• Corruption in Ukraine in Comparative Perspective

      Athanasouli, Daphne; University College London; University of Derby (Stanford University Press, 2016-09)
      Beyond the Euromaidan examines the prospects for advancing reform in Ukraine in the wake of the February 2014 Euromaidan revolution and Russian invasion. It examines six crucial areas where reform is needed: deep internal identity divisions, corruption, the constitution, the judiciary, plutocratic "oligarchs," and the economy. On each of these topics, the book provides one chapter that focuses on Ukraine's own experience and one chapter that examines the issue in the broader context of international practice. Placing Ukraine in comparative perspective shows that many of the country's problems are not unique and that other countries have been able to address many of the issues currently confronting Ukraine. As with the constitution, there are no easy answers, but careful analysis shows that some solutions are better than others. Ultimately, the authors propose a series of reforms that can help Ukraine make the best of a bad situation. The book stresses the need to focus on reforms that might not have immediate effect, but that comparative experience shows can solve fundamental contextual challenges. Finally, the book shows that pressures from outside Ukraine can have a strong positive influence on reform efforts inside the country.
    • A cosmopolitan ethos within a global Law curriculum: comparative law as its promoter

      Platsas, Antonios E.; University of Derby (CGPublisher, 2009)
      In this paper the author will commence his analysis by exposing the apparent absence of a global law curriculum for law students. He will attempt to highlight the fact that lawyers around the world tend to engage themselves with national law material, when our world environment asks for a legal education of a more ecumenical character. Accordingly, the paper acts on the assumption that national law curricula tend to operate on the basis of predisposed agendas. Therefore, we, in the discipline of law, find ourselves in a clearly paradoxical situation, a situation which conflicts not only the epistemological unity of other disciplines but also the very process of globalisation. As the leading law comparatists Zweigert and Kötz have argued some time ago ‘[t]here is no such thing as “German” physics or “British” microbiology or “Canadian” geology’. But we in the discipline of law find ourselves teaching national law curricula which are the by-product of nationalisms and historical accidents. It is believed that there has to be re-alignment of the law curriculum by re-enforcing the international and comparative law elements and by reducing the national law elements thereof. In other words, we must push for a law curriculum which truly reflects a global studies state of affairs, a global law curriculum. We need to re-address the matter by promoting a law curriculum which will promote a more cosmopolitan legal ethos, a better understanding of universal truths such as legal axioms, principles and ideas which are appealing and comprehensible to legal scientists from all over the world. The analysis will conclude that the subject of comparative law acts as the driving force for a more internationalised legal education and that such a type of education is something that has to be sought in the modern academic world.
    • Cost of capital and public loan guarantees to small firms

      Ughetto, Elisa; Scellato, Giuseppe; Cowling, Marc; Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-03-09)
      In this paper, we study the determinants of the spread charged by banks under a UK policy intervention scheme, aimed at supporting access to the credit market for small firms through guarantee backed loans. We exploit a unique dataset containing data on 29,266 guarantee backed loans under the UK SFLG scheme over the period 2000 to 2005. Results suggest that lower spreads are offered for loans of larger amounts and higher durations, for service firms, for larger firms, and for those located in the most advanced regions. Higher spreads are applied to high-tech manufacturing firms and to loans issued for working capital purposes. We also find that the presence of other extant debt is associated with a relatively higher spread and that this effect is especially significant for the subset of firms that have reached a maximum debt capacity based on collateralized assets. Further, we also find that the higher the incidence of the publicly guaranteed debt over the total amount of outstanding loans, the lower, on average, the spread. However, an increase in the guaranteed coverage leads to a contraction in the spread only for loans aimed at covering working capital needs rather than investments.
    • The costs of choice in the New Zealand history curriculum

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Briefing Papers, 2018-11-13)
    • Council house sales, homelessness and contact with the criminal justice system: Evidence from the NCDS and BCS70 birth cohorts.

