After 26 years of growth, the Australian economy is beginning to show signs of stress and declining productivity. In this paper, we consider aspects of productive efficiency using an Australian business population data set. Using a production function approach, several key findings are uncovered. Firstly, decreasing returns to scale are identified as a significant feature of the Australian business sector. This implies that not all firm growth will lead to productivity gains. Secondly, there are significant differences in the way value added is created between small and large firms. In the largest 25% of firms, the capital contribution to value added is four times that of the smallest 25% of firms. Thirdly, efficiency follows an inverted ‘U’ shaped in firm age with the youngest (0–2 years) and oldest (> 9 years) firms being less productive than the middle 50% of firms. Fourthly, there are also huge industry sector variations in productivity. In particular, financial services appears to be the most productively efficient sector in the Australian economy and mining the least efficient.
    • On whom does the burden of crime fall now? Changes over time in counts and concentration.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University College London; University of Huddersfield, UK; University College London, UK (Sage, 2015-11-03)
      A recent publication (Ignatans and Pease, 2015) sought to examine the changed distribution of crime across households in England and Wales over a period encompassing that of the crime drop common to Western countries (1982–2012). It was found that while crime against the most victimised households declined most in absolute terms, the proportion of all crime accounted for by those most victimised increased somewhat. The characteristics associated with highly victimised households were found to be consistent across survey sweeps. The pattern suggested the continued relevance to crime reduction generally of prioritising repeat crimes against the same target. The present paper analyses the changed distribution of crime by offence type. Data were extracted from a total of almost 600,000 respondents from all sweeps of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 1982–2012 to determine which types of victimisation became more or less concentrated across households during the overall crime drop. Methodological issues underlying the patterns observed are discussed. Cross-national and crime type extension of work of the kind undertaken here are advocated as both intrinsically important and likely to clarify the dynamics of the crime drop.
    • One country two systems as bedrock of Hong Kong's continued success: Fiction or reality?

      Huang, Flora; Yeung, Horace; University of Essex (Boston College, 2015-05-01)
      Despite the handover of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China in 1997, the principles of “one country two systems” reaffirmed the autonomy of Hong Kong in a number of respects. In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration and Basic Law of Hong Kong, the city is able to enjoy a high degree of autonomy over the systems and policies practiced locally, including social and economic systems, as well as the executive, legislative and judicial systems. Additionally, with its image as a robust financial market largely thanks to the institutions inherited from its colonial era, Hong Kong is able to attract a number of financial activities from China and has firmly established itself as a leading international financial center. Nonetheless, there have been concerns that the advantages of Hong Kong started to fade after its reunification with China. This Article seeks to analyze how Hong Kong’s capitalist system shields the city from the socialist system of China under the principles of “one country two systems,” allowing the city to maintain its position as a premier financial center. It explores the regulatory gap between Hong Kong and China, illustrating that Hong Kong’s strength stems from the operation of a strong company and financial law regime independent of the legal regime in China.
    • One way or another? Criminal investigators' beliefs regarding the disclosure of evidence in interviews with suspects in England and Wales

      Walsh, Dave; Milne, Becky; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (Springer, 2015-07-11)
      The research base concerning interviews with suspects remains to be comprehensively developed. For example, the extant literature provides differing views regarding how best to undertake the important interview task of disclosing evidence. In the current study, using a self-report questionnaire, 224 investigators based in England and Wales were asked as to their own preferred methods. Most respondents advocated a gradual method of disclosing evidence, stating that this approach would better reveal inconsistencies and obtain a complete version of events (similar to the reasoning of those who preferred disclosing evidence later). Those who advocated revealing evidence early stated this approach would more likely elicit confessions. Several respondents would not commit to one single method, arguing that their chosen strategy was contextually dependent. The study’s findings suggest that it remains arguable as to whether there is one best approach to evidence disclosure and/or whether particular circumstances should influence interviewing strategies.
    • Online social networks, media supervision and investment efficiency: An empirical examination of Chinese listed firms

      Yang, Zonghan; Bass, Tina; Yang, Xiaoping; Andrikopoulos, Panagiotis; Cao, Dongmei; Zhejiang Yuexiu University of Foreign Language; Coventry University; University of Shanghai for Technology and Science; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-02-22)
      Prior literature suggests that media reports acting as external supervision improve information transparency and corporate governance leading to increased investment efficiency. This study empirically tests this hypothesis in the context of online social networks by investigating the combined effects of online social networking and media reports on investment efficiency using a sample of Chinese listed firms. Our results show that the interaction of media reports and Tobin's q ratio is negatively related to corporate investment efficiency. However, the introduction of online social networks turns this relationship from a negative to a positive and statistically significant one. The combined factors significantly increase investment efficiency in non-SOEs (State Owned Enterprises) but not in SOEs. We provide evidence that online social networking effectively mitigates the negative effect of media supervision on investment efficiency, further advancing knowledge of the link of external supervision and corporate governance.