• Place Affect Interventions during and post the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; College of Business, Law & Social Sciences, Derby Business School, University of Derby, UK; UiT, School of Business & Economics, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johanneshburg, Johannesburg Business School, South Africa (Frontiers, 2021-09-14)
      The COVID-19 health and economic crisis has also brought a rise in people being unable to cope with their existing medical conditions and other issues such as domestic violence, drugs, and alcohol among others. Suicidal tendencies have been on the rise. Feelings of isolation causing emotional distress in place-confined settings have put additional pressure on the healthcare systems demanding that we find additional and complementary means of support for those in need. This is important not only in the current pandemic but also in the post-pandemic world. The goal is to collectively contribute and address the recurring calls for actions to maintain global well-being and public health. An important discussion to bring on the table is the need to promote interventions for people to cope with the pandemic and to adjust to the post-pandemic world. Promoting affective attitudes toward place can foster well-being outcomes. This has important benefits and is of relevance to governments, policymakers, and healthcare professionals in delivering better healthcare equipping people with coping mechanisms both throughout the pandemic and in the long run. However, the key challenge is how to foster these place affect attitudes meeting the changing demands in the post-pandemic world. It is in the middle of a crisis that the conversation needs to start about how to strategically plan for the recovery.
    • The social marketing paradox: challenges and opportunities for the discipline

      Akbar, Bilal; Foote, Liz; Lawson, Alison; French, Jeff; Deshpande, Sameer; Lee, Nancy, R.; Nottingham Trent University; Antioch University New England, NH, Keene, USA; University of Derby; Strategic Social Marketing Ltd, London; et al. (Springer, 2021-08-22)
      This paper contributes to emerging discourse about the ongoing challenges and opportunities of social marketing as a discipline. The paper presents a qualitative perspective on existing challenges faced by social marketing and offers suggestions for addressing these challenges. Nine semi-structured interviews with social marketing academics and practitioners from six different countries were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to analyse and interpret the qualitative data. The study provides insight into existing challenges for social marketing, classified into three key themes according to their position within or outside of the discipline: 1) poor branding of the discipline as an internal challenge, 2) competing disciplines as an external challenge, and 3) overall reach of the discipline, seen as both an internal and external challenge. The findings suggest that social marketing needs to overcome poor branding issues to sufficiently address external challenges. We conclude by arguing for a more robust marketing of the discipline. While scholars have identified the challenges and opportunities for social marketing as a discipline, they have paid little attention to examining these challenges from the viewpoint of expert practitioners and academics. This paper presents a nuanced contextual understanding of the identified challenges through a qualitative perspective and explores how social marketing can overcome these challenges.
    • Africa, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and digital diplomacy: (Re)negotiating the international knowledge structure

      Masters, Lesley; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-08-20)
      The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) builds on the exponential growth of digital capacities, blurring the lines between the physical and digital spheres. Following its recognition as a phenomenon at the 2016 World Economic Forum, analysis has mainly focused on assessing the socio-economic challenges and benefits that advancements in science, technology and innovation hold. Yet there remains a shortfall in understanding the impact of these digital technologies from the perspective of international relations and diplomacy, particularly on questions of equality, governance, and emerging transnational relations. For Africa, participation in negotiating the international governance of digital technologies is critical in mitigating a peripheral role in the international knowledge structure, ensuring transformational rather than transactional relations when it comes to the 4IR. This article argues that analysis of digital diplomacy as diplomacy for digital technology – ie, negotiating the governance of digital technologies – provides a useful lens for critically assessing Africa vis-à-vis the 4IR .
    • Integrated reporting

      Conway, Elaine; Robertson, Fiona; Ugiagbe-Green, Iwi; University of Derby; Leeds Beckett University; University of Leeds (Palgrave, 2021-07-30)
    • Was Quashing the Maji-Maji Uprising Genocide? An Evaluation of Germany’s Conduct through the Lens of International Criminal Law

