• Diplomacy and the politics of fear: the 21st century challenges to the theory and practice of Diplomacy and International Relations

      Jegede, Francis; Todd, Malcolm; Stubbs, John; Hodgson, Philip; Univeristy of Derby (LHSS, University of Derby, 2016-09-12)
      Conflicts, political unrest, mass migration and the rise of violent extremism by non-state actors are features that have characterized the early 21st century. A huge challenge to world peace and security is posed by volatile economic and political conditions around the world. This situation has led to a growing tension in many inter-state relations which arguably has underpinned the rise of groups such as Al Qaeda and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Middle East, the Boko Haram in West Africa, and Al Shabaab in East Africa. Arguably, there is a growing sense of fear and unease in every sphere of social, economic and political life. More than at any other time in human history, the future seems uncertain. Relationships and trusts between states and their citizens are breaking down; relations, mutual cooperation and connections between states are under strain; there is growing sense of disillusionment by the governed of the ability of governments and mainstream political establishments to address their concerns and meet their needs. The feeling of uncertainty and general fear for the future is real. While these may not necessarily be universally held views, there is a growing indication that people and communities around the world are feeling dissatisfied and may be threatened by mainstream political systems. Just when it is most needed, diplomacy and diplomatic practice seem to be taking the back seat in the face of growing conflicts. This conference examines the socio-economic and political environment that creates social and political discontent, political apathy, the weakening of inter-state relations, and the general sense of fear.
    • Disassembly and deconstruction analytics system (D-DAS) for construction in a circular economy

      Akanbi, Lukman A.; Oyedele, Lukumon O.; Omoteso, Kamil; Bilal, Muhammad; Akinade, Olugbenga O.; Ajayi, Anuoluwapo O.; Davila Delgado, Juan Manuel; Owolabi, Hakeem A.; Coventry University (Elsevier, 2019-03-15)
      Despite the relevance of building information modelling for simulating building performance at various life cycle stages, Its use for assessing the end-of-life impacts is not a common practice. Even though the global sustainability and circular economy agendas require that buildings must have minimal impact on the environment across the entire lifecycle. In this study therefore, a disassembly and deconstruction analytics system is developed to provide buildings’ end-of-life performance assessment from the design stage. The system architecture builds on the existing building information modelling capabilities in managing building design and construction process. The architecture is made up of four different layers namely (i) Data storage layer, (ii) Semantic layer, (iii) Analytics and functional models layer and (iv) Application layer. The four layers are logically connected to function as a single system. Three key functionalities of the disassembly and deconstruction analytics system namely (i) Building Whole Life Performance Analytics (ii) Building Element Deconstruction Analytics and (iii) Design for Deconstruction Advisor are implemented as plug-in in Revit 2017. Three scenarios of a case study building design were used to test and evaluate the performance of the system. The results show that building information modelling software capabilities can be extended to provide a platform for assessing the performance of building designs in respect of the circular economy principle of keeping the embodied energy of materials perpetually in an economy. The disassembly and deconstruction analytics system would ensure that buildings are designed with design for disassembly and deconstruction principles that guarantee efficient materials recovery in mind. The disassembly and deconstruction analytics tool could also serve as a decision support platform that government and planners can use to evaluate the level of compliance of building designs to circular economy and sustainability requirements.
    • Disciplinary social policy and the failing promise of the new middle classes: the troubled families programme

      Tepe-Belfrage, Daniela; Nunn, Alex; University of Derby; University of Liverpool (Cambridge University Press, 2016-10-17)
      This article looks at the promise of the ‘New Middle Class’ (NMC) inherent in the neoliberal ideological ideal of individualising societal responsibility for well-being and success. The article points to how this promise enables a discourse and practice of welfare reform and a disciplining of life styles particularly targeting the very poor in society. Women and some ethnic minorities are particularly prone to poverty and then therefore also discipline. The article then provides a case study of the Troubled Families Programme (TFP) and shows how the programme and the way it is constructed and managed partly undermines the provision of the material needs to alleviate people from poverty and re-produces discourses of poor lifestyle and parenting choices as sources of poverty, thereby undermining the ‘middle-class’ promise.
    • Disclosure of confidential patient information and the duty to consult: the role of the Health and Social Care Information Centre

      Grace, Jamie; Taylor, Mark; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Oxford University Press, 2013)
    • The dismantling of probation: Who will profit?