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phil; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-07-26)
      Focussing on the changes in sitting tenants’ right to buy their council house (introduced in the UK in 1980), we explore the long-term impact of this policy change upon the lives of UK citizens. Using two longitudinal studies of UK citizens born in 1958 and 1970, we exam how policies aimed at achieving one set of goals (providing families with their own homes, reducing the control of councils and weakening the Labour Party’s voting bloc) may have also altered experiences of housing, homelessness, and contact with the criminal justice system not just for those for whom the policies were initially designed (adults living in council owned properties in the 1980s) but also for subsequent generations (most typically their children). Our contribution examines how legislative changes may have altered the lives of citizens, and highlights some of the unintended consequences of the ‘right to buy’ in the UK. We are able to investigate what happens when systems which have previously been tightly regulated suddenly become much less well regulated. Our paper utilises ideas developed by life-course theorists and historical institutionalists in order to understand in more depth how radical policy changes may shape and alter the lives of citizens.
    • Course notes: Criminal Law

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Bradford (Routledge, 2012)
      Course Notes is designed to help you succeed in your law examinations and assessments. Each guide supports revision of an undergraduate and conversion GDL/CPE law degree module by demonstrating good practice in creating and maintaining ideal notes. Course Notes will support you in actively and effectively learning the material by guiding you through the demands of compiling the information you need.
    • COVID-19 impact on waste management − business opportunity Emirate of Ajman − UAE

      Alhosani, Khaled Mueen; Liravi , Pouria; University of Derby (EDP Sciences, 2021-04-12)
      The UAE's lifestyle has recently developed with increased population resulted in an increased waste from different resources (hazardous and non-hazardous). This has significantly got accumulated during the pandemic. Crisis management is one of the most important management practices that need careful modelling to include planning, framework practices, training, and reserved resources. Naturally, a complete plan for the expected crisis is ready for implementation when a crisis starts to reduce the crisis impacts. Moreover, those plans are to cover the periods before, during and after that crisis. Waste is a resource for many health, environmental, and social problems when not managed. Therefore, this paper aims to introduce elements needed in that combination of waste and crisis management and exploring the main critical elements that need to be contained and carefully studied to enhance modern waste management. The presumed management model examines the waste management practices prior to, during, and after the crisis. COVID-19 pandemics have severely affected all nations and critically disabled many services that governments are providing. Data collected for similar periods before and after the pandemic of the waste, including the amounts, practices, and associated outcomes. A concluded resultwas used to introduce a new framework model for the required initiatives of waste − crisis management. Results showed the importance of using the Waste − Business correlation for high-quality management. During the COVID-19 crises, a significant challenge is the massive quantity of regular waste that has become hazardous and required special treatment adding more cost and resulting in recyclable material reduction. The article has concluded that change in the dynamics of plastic, food, and biomedical waste generation during the same time has, however, stirred the woes of solid waste management. The non-hazardous waste was considered hazardous in many cases to minimize the chances of contamination. Inevitably, plastic has increased as personal protection and healthcare items increased with the reduced recycling process to avoid its adverse effect. Private businesses need to support Governmental efforts to deal with contingency. Materials Recovery Facilities (MRF) were getting less waste due to worries of contaminations and virus spreading. All these challenges and practices had a considerable effect on the Government waste associated budget.
    • The covid-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom and subjective well-being: have the self-employed suffered more due to hours and income reductions?

      Yue, Wei; Cowling, Marc; Hunan University, China; University of Derby (Sage, 2021-01-21)
      It is well documented that the self-employed experience higher levels of happiness than waged employees even when their incomes are lower. Given the UK government’s asymmetric treatment of waged workers and the self-employed, we use a unique Covid-19 period data set which covers the months leading up to the March lockdown and the months just after to assess three aspects of the Covid-19 crisis on the self-employed: hours of work reductions, the associated income reductions and the effects of both on subjective well-being. Our findings show the large and disproportionate reductions in hours and income for the self-employed directly contributed to a deterioration in their levels of subjective well-being compared to waged workers. It appears that their resilience was broken when faced with the reality of dealing with rare events, particularly when the UK welfare support response was asymmetric and favouring waged employees.
    • COVID-19 place confinement, pro-social, pro-environmental behaviors, and residents’ wellbeing: a new conceptual framework