      Bachmann, Klaus; Kemp, Gerhard; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities; University of Derby (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-07-30)
      Recently, political actors in Tanzania have demanded compensation from Germany for colonial atrocities against various ethnic and religious groups during the Maji-Maji uprising (1905–1907). By analyzing first-hand archival records from Germany and Tanzania, this article examines whether German actions constitute genocide according to the Genocide Convention or the International Criminal Tribunals’ jurisprudence. The authors find strong evidence to support a claim of genocide, and assess the viability of potential compensation claims against Germany; they conclude, however, that such claims would meet significant obstacles due to the concept of state immunity for sovereign actions under international customary law, as well as case law of the International Court of Justice.
    • Defining the Platform of Positive Peace

      Standish, Katerina; Devere, Heather; Suazo, Adan; Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021-07-23)
      After a brief introduction of typical notions of peace, this chapter ventures to trace the idea of positive peace in recent scholarship to establish how the term is utilized in the PACS world. It then endeavors to introduce each editorial domain within this handbook including a synopsis of each form of intervention theoretically followed immediately by a summary of the chapters that inhabit the PALGRAVE Handbook of Positive Peace.
    • Why the initiative of free childcare failed to be an effective policy implementation of universal childcare in South Korea

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Taylors & Francis Online, 2021-07-22)
      Free childcare (‘moo-sang-bo-yuk’ in Korean) for all children aged 0-5 was implemented for the first time in South Korea in 2012, initially being aimed at establishing universal childcare in order to alleviate parents’ childcare burden. Despite the headlines grabbing policy reform, it still remains questionable whether the policy implementation has had any positive impact on parents’ childcare burden, in terms of the state taking on more responsibility in this regard. The paper is aimed at exploring how the meaning of universal childcare was communicated during the policy initiation process. In order to do so, interpretative policy analysis was utilised as a methodological approach, whilst relevant policy documents and in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Why the policy implementation could not succeed in bringing universal childcare to the fore is critically examined. I argue that these failings occurred because the policy implementation was placed on the agenda with a lack of commitment to increasing the number of public childcare centres, as well as disengagement from understanding the gender relations necessary for delivering universal childcare effectively.
    • Managing strategic accounts with empowerment and management support for co-creation of value

      Veasey, Christian; Lawson, Alison; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (British Academy of Management, 2021-07-16)
      This study explores managing strategic accounts for co-creation of value, and the utility of management input to account plans and empowering account managers. In recent years, managing strategic accounts (SA) has progressed towards relationship-building with customer relationship management (CRM) and use of service-dominant logic (SDL) for co-creation of value. However, there is limited data regarding managing SA with empowerment and management support for co-creation of value. Accordingly, this research aims to appraise the functions of managing SA with empowerment and management support for co-creation of value. Aligning with a pragmatic research philosophy, semi-structured interviews (n=12) were selected with mixed demographics. Participants were primarily strategic account managers (SAMs) from a variety of business sectors. Thematic analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to arrive at key issues and themes. The findings imply that the emphasis of managing SA has progressed into a value-creating account relations management approach. Empowerment and support from senior management were felt to be important to SAMs. This study shows the importance of management support and empowerment for successful strategic account management that creates value for both customer and supplier.
    • The Effect of Lighting on Crime Counts

      Fotios, Steve; Robbins, Chloe; Farrall, Stephen; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-07-07)
      The influence of lighting on crime was investigated by considering the effect of ambient light level on crimes recorded in three US cities for the ten-year period 2010 to 2019. Crime counts were compared for similar times of day, before and after the biannual clock change, therefore employing an abrupt change of light level but without an obvious intervention such as improving road lighting in an area. The results suggest a significant increase in robbery during darkness, confirming previous studies. The results also suggest darkness leads to an increase in arson and curfew loitering offenses, and to a decrease in disorderly conduct, family offences (non-violent) and prostitution. Future research investigating the effectiveness of improved street lighting should consider that this may not be beneficial for all types of crime.
    • Who are the victims of electoral fraud in Great Britain? Evidence from Survey Research