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (New Left Project, 2013)
      After 105 years of world-class rehabilitative intervention, the probation service in England and Wales is about to be effectively dismantled. The Ministry of Justice's 2013 consultation document, 'Transforming Rehabilitation', outlined plans to allow private companies and charities to manage a range of services, including community supervision. Probation is set to be stripped of its core responsibilities, with the exception of public protection work with high risk offenders and the provision of information to the courts. There is little doubt that what will remain will be a qualitatively different service. Regardless of the rhetoric accompanying the ‘rehabilitation revolution’, the reality may be that the privatisation of probation is about the deprioritisation of rehabilitation and penal-welfare intervention.
    • Distributed leadership in DMOs: a review of literature and directions for future research

      Hristov, Dean; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Naumov, Nick; University of Northampton; University of Derby; The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; Nexford University, Washington DC, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2020-07-27)
      Amidst key emergent challenges for Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) and destinations triggered by changes in the funding and governance landscape for tourism on a global scale, Distributed Leadership (DL) has emerged as a promising concept to provide a collaborative framework for channelling resources and leadership to cope with such changes. Current evidence from academic literature discussing the importance of embedding shared forms of leadership is scarce and few studies discuss the application of DL in the context of DMOs. The key purpose of the following conceptual study is to provide a critical overview of key DL contributions in the mainstream and DMO academic literature. The study seeks to examine the relevance of DL in the context DMOs with the purpose to stimulate future empirical investigations in the application of DL in DMO organisations.
    • Distributive justice and the crime drop.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Kent; University College London (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015)
      Data were extracted from a total of almost 600000 respondents from all sweeps of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 1982-2012 to determine whether victimisation was more or less concentrated across households during the crime drop. The most victimised household decile experienced the greatest absolute decline in victimisation but still accounted for over 70% of all victimisations suffered. Methodological issues underlying the patterns observed are discussed. The characteristics associated with highly victimised household are consistent across survey sweeps. Cross-national and crime type extension of work of the kind undertaken is advocated as both intrinsically important and likely to clarify the dynamics of the crime drop.
    • DIY laboratories and business innovation ecosystems: The case of pharmaceutical industry

      Wu, Qiang; He, Qile; Aston University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-09-25)
      This paper conducts an embedded case study to verify a conceptual framework by which biopharma research in Do-It-Yourself (DIY) laboratories can be integrated into Research and Development (R&D) networks of the pharmaceutical industry. As an early attempt to extend the perspective of business innovation ecosystem into the research on DIY laboratories, this study reveals three major findings. First, DIY laboratories, contract research organizations (CROs) and pharmaceutical firms interdependently position and link with each other in an innovation ecosystem for new drug development. Second, through properly managing the issues of resource utilization and innovation appropriability, CROs play important hub and knowledge broker roles in coordinating and aligning different priorities and expectations of the key players in this innovation ecosystem. Third, this study maps and verifies two knowledge transfer models through which novel research findings in DIY laboratories can be converted into real commercial returns.
    • Do employment services need to be neoliberal

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-12)
      There is a divide in the literature on labour market governance between that which sees ‘workfare’ policies as part of a process of neoliberalisation and a more practice-oriented literature that is concerned with the effectiveness and outcomes of ‘active labour market policies’. This chapter engages with these separate but related literatures to make the argument that the trajectory of policy and practice reform in employment services has been inherently neoliberalising over recent decades, and that there is scope to repurpose some of the processes and tools that have been involved in this to more inclusive ends. The chapter proposes that the materialist feminist concept of social reproduction offers one lens through which a more inclusive approach to employment service delivery and management can be viewed. The discussion is tailored to the ways that both national policymakers, local and lower-level implementers and progressive activists may promote a more inclusive form of employment service through their ‘policy work’.
    • Do parents have a right to determine where a child patient dies?

