• Area and individual differences in personal crime victimization incidence.

      Tseloni, Andromachi; Pease, Ken; Loughborough University; Loughborough University, UK; Loughborough University, UK (Sage, 2014-09-02)
      This article examines how personal crime differences between areas and between individuals are predicted by area and population heterogeneity and their synergies. It draws on lifestyle/routine activities and social disorganization theories to model the number of personal victimization incidents over individuals including routine activities and area characteristics, respectively, as well as their (cross-cluster) interactions. The methodology employs multilevel or hierarchical negative binomial regression with extra binomial variation using data from the British Crime Survey and the UK Census. Personal crime rates differ substantially across areas, reflecting to a large degree the clustering of individuals with measured vulnerability factors in the same areas. Most factors suggested by theory and previous research are conducive to frequent personal victimization except the following new results. Pensioners living alone in densely populated areas face disproportionally high numbers of personal crimes. Frequent club and pub visits are associated with more personal crimes only for males and adults living with young children, respectively. Ethnic minority individuals experience fewer personal crimes than whites. The findings suggest integrating social disorganization and lifestyle theories and prioritizing resources to the most vulnerable, rather than all, residents of poor and densely populated areas to prevent personal crimes.
    • The arts of desistance: Evaluation of the Koestler trust arts mentoring programme for former prisoners

      Sekol, Ivana; Cheliotis, L; Jordanoska, A; University of Osijek (The Koestler Trust, 2014)
      This report presents and discusses the findings of an evaluation of an arts-based mentoring scheme that aims to prolong and enhance crime desistance through providing former prisoners with opportunities to continue engaging with the arts after release. The evaluation focused both on the implementation and effectiveness of the scheme as the former influenced the latter. Different yet complementary research techniques (observation of mentoring sessions, interviews with mentors and mentees, analysis of mentor reports, and survey-based quasi-experimental design incorporating control groups) were employed to enhance the validity of the data and improve their interpretation.
    • Assessing risk factors for homicide victimisation in the Netherlands.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University (2017-03-01)
      This study explains why certain violent events end lethally while others do not. Is it on account of certain personal characteristics of those involved in these events – in particular, do offenders and/or victims have a criminal propensity, possibly reflected in their criminal history records? Or does it relate to certain immediate situational factors occurring during these incidents, such as weapon use, alcohol use, the presence of third parties or actors’ behaviour? Or does a combination of both types of factors – i.e., criminal history and immediate situational factors – play a key role in differentiating lethal from non-lethal violent events? Although these questions are important for the understanding of serious violence in general, so far criminologists have not often addressed these questions simultaneously. This study – conducted in The Netherlands – has been designed to start filling this gap by focusing on the relationship between offenders’ and victims’ criminal history, immediate situational factors and lethal versus non-lethal outcomes of violent events. Based on data from criminal records and court files, findings show that immediate situational factors appear to be the most influential factor that contribute to the outcome of violent events, even more so than offenders’ and victims’ characteristics.
    • Assessing sustainability support to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (Totem Publishing Ltd., 2014)
      The aim of this paper is to evaluate qualitatively the impact of sustainability support to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) where quantitative results are often difficult to appraise. Many of these organisations require sustainable business support to enable them to start or build their business concepts on sound sustainable platforms. Many SMEs are unable to quantitatively evaluate the benefit which they have received from support programmes because they are in the project planning stage or have limited financial data. Without a form of evaluation, support networks often cannot retain funding support. This paper is based on the grounded theory approach to analyse qualitative data received from participants in a sustainability support programme. Research on such programmes to SMEs is scant. This paper proposes the use of qualitative data collection and its evaluation to be considered when making the case for funding such programmes, along with quantitative data when available
    • Assessment innovation and student experience: a new assessment challenge and call for a multi-perspective approach to assessment research

      Bevitt, Sheena; University of Derby (2014-02-26)
      The impact of innovative assessment on student experience in higher education is a neglected research topic. This represents an important gap in the literature given debate around the marketization of higher education, international focus on student satisfaction measurement tools and political calls to put students at the heart of higher education in the UK. This paper reports on qualitative findings from a research project examining the impact of assessment preferences and familiarity on student attainment and experience. It argues that innovation is defined by the student, shaped by diverse assessment experiences and preferences and therefore its impact is difficult to predict. It proposes that future innovations must explore assessment choice mechanisms which allow students to shape their own assessments. Cultural change and staff development will be required to achieve this. To be accepted, assessment for student experience must be viewed as a complementary layer within a complex multi perspective model of assessment which also embraces assessment of learning, assessment for learning and assessment for life long learning. Further research is required to build a meta theory of assessment to enhance the synergies between these alternative approaches and to minimise tensions between them.
    • An assessment of the prevent strategy within UK counter terrrorism and the implications for policy makers, communities and law enforcement

