• WAF0042 - Inquiry: Women in the Armed Forces: From Recruitment to Civilian Life

      Spenser, Karin; Childs, Carrie; Adhikari, Joanna; University of Derby (UK Parliament, 2021-03-03)
      It is acknowledged that once military service is complete, personnel embark on a long metaphorical journey back to civilian life. Women military service leavers (WMSLs) are the fastest growing segment of the armed forces, and for them this transition can be even more traumatic than for their male counterparts. Whilst, it is recognised that to make this change seamless, they must have timely access to high quality women-centric services, it is suggested that such support is both limited and male-focused. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight WMSLs to gain a better understanding of the transition from military to civilian life. Thematic analysis was adopted to identify themes and subthemes. Two main themes were identified from the narratives – an environment of stress and long-term impact of service. Both themes are composed of several subthemes, which capture aspects of each main theme. Findings suggest the being in the military is stressful for all, but there is a perceived lack of support for WMSLs as they move into to civilian life. Their struggle with issues such as housing, employment and mental health was noted. Therefore, this research concludes that women need specific support during and after their military career.
    • Was Quashing the Maji-Maji Uprising Genocide? An Evaluation of Germany’s Conduct through the Lens of International Criminal Law

      Bachmann, Klaus; Kemp, Gerhard; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities; University of Derby (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-07-30)
      Recently, political actors in Tanzania have demanded compensation from Germany for colonial atrocities against various ethnic and religious groups during the Maji-Maji uprising (1905–1907). By analyzing first-hand archival records from Germany and Tanzania, this article examines whether German actions constitute genocide according to the Genocide Convention or the International Criminal Tribunals’ jurisprudence. The authors find strong evidence to support a claim of genocide, and assess the viability of potential compensation claims against Germany; they conclude, however, that such claims would meet significant obstacles due to the concept of state immunity for sovereign actions under international customary law, as well as case law of the International Court of Justice.
    • Wasta in Jordanian banking: An emic approach to a culture-specific concept of social networking and its power-implications

      Ali, Sa'ad; Weir, David; University of Worcester (Routledge, 2019-11-07)
      This chapter reviews the background and cultural implications of wasta business networking in the Jordanian banking sector. The chapter starts with exploring this practice, its origin and its use in Jordanian society and business context, highlighting how wasta is often viewed with an etic approach by its researchers and related to concepts such as corruption and favouritism. The wider context of wasta in Jordan is explored and wasta is viewed with an emic approach, drawing on insights from 17 interviews in the case of Jordanian banking sector. A more balanced exploration of wasta is offered, drawing on the role of identity and power in wasta practice and highlighting its possible benefits and drawbacks in employee selection. Reflexive considerations of using wasta to research wasta and the authors’ insider/outsider statuses are discussed and recommendations to students, researchers and practitioners are offered.
    • Wasta: Advancing a holistic model to bridge the micro-macro divide

      Ali, Sa'ad; Weir, David; University of Derby; York St John's University (Cambridge University Press, 2020-07-21)
      This paper offers a synthesis of understandings of Wasta, seen as a form of social network prevalent in the Arab Middle East. Whilst there has been increasing interest in this practice, research remains fragmented and has been criticised for its limited theoretical rigor. To address this issue, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles exploring Wasta published between 1993 and 2019 was conducted. The authors analysed the identified papers according to the theoretical lens from which Wasta was viewed, creating a bridge between a theoretical focus on the macro aspect of Wasta and an alternative focus on its micro aspects, leading to the development of a holistic model of Wasta. The model also helps us to understand the complexity of Wasta, both as the network itself and as the social ties that exist among its members, and sheds light on the complex nature of the role and interactions of the Waseet. The findings respond to calls for more holistic and inclusive research to inform social networks research and bridge the micro–macro divide. The paper offers recommendations to future researchers to build on the holistic and emic approach to Wasta research adopted here.
    • Wasta: advancing a holistic model to bridge the micro-macro divide in network studies

      Weir, David; Ali, Sa'ad; York St John's University; University of Derby (2020-09)
    • Wasta: towards an integrated approach

      Ali, Sa'ad; Weir, David; University of Worcester; York St John University (2019-06)
    • Watching the watchers: oversight channels and the democratisation of South Africa's foreign policy.

      Masters, Lesley; University of Derby (Africa Institute of South Africa/Pretoria., 2019)
      In looking at changes in the processes and practice of oversight and in South Africa's foreign policy, this chapter argues that there has been both successes and constraints in pursuit of democratic transparency and accountability. The chapter highlights the importance of linkage between the formal and informal levels in promoting oversight. This has come under pressure during the second Zuma administration (2014-2018), reflecting a growing gap that resulted in a slide away from the democratisation of foreign policy.
    • What can a graduate do for you?

      Buxton, Louise; Baker, Lorraine; University of Derby (2018-05-21)
    • What can we do to prevent a repeat of Paris in the UK?

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Derby Telegraph, 2015)
      In the wake of the Paris terrorist attack, questions have been asked as to what we can d to prevent a repeat of this attack in the United Kingdom. This article offers some thoughts on this issue. The article recognises the enormity of the challenges facing the world's nations and society at large in the early 21st century as we witness the rise of violent extremism with groups such as Al Qaeda and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Middle East, the Boko Haram in West Africa and Al Shabaab in East Africa striking civilian targets indiscriminately and with a frightening degree of impunity. The paper argues for a rethink of our prevent strategies and suggests ways in which we could prevent similar attack in the UK.
    • What have criminologists done for us lately?

      Farrell, Graham; Pease, Ken; University College London (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
    • What is a learning town? Reflections on