      Farrall, Stephen; Wilks-Heeg, Stuart; Rober, Struthers; Gray, Emily; University of Derby; University of Liverpool; BMG Research, Birmingham (Springer, 2021-07-07)
      Interest in electoral integrity and the validity and accuracy of election results has come to the fore as a topic of concern both amongst politicians and academic researchers in the last twenty years. The literature has identified a number of key variables and processes associated with electoral fraud, and lower levels of integrity. However, one deficiency with this research is that it has relied on the perceptions of fraud and malpractice, rather than first-hand data on the extent of such behaviour. In this paper we report on the results of a novel small-scale survey of people in Britain in which respondents reported some of their direct experiences of electoral fraud in recent national elections. The results indicate that the rates of electoral fraud are currently around six to eight per cent, but that this rises for members of some ethnic minority groups. We end by raising another question: if we can identify victims of electoral fraud, how are we to redress this victimisation?
    • An empathetic approach: Using appreciative inquiry to gain balanced insights

      Veasey, Christian; Lawson, Alison; Hancock, Charles; University of Derby (Academy of Marketing, 2021-07-07)
      Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is described as a collaborative approach to the exploration and development of investigations with informed consideration of what is working well, as opposed to a problem-solving approach (Reed, 2010). The traditional problem-solving approach starts from the point of view that ‘xyz is not working in the abc department’ and has a potential disadvantage in that it focuses on the participants, so participants may feel as if they are under scrutiny and that the researcher is seeking someone to blame for the issue or problem (Goldberg and Commins, 2001). Moreover, this approach focuses on problems that may lead to negatively perceived outcomes, whereas concentrating on positivity, strengths, successes, achievements, positive choices, positive resources, energy and assets can lead to enhanced outcomes and the sustainability of existing strengths (Carter, 2006).
    • Darker Deals? Male Dark Tetrad preferences for female sex worker services

      Hughes, Sara; Adhikari, Joanna; Goulding, Katharine; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-06-24)
      The present study explored links between male Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism) and preferences for using outdoor and indoor female sex worker services. We also investigated the mediating effects of perceiving sex workers as deviant and as victims. Heterosexual males ( N = 347) were recruited to take part in an online survey investigating personality and attitudes towards female sex workers. Path analyses revealed that psychopathy and sadism positively predicted preferences for outdoor but not indoor female sex services. Sex worker choice mediated positive links between narcissism and outdoor female sex worker preferences. Compared to indoor, outdoor sex services are associated with increased aggression and violence. Our findings highlight the importance of considering narcissism and particularly psychopathy and sadism when investigating individual male preferences for outdoor sex services that are being offered by particularly vulnerable women.
    • Beyond Expansion or Restriction? Models of Interaction between the Living Instrument and Margin of Appreciation Doctrines and the Scope of the ECHR

      Ita, Rachael; Hicks, David; De Montfort University; University of Derby (Brill, 2021-06-23)
      The living instrument doctrine of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is criticized as restricting the margin of appreciation of States and expanding the scope of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Systematic examination of this claim is usually overlooked in the context of the relationship between the admissibility and merits phase of ECtHR cases. This paper considers this claim in the context of jurisdictional arguments on incompatibility ratione materiae (subject matter outside the scope of the Convention) and the link to the merits of the case. Case law of the ECtHR from January 1979 to December 2016 is assessed to elaborate four models of interaction between the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines. This paper argues the need to go beyond consideration of expansion and restriction of the scope of the ECHR, and to assess the Court’s appetite for allocating new duties to States based upon the case arguments and positioning of living instrument and margin of appreciation doctrines.
    • Regional Economic Communities as the Building Blocs of the African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement

      Ajibo, Collins .C; Nwankwo, Chidebe .M; Ekhator, Eghosa; University of Nigeria; University of Derby (MARVIS BV, 2021-06-16)
      The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) recognises the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the building blocs for continent-wide integration in line with the historical efforts reflected in the Lagos Action Plan of 1980 and the transitional plan of the African Union (AU) articulated in the 1991 Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community (Abuja Treaty). The AfCFTA enjoins State Parties that are members of other RECs, which have attained among themselves higher levels of elimination of customs duties and trade barriers than those provided for under the Protocol, to continue maintaining this, and where possible improve upon, existing higher levels of trade liberalisation among themselves. While RECs are fundamental to the African integration experience and are considered the building blocs of AfCFTA, several challenges may emerge. This paper examines the prospects and challenges of RECs under the recently established AfCFTA regime.
    • Revisiting International Public Sector Accounting Standards Adoption in Developing Countries