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Derby (Trivent Publishing, 2019-08)
      This chapter will explore whether parents have the legal right to take their gravely ill child home to die in peace surrounded by family. Public anger surrounding the recent cases of Charlie Gard and Alfie Evans suggests that it is morally wrong to deprive parents of this final wish when medical treatment is futile and travel abroad for treatment has been ruled out. The judgments of Judge Francis (Gard) and Lady Justice King (Re C) will be examined to reveal the legal avenues available to parents of gravely ill children and whether their final wish to take their child home should be afforded more weight in futile cases.
    • Do rural firms perceive different problems? Geography, sorting, and barriers to growth in UK SMEs

      Lyee, N; Cowling, M; University of Brighton (Sage, 01/01/2015)
      Support for small businesses is often delivered separately for urban and rural areas, based on the idea that the barriers to business growth differ geographically. Yet firms in rural and urban areas will also differ in their characteristics, and these may be more important influences on firm growth than location. In this paper we test whether firms in urban, semirurals, and rural areas perceive each of eight obstacles to their success differently, based on a large sample of UK SMEs. After controlling for selection effects, rural and semirural firms are more likely to perceive regulation as a problem while rural firms are more likely to see the economy as an obstacle to success. We also find some evidence that skills shortages may be more acute for rural firms, once selection effects are controlled for. The results provide only limited support for geographically differentiated policy for small businesses.
    • Do We Need a New Legal Framework for Fighting Non-Conventional Wars? The International Law of War, Human Rights and the Global Fight Against Extremism and Terrorism

      Jegede, Francis; Todd, Malcolm; University of Derby (Global Science and Technology Forum, 2016-11-16)
      This paper examines the existing legal framework for fighting violent extremism and terrorism. Highlighting the inherent limitations of the current International Law of War in dealing with the growing challenges posed by terrorists and violent extremist groups, the paper discusses the problem facing military commanders, security agents, state actors and the international community in confronting extremist groups while upholding human rights values and respecting the law of war. The paper poses the question as to whether the current legal framework for dealing with extremist groups is sufficient without contravening the essential provisions and ethos of the International Law of War and Human Rights. Using examples, the paper examines how extremist groups flagrantly disregard the rule of law and disrespect human rights in their campaign of terror. The paper also notes instances in which the current Western strategy in fighting terrorism may be viewed or considered as conflicting with human rights and international law.
    • Do we really offer refuge? Using Galtung's concept of structural violence to interrogate refugee resettlement support in Aotearoa New Zealand

      Rafferty, Rachel; Burgin, Anna; Anderson, Vivienne; University of Derby; University of Otago (Sites: New Series, Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand, 2020-12-12)
      Decades after the first refugee convention was signed, the global community is still failing to meet its commitment to protect refugees from harm. In this article, we draw on Galtung’s concept of structural violence to highlight how harm can be caused not only by physical violence but also by social structures in resettlement contexts, including economic systems, legal frameworks and government institutions. We examine how recognising the exposure of resettled refugees to structural violence in their host countries can help us interrogate the quality of the ‘refuge’ offered and point to significant gaps in national resettlement systems. We consider Aotearoa New Zealand as a case where there is an extensive refugee resettlement support system, but argue that it fails to adequately acknowledge and address the exposure of refugees to forms of structural violence caused by factors such as institutionalised monoculturalism and economic inequality. We conclude by calling for an expanded understanding of ‘refuge’ that would reorient resettlement systems towards identifying and addressing structural violence while supporting refugees to overcome the harmful impacts of both physical and structural violence in their lives.
    • Does corporate social responsibility pay?

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2014-10)
      This literature review summarises the main strands of the debate around whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) has any impact on corporate financial performance (CFP). This subject area has been the source of academic and business debate for more than 40 years, especially since the level of CSR engagement of an organisation (whether profit-making or not) has been linked to benefits to its reputation and relationships with employees, suppliers, customers, government and its wider community.
    • Does good integrated reporting improve corporate social responsibility?