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2016-09-12)
      Prevent - the strategy - has become embedded in counter terrorism policy in the UK since 2007. It was reviewed and re-written in 2011 and has taken on even greater significance at the level of addressing questions of how to challenge and prevent 'radicalisation' in the context of managing security in the nation? This paper examines the tensions associated with the Prevent strategy and its legacy in the UK since 2007. It will explore the juxtaposition of policy making, which on one hand sees the means-ends solutions of avoiding further instances of terrorism at all costs, set against a potential community-based and local authority engagement model that foregrounds safeguarding against radicalisation and extremism in all its forms as a priority when working with communities across the country. There are apparent tensions in the emphasis of implementation and deliver of this strategy, which continue to challenge perceptions against the growing strengthening of fears associated with the erosion of civil liberties. The paper argues for a significant change in awareness of the behaviours and attitudes associated with 'radicalisation' and suggests policy could better reflect practice as we move through the second decade of the century.
    • Audit committee and audit quality: An empirical analysis considering industry expertise, legal expertise and gender diversity

      Alhababsah, Salem; Yekini, Liafisu Sina; Coventry University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-01-20)
      The extant literature and corporate governance regulations suffer from a tight focus on audit committee (AC) financial expertise as a mean of improving the AC’s oversight role. However, there is a lack of evidence about other kinds of expertise that might be important for AC effectiveness which could contribute to the quality of financial statements. This study examines whether AC industry expertise and AC legal expertise have an impact on audit quality in a developing country (Jordan). Furthermore, mixed and inconsistent findings regarding the role played by female directors and the peculiarity of the Jordanian context creates a motive to examine the effect of AC gender diversity on audit quality. By utilizing 1,035 firm-year observations, using two proxies to capture audit quality, and employing different estimation methods, this study highlights the importance of AC industry expertise in ensuring high audit quality. AC legal expertise and AC gender diversity have no significant effect on audit quality. This study offers a valuable contribution to the literature, and also has implications for policy-makers in Jordan and other countries with similar institutional environments to consider for future regulatory reform.
    • Augmented reality application for visitor experiences in nature based tourism

      Azizul, Hassan; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby; UiT, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (CABI, 2021-03)
      There is evidence that the application of Augmented Reality (AR) supports posi-tive visitor experience. As an innovative technology, AR superimposes computer gen-erated imagery on the real world view and continues to attract the attention of re-searchers and practitioners. It is yet underexplored in the nature tourism context, call-ing for more research in the field. The aim of this chapter is to outline the impacts of AR in nature-based tourism. We use the Sundarbans in Bangladesh as a case to il-lustrate the application of AR in a nature-based setting. Data and information were generated both from the relevant literature and in-depth interviews. The respondents were general visitors, tourism service providers and government officials. Respond-ents were selected by purposive sampling and the interviews were audio-recorded and then self-transcribed. A number of tourism service providers were assertive in capitalising the existing lacks in the Sundarbans in terms of business development. The government officials appeared having concerns about diverse issues but were positive in the application of an innovative technology. This study concludes that the application of AR can possibly generate competitive advantages in a nature-based tourism context. AR is proposed as a tool to assist with sustainability initiatives to pro-tect the Sundarban’s resources and provide optimum visitor satisfaction.
    • Authenticity as a value co-creator of tourism experiences.

      Ramkissoon, H; Uysal, M. S.; Monash University (CABI, 09/07/2014)
      As the field of tourism grows in maturity and scientific sophistication, it is important to fully understand the breadth and depth of vacation experience value. Current research delivers a multitude of approaches to value creation, represented here as a set of definitions, perspectives, and interpretations of how tourists, as customers, create value alone and with others. Providing an analytical and systematic clarification of the approaches, this book suggests an understanding of the differences, offering new and practical knowledge for tourism scholars and professionals to highlight the relevance of the concept to firms and organizations. Including a framework to distinguish among key resources or antecedents of customer value, this book also considers consumer behaviour and factors affecting value creation from physiological and psychological perspectives. Concluding with a summary of the areas for future research, it is a valuable resource for researchers of tourism, leisure and recreation.
    • Authenticity, satisfaction, and place attachment: A conceptual framework for cultural tourism in African island economies

      Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Taylor and Francis, 12/02/2015)
      Small islands often host distinctive resources to influence their future through tourism development. Island economies in Africa have witnessed a growing number of tourists seeking authentic cultural and natural heritage tourism attractions. This paper critically examines and bridges the nexus between perceived authenticity, place attachment, place satisfaction and cultural behavioural intentions of tourists in African island economies. Adopting a theoretical framework from the authenticity literature, and the attitude-behaviour framework, this paper develops and proposes a conceptual model to investigate how authenticity of a cultural tourism attraction might influence place satisfaction, which in turn might influence levels of place attachment and prompt cultural behavioural intentions of tourists in African island economies. This research conceptually contributes to knowledge advocating the associations between constructs of authenticity, place satisfaction, place attachment, and cultural behavioural intentions of tourists in African island economies. Limitations of the study and practical implications for sustainable tourism development are discussed.
    • Authenticity: the link between destination image and place attachment

      Jiang, Y; Ramkissoon, H; Mavondo, F. T; Feng, S.; Monash University (Taylor and Francis, 17/06/2016)
      This study explores the relationships between destination image, existential authenticity, and different dimensions of place attachment in the nature-based tourism context. A visitor-centric model is proposed in which existential authenticity is the principal mechanism that links destination image to different dimensions of place attachment. Data was collected in a survey of international visitors to two popular nature-based tourism destinations in Australia. The results indicate (a) a positive and significant effect of destination image on existential authenticity; (b) a positive and significant effect of existential authenticity on place dependence, place identity, place affect, and place social bonding; and (c) a significant mediating effect of existential authenticity in the relationship between destination image and each of the four dimensions of place attachment. The implications of this study for academics, tourism authorities, and destination marketing managers are discussed.
    • Balancing within three dimensions.

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (2017)
      Arising out of UK empirical research into religion, belief and discrimination, this paper argues that the three dimensional approach taken by the project to understanding and applying its findings is potentially applicable also in the wider European context. Arguably such an approach will enable a theological and social policy connection with respect to the Christian, secular, and religiously plural context of interreligious and wider social relations. In contrast to such an approach, a call for Christianity to retain a privileged central position within such social policy milieu does not adequately take account of the realities of a growing religious plurality as well as increasingly non-religious or otherwise secular dimensions of today's world. At the same time, strident campaigns for secular measures to be given priority do not take sufficient account of the substantial numbers of those who continue to identify with a religion in varied ways, or the relatively highly valued significance of religion found especially among cultural minorities. Further, any attempt to try to equalize the various religious traditions will run into the clearly different historical and social position of Christianity within Europe; while any of the apparently seductive options for the religions to form a united front, either apart from or over and against the secular, would likely result in damage to the theological and social health of all the religions. In contrast to these approaches, I argue that in both theology and social policy, a balancing of the Christian, secular and religiously plural dimensions is capable of facilitating the kind of evolutionary development that can mediate constructively between the importance of historical inheritance and the need for adaptive and creative change within interreligious and wider social relations.
    • Barack Obama: changing American criminal justice?

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (Taylor and Francis, 2009-12)
      Barack Obama's election as the USA's 44th president signalled the end of an era of entrenched conservatism in American government. Following his inauguration on 20 January 2009, one fundamental question confronts anyone concerned with the state of American criminal justice. Energised by a wave of popular support, will the new president go down in history as someone who radically reformed America's overloaded criminal justice system?
    • Beauty and elegance: value co-creation in cosmetic surgery tourism

      Majeed, Salman; Zhou, Zhimin; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby; UiT, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (SAGE Publications, 2020-06-16)
      This study presents an emerging trend in medical tourism, cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore tourists’ perceptions of CST for medical service quality as an antecedent to tourists’ emotional attachment, trust, and intentions to visit, which is underexplored in CST. This study examines the mediating role of value co-creation in influencing behaviors of CST-seeking tourists to experience a better quality of life. Using a sample drawn from 279 tourists, comprised of Australian, Japanese, and Chinese nationalities at two international airports in China, findings show that perceived medical service quality positively influences tourists’ emotional attachment, trust, and intentions to visit directly and through the mediating role of value co-creation across the three nationalities. CST-seeking tourists’ inputs in value co-creation may positively influence their behaviors, which are vital antecedents to promoting CST business. Implications for future research are discussed.
    • Behavior displayed by female victims during rapes committed by lone and multiple perpetrators.