      Boolaky Doorgakunt, Lakshi D; Omoteso, Kamil; Mirosea, Nitri; Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-06-06)
      Based on a comprehensive review of recent studies on IPSAS adoption around the globe, we develop in this article a conceptual model to examine alternative predictors of adoption for developing countries. Drawing from this framework, we develop a rigorous econometric modelling on the impact of legal, political and accounting environments in the developing countries’ drive for IPSAS adoption. Contrary to what existing literature projects, our study reveals that a country’s IFRS and ISA experience is more important and significant drivers of IPSAS adoption compared to IFRS adoption. Likewise, political system, regulatory enforcement, lenders and borrowers’ rights and the level of corruption in a country also influence IPSAS adoption.
    • Derbyshire Virtual School: Creative Mentoring Programme Final Report

      Nunn, Alexander; Turner, Royce; Adhikari, Joanna; Brooks, Catherine; University of Derby (Derby Virtual School, 2021-06)
    • Social Marketing: Advancing a New Planning Framework to Guide Programmes

      Akbar, M Bilal; Ndupu, Lawrence; French, Jeff; Lawson, Alison; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; Strategic Social Marketing Ltd, London (Emerald, 2021-05-31)
      This paper develops and presents a new planning framework of social marketing, known as CSD-IES (Consumer Research, Segmentation, Design of the Social Programme, Implementation, Evaluation and Sustainability). The proposed framework is based on recent theoretical developments in social marketing and is informed by the key strengths of existing social marketing planning approaches. The CSD-IES planning framework incorporates emerging principles of social marketing. For example, sustainability in changed behaviour, ethical considerations in designing social marketing programmes, the need for continuous research to understand the changing needs of the priority audience during the programme, and the need for explicit feedback mechanisms. Research Implications – The CSD-IES framework is a dynamic and flexible framework that guides social marketers, other practitioners, and researchers to develop, implement, and evaluate effective and sustainable social marketing programmes to influence or change specific behaviours based on available resources. This paper makes an important contribution to social marketing theory and practice by integrating elements of behaviour maintenance, consideration of ethical perspectives and continuous feedback mechanisms in developing the CSD-IES framework, bringing it in line with the global consensus definition of social marketing.
    • Stock connect: Integration, internationalisation and implementation

      Huang, Flora; University of Derby (Sweet and Maxwell, 2021-05-20)
      Stock Connect is a stock exchange collaboration between China and international bourses such as Hong Kong and London. In contrast to existing literature mostly focusing on economic analysis, this article explores the legal issues in Stock Connect and makes practical contributions by appraising the successes and failures of this scheme.
    • Understanding the core elements of event portfolio strategy: lessons from Auckland and Dunedin

      Antchak, Vladimir; Michael, Luck; Tomas, Pernecky; University of Derby; Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand (Emerald, 2021-05-17)
      An event portfolio is a vital part of economic and socio-cultural processes designed around the use of public events in cities and destinations around the world. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a new research framework for comparative studies of diverse event portfolio strategies. The discussion in this paper is based on a review of the literature and content analysis of event strategies from two New Zealand cities: Auckland and Dunedin. The paper suggests an empirically tested framework for exploring event portfolios. It entails such dimensions as the event portfolio strategy, event portfolio focus, portfolio objectives and evaluation tools and event portfolio configuration. This exploratory research provides a comparative analysis of diverse portfolio contexts and offers insights on developing sustainable event strategies while considering diverse local contexts. Core conditions and processes shaping event portfolio design and management are evaluated and strategic factors articulated.
    • The Problems of Starmerism

      Burton-Cartledge, Phil; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-05-06)
      The 2017 and 2019 general elections showed a strong bedrock of Labour support among the working age population and particularly the under thirties. This is a consequence both of long-term changes to the composition of class cohorts, political events, and the experience of a decade of Conservative governments, whose policies have shielded the retired and the elderly. These conditions have not changed and, under the impact of Covid-19 are, if anything, sharpening. The challenge of the Labour Party's new leadership under Keir Starmer is keeping hold of this crucial component of the party's electoral coalition while making inroads into Tory support. Initial movement in the polls suggests he is on course for achieving the latter, but positions taken on Black Lives Matter, the government's coronavirus strategy, and a managerialist oppositional style recalls the triangulation strategy associated with the Blair years. This article considers the possibilities and dangers of adopting this approach.