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (2017-09)
      Purpose – This paper assesses whether firms which produce exemplary integrated reporting () demonstrate higher levels of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or indeed whether firms with higher rated CSR produce more exemplary . Theoretically, one might expect firms which are attuned to the wider expectations of corporate responsibility might be better able to report on their activities to their stakeholders. Equally, those firms who demonstrate clarity of purpose in their might be expected to have higher CSR scores. Design/methodology/approach – Studying 119 firms worldwide recognised for their excellent , the number of accolades awarded was estimated against their CSR ratings over six years from 2010-2015. The reverse relationship was also explored, together with regressions using the determinants of the CSR score; environmental, social and governance. Findings – There appears to be no correlation between companies producing exemplary and their CSR ratings; nor indeed the reverse. However, there was some evidence that firms producing exemplary have higher governance scores and in turn, higher governance scores appear linked to more exemplary . There were no findings for the other two determinants of CSR (environmental and social). Research implications/ limitations – This paper is the first to consider whether there is a link between exemplary and highly rated CSR. Given the relative low numbers of firms using the results may lack generalisability. However, the results suggest that high levels of CSR may not be a prerequisite for excellent , nor does producing exemplary result in a higher CSR score.
    • Does Regulatory Environment affect Earnings Management in Transitional Economies? An Empirical Examination of the Financial Reporting Quality of Cross-Listed Firms of China and Hong Kong

      Nnadi, Matthias; Omoteso, Kamil; Yu, Yi; Cranfield University; Coventry University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited., 2015)
      This chapter provides evidence on the impact of regulatory environment on financial reporting quality of transitional economies. This study compares the financial reporting quality of Hong Kong firms which are cross-listed in mainland China with those of Hong Kong firms cross-listed in China using specific earnings management metrics (earnings smoothing, timely loss recognition, value relevance and managing towards earnings targets) under pre- and post-IFRS regimes. The financial reporting quality of Chinese A-share companies and Hong Kong listed companies are examined using earnings management measures. Using 2007 as base year, the study used a cumulative of −5 and +5 years of convergence experience which provide a total of 3,000 firm-year observations. In addition to regression analyses, we used the difference-in-difference analysis to check for the impact of regulatory environments on earnings management. Through the lens of contingency theory, our results indicate that the adoption of the new substantially IFRS-convergent accounting standards in China results in better financial reporting quality evidenced by less earning management. The empirical results further shows that accounting data are more value relevant for Hong Kong listed firms, and that firms listed in China are more likely to engage in accrual-based earnings management than in real earnings management activities. We established that different earnings management practices that are seemingly tolerable in one country may not be tolerable in another due to level of differences in the regulatory environments. The findings show that Hong Kong listed companies’ exhibit higher level of financial reporting quality than Chinese listed companies, which implies that the financial reporting quality under IFRS can be significantly different in regions with different institutional, economic and regulatory environments. The results imply that contingent factors such as country’s institutional structures, its extent of regulation and the strength of its investor protection environments impact on financial reporting quality particularly in transitional and emerging economies. As such, these factors need to be given appropriate considerations by financial reporting regulators and policy-makers interested in controlling earnings management practices among their corporations. This study is a high impact study considering that China plays a significant role in today’s globalised economy. This study is unique as it the first, that we are aware of, to compare real earnings activities against accrual-based earnings management in pre- and post-IFRS adoption periods within the Chinese and Hong Kong financial reporting environments, distinguishing between cross-listed and non-cross-listed firms.
    • Dual class shares around the top global financial centres

      Huang, Flora; University of Essex (2017-04-01)
      Dual class shares (DCS) offer additional classes of shares that provide holders with greater voting rights. The article aims to investigate why leading financial centres have different attitudes towards DCS, with a focus on the recent reforms of their company law and listing rules with respect to DCS.
    • Dynamics of repeated interviews with children

      Waterhouse, Genevieve F.; Ridley, Anne M.; Bull, Ray; La Rooy, David; Wilcock, Rachel; London South Bank University; University of Derby; University of London; University of Winchester; Department of Psychology; London South Bank University; London UK; et al. (Wiley, 2016-06-10)
      Concerns regarding repeat interviews with child witnesses include greater use of suggestive questions in later interviews due to bias, and that children may appear inconsistent and, therefore, be judged as less reliable in court. UK transcripts of first and second interviews with 21 child victims/witnesses (conducted by qualified interviewers) were coded for question types and child responses. Interviewers were consistent in their proportional use of question types across interviews. Furthermore, children were as informative in second interviews as in first, mostly providing new details consistent with their prior recall. Despite the apparent lack of training in conducting repeated interviews, no negative effects were found; second interviews appeared to be conducted as well as initial interviews, and children provided new details without many contradictions. It is suggested that when a child's testimony is paramount for an investigation, a well-conducted supplementary interview may be an effective way of gaining further investigative leads.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.