      Woodhams, Jessica; Hollin, Clive R.; Bull, Ray; Cooke, Claire; University of Birmingham; University of Leicester; University of Gloucestershire (American Psychological Association, 2012-08)
      Research with both the general public and members of the criminal justice system reports a pervasive rape myth of a violent offender and a physically resistant victim. Despite research being conducted on victims' postrape behavior, few studies have examined victim behavior during sexual assaults, and many of those which have been conducted have tended to focus on physical resistance. This article reports two studies that examined qualitatively the behavior of female rape victims during sexual assaults. The first study is an analysis of 78 stranger sexual assaults, committed in the United Kingdom, by male offenders. The second study is an analysis of 89 allegations of stranger rape, again from the United Kingdom, perpetrated by multiple male suspects. Information about victim behavior was extracted from victims' accounts made to the police. More than 100 different victim behaviors were identified in each study, and more than 80 behaviors were common across studies. Myth-congruent behaviors were present in the sample; however, the behaviors engaged in by victims were complex and diverse. Indirect and face-saving communications were used by victims and are discussed in terms of expectations regarding victim behavior and rape stereotypes. The implications of the findings for training legal professionals, educating jurors, and counseling victims are discussed.
    • Behavioural thatcherism and nostalgia: tracing the everyday consequences of holding thatcherite values

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; Hay, Colin; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Palgrave, 2020-01-21)
      With the passing of time and the benefit of hindsight there is, again, growing interest in Thatcherism – above all in its substantive and enduring legacy. But, to date at least, and largely due to data limitations, little of that work has focussed on tracing the behavioural consequences, at the individual level, of holding Thatcherite values. That oversight we seek both to identify more clearly and to begin to address. Deploying new survey data, we use multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling to unpack the relationship between ‘attitudinal’ and ‘behavioural’ Thatcherism. In the process we reveal the considerably greater behavioural consequences of holding neo-liberal, as distinct from neo-conservative, values whilst identifying the key mediating role played by social, political and economic nostalgia. We find that neo-liberal values are positively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism, whilst neo-conservative values are negatively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism. In exploring the implications we also reveal some intriguing interaction effects between economic nostalgia and neo-conservative values in the centre-left vote for Brexit. In the conclusion we reflect on the implications of these findings for our understanding of the legacy of Thatcherism and, indeed, for Brexit itself.
    • Behind the confession: Relating false confession, interrogative compliance, personality traits, and psychopathy

      Larmour, Simon R.; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Gillen, Christopher T. A.; Forth, Adelle E.; Carleton University; Institute of Criminology (Springer, 2014)
      The present study further supports the established notion that personality traits contribute to the phenomenon of false confessions and compliance in an interrogative setting. Furthermore, the study provides an investigation into the more recent interest in the potential effect of psychopathic traits in this context. A sample of university students (N = 607) completed questionnaires measuring psychopathic traits, interrogative compliance, and the big five personality factors. Of these, only 4.9% (n=30) claimed to have falsely confessed to an academic or criminal offense, with no participant taking the blame for both types of offense. Across measures the big five personality traits were the strongest predictors of compliance. The five personality traits accounted for 17.9 % of the total variance in compliance, with neuroticism being the strongest predictor, followed by openness and agreeableness. Psychopathy accounted for 3.3% of variance, with the lifestyle facet being the only significant predictor. After controlling for the big five personality factors, psychopathy only accounted for a small percentage of interrogative compliance, indicating that interrogators should take into account a person’s personality traits during the interrogation.
    • Beyond Expansion or Restriction? Models of Interaction between the Living Instrument and Margin of Appreciation Doctrines and the Scope of the ECHR

      Ita, Rachael; Hicks, David; De Montfort University; University of Derby (Brill, 2021-06-23)
      The living instrument doctrine of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is criticized as restricting the margin of appreciation of States and expanding the scope of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Systematic examination of this claim is usually overlooked in the context of the relationship between the admissibility and merits phase of ECtHR cases. This paper considers this claim in the context of jurisdictional arguments on incompatibility ratione materiae (subject matter outside the scope of the Convention) and the link to the merits of the case. Case law of the ECtHR from January 1979 to December 2016 is assessed to elaborate four models of interaction between the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines. This paper argues the need to go beyond consideration of expansion and restriction of the scope of the ECHR, and to assess the Court’s appetite for allocating new duties to States based upon the case arguments and positioning of living instrument and margin of appreciation doctrines.