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; UiT, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Derby; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Frontiers, 2020-09-01)
      Residents’ wellbeing in the present COVID-19 global health crisis requires a deeper understanding to determine appropriate management strategies to promote sustainable behaviors and contribute to human and planetary health. Residents’ behavior can have a profound influence in contributing to personal and global community’s health by responding effectively to emergency strategies in disease outbreaks such as the Coronavirus. It is evident that an understanding of residents’ behavior(s) pre COVID-19 across fields have relied on over-simplistic models, many of which will need to be revisited. Our interaction with people and nature while respecting social distancing has profound positive impacts on our physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing. The current health pandemic has called that people be confined in their homes across many nations as a means to control the spread of the virus and save lives. This calls for research exploring the mechanisms; this paper develops and proposes a conceptual framework suggesting that place confinement promotes pro-social and household pro-environmental behaviors which could become habitual and contribute further to our people’s and our planet’s health. Some evidence shows that human connectedness to place may contribute to engagement in desirable behaviors. Interaction with other members of the household can help create meanings leading to collective actions promoting psychological wellbeing. Promoting hygienic behaviors in the household (frequent hand washing) while at the same time being conscious not to keep the water flowing when not required would contribute to a range of benefits (health, financial, biospheric, altruistic) and promote wellbeing. Engaging in pro-social behaviors may result in positive effects on psychological wellbeing, reducing mental distress giving rise to a sense of attachment and belongingness, trust and overall life satisfaction. Engaging people in low-effort pro-environmental behavior to maintain some levels of physical activity and biological harmony with natural environmental settings (e.g. gardening) may help reduce anxiety and distress. This is the first study exploring the interplay of relationships between place confinement, pro-social behavior, household pro-environmental behaviors, place attachment as a multi-dimensional construct and presenting their relationships to residents’ wellbeing. Behavioral change interventions are proposed to promote lifestyle change for people’s wellbeing and broader societal benefits.
    • Creating and storing a toolkit for pilgrimage and religious tourism sites.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2017)
      This paper reflects our abiding interest in our origins and of those religious and pilgrimage spaces that we attest to actively being part of our cultural inheritance. It explores options for, and barriers to, the creation of a repository of information to support practitioners and the clergy to maintain and develop these religious and pilgrimage sites. A model toolkit for storing collected knowledge is presented with illustrative examples from a range of sources. The examples used are largely drawn from a Northern / Western perspective.
    • Crime concentrations: Hot dots, hot spots and hot flushes.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University College London (Oxford University Press, 2018-09-14)
      None
    • Crime, bandits, and community: how public panic shaped the social control of territory in the Ottoman Empire

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-12-15)
      This study explores the role of crime, bandits, and public panic in in the nineteenth century Ottoman society by using archival documents and employing a comparative perspective. In addition to the social bandit concept of Eric Hobsbawm, there is an introduction of two new banditry forms in this study—opportunist bandits and imagined bandits. The comparison of different bandit forms clarifies that social bandits and opportunist bandits aggravated public panic and produced imagined bandits. Hence, public panic and the dissent of local people unveiled through rumors about the imagined bandits. The exploration of different forms of bandits in the Ottoman Empire is a response to the vexed issue concerning the challenges in the social control of territories in a multiethnic and multi-religious empire. This study provides new conceptual tools to rethink about the spatial dimensions in the emergence of bandits. This article shows that spatial factors in the social control of territory can be influenced by the reaction of local people from bottom-to-top and, in doing so, can determine the response of state authority. The present study, therefore, unveils the power relationship in the social control of territory whether it is manifested by physical force or public panic.
    • Criminal Careers in Transition: The Social Context of Desistance from Crime

      Farrall, Stephen; Hunter, Ben; Sharpe, Gilly; Calverley, Adam; University of Sheffield (Oxford University Press, 2014)
      Continuing previous work exploring why people stop offending, and the processes by which they are rehabilitated in the community, Criminal Careers in Transition: The Social Context of Desistance from Crime follows the completion of a fifth sweep of interviews with members of a cohort of former probationers interviewed since the late-1990s. The research undertaken since the inception of the project in 1996 has focused on developing a long-term evidence base, rather than a rapid assessment, examining whether (and how) probation supervision assists desistance from crime. Building on interviews from previous sweeps, the authors continue their exploration into the needs identified by probation officers and probationers, the extent to which these have been successfully met over the medium to long-term, and whether this suggests that probation helps probationers to desist. The authors argue that probation supervision did indeed help the probationers, but that this had taken a long time to 'bear fruit' and was related to other social and personal changes. There is discussion of a number of key topics, including sample members' continued social and personal development (including the impact of parenthood on them) and their motivation to change and maintain a law-abiding lifestyle, as well as their experiences of dealing with the stigma of a criminal record and the long-term process of 'remaking' themselves. This core empirical research and analysis is framed by a comprehensive review of not only the contemporary literature on desistance and reoffending, but also what constitutes a successful and effective research design in this field. Whilst there have been several attempts to develop theories of desistance, few have attempted to understand and theorise the long-term impacts of probation supervision. Criminal Careers in Transition addresses this by building an account of the processes which help to shape the speed, nature, and direction of an individual's efforts to avoid further offending and, thus, develop a theory of assisted desistance. The book continues the authors' exploration of the emotional trajectories of crime, victimisation, and desistance and the role of citizenship values in pathways out of crime, as well as original research into the spatial dynamics of desistance.
    • Crisis Management and Recovery for Events: Impacts and Strategies

      Ziakas, Vassilios; Antchak, Vladimir; Getz, Donald; University of Derby; University of Queensland (Goodfellow Publishers, 2021-04-01)
      Reveals how to effectively manage events in times of crisis, and leveraging events for post-disaster recovery. The volume brings together theoretical and practical insights in order to set up a robust ground for effective crisis management and recovery strategies of events.
    • Critical dialogues: Dialogue and conflict resolution - special issue

      Mustafa, Demir; Dunn, Deborah; Keyes, Simon; Ramsbotham, Oliver; Shener, Oemer; Weller, Paul; Coventry University; University of Derby; Regent's Park College, Oxford University (The Dialogue Society, 2019)
      This special issue addresses dialogue as a means of conflict resolution under the title of ‘Critical Dialogues: Dialogue and Conflict Resolution.’ As a tool of conflict resolution, dialogue can take on many different shapes and can be moulded to respond to each conflict. In some cases, it becomes a tent that gives shelter to both sides, creating an environment of peace and security; in some other cases, it becomes a ship that saves the parties from the results of the conflict. In all these shapes and forms, dialogue constructs an aura facilitating parties to settle their incompatible differences. The special issue contains 15 papers critically addressing the role of dialogue/s in resolution of different types/forms of conflicts, from military to inner (psychological and psychosocial) conflicts of individuals. It highlights four themes related to the concept of dialogue which are: 1. Intercultural Dialogue and Conflict; 2. Dialogue, Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding; 3. Dialogue, Conflict and Education; and 4. Dialogue and Conflict in a Changing World. The aim of the collection is that papers and the critical application of relevant theories will help to provide new and useful insights for theorists and practitioners of Conflict Resolution and contribute to peace building efforts.
    • Critical review on social marketing planning approaches

      Akbar, M Bilal; French, Jeff; Lawson, Alison; University of Derby; Strategic Social Marketing (Westburn Publishers, 2019-11-13)
      This paper presents the first attempt to map and critically review existing social marketing planning approaches. The discussion highlights that existing social marketing planning approaches have moved on from older product-driven models towards a more customer/citizen-oriented, stakeholder engagement and value creation narrative. There is also a growing connection between social marketing planning approaches and theories from other disciplines. This recognises that a simple push marketing strategy, which was the working principle of many early social marketing-planning approaches, is not often effective for contemporary social marketing practice. Effective social marketing planning requires a greater emphasis on new social marketing principles derived from the new global consensus social marketing definition such as more citizen focus, sustainable outcomes, and ethical practice. Thus, highlighting a need for more comprehensive social marketing planning approaches with a better understanding of recent theory development of social marketing as a field in order to be relatable and efficient. The review sets out some original thinking about how planning in the field of social marketing can be strengthened through a more inclusive adoption of both system thinking analysis and integration with other fields of theory and practice that are seeking to influence behaviour for social good. This review is exploratory in nature and evaluates only 14 social marketing planning approaches; more social marketing approached exist and could be considered in further reviews.
    • The cross-country transmission of credit risk between sovereigns and firms in Asia

      Yiling, Zha; David, Power; Nongnuch, Tantisantiwong; University of Derby; University of Dundee; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2020-05-17)
      This paper uses Credit Default Swap (CDS) data for Asian reference entities to examine cross-country credit risk spillover effects between sovereigns and firms. Data for three East Asian countries (China, Japan and South Korea) over the period 2009-2018 are analysed. We analyse changes in the CDS spreads of a sovereign debtor and those of a foreign firm via a bivariate GARCH-full-BEKK model; thus, spillovers in mean spread changes as well as in volatility are considered. The main findings indicate that strong credit risk interdependence exists between the East Asian countries given that credit shocks from a common creditor such as Japan appear to spill over to the other two Asian nations. Compared to their non-financial counterparts, financial institutions are more sensitive than non-financial firms to changes in the credit risk of a foreign sovereign debtor; financial institutions such as banks may hold debt of foreign sovereigns which makes their CDSs sensitive to this source of credit risk.
    • CSR communication research: A theoretical-cum-methodological perspective from semiotics

      Yekini, Kemi; Omoteso, Kamil; Adegbite, Emmanuel; Coventry University (Sage, 2019-05-07)
      Despite the proliferation of studies on corporate social responsibility (CSR), there is a lack of consensus and a cardinal methodological base for research on the quality of CSR communication. Over the decades, studies in this space have remained conflicting, unintegrated and sometimes overlapping. Drawing on semiotics – a linguistic-based theoretical and analytical tool, our article explores an alternative perspective to evaluating the quality and reliability of sustainability reports. Our article advances CSR communication research by introducing a theoretical-cum-methodological perspective which provides unique insights into how to evaluate the quality of CSR communication. Particularly, we illustrate the application of our proposed methodology on selected UK FTSE100 companies. Our two-phased analysis employed the Greimas Canonical Narrative Schema and the Semiotic Square of Veridiction in drawing meanings from selected sustainability/CSR reports. In addition, we present a distinctive CSR Report Quality Model capable of guiding policy makers and firms in designing sustainability/CSR reporting standards.
    • CSR, financial performance and risk: Does it add up for mid-caps?

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (British Academy of Management, 2017-09)
      The purpose of this paper is to establish whether there is a link between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) scores, Corporate Financial Performance (CFP) and risk in US mid-cap firms. Whilst much previous work has been carried out on large-cap firms, the mid-cap sector has been neglected in academic literature and by the investor/analyst world. The CSR scores from a sample of 365 large-cap, 279 mid-cap and 356 small-cap firms from the US S&P stock indices were regressed against a range of market-based, accounting-based and risk-based variables to assess whether there was any correlation between them. Whilst positive findings were made for the large-cap and small-cap firms, there was little evidence of any such relationship for mid-cap firms. These findings fill a gap in the literature on a much neglected but unique market sector, which is of importance to those who work within that sector, in that they may gain a better understanding of the implications of their unique environment, but also for investors and analysts alike who have hitherto largely ignored the mid-cap sector.
    • Cultural Connections: the role of the arts and humanities in Competitiveness and Local Development

      Turner, Royce; Hughes, Alan; Kitson, Michael; Bullock, A.; Milner, I.; University of Cambridge (Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge, 2014-03-07)
      Cultural institutions are a prominent part of UK society – and many have a rich and long heritage. The impact of such institutions has often been evaluated in terms of engagement and participation or on the direct economic impact of cultural institutions. This study primarily focuses on the wider role of cultural institutions in their local economies; their innovative activities; how they connect to other local organisations such as universities; and how they collaborate with academics from the arts and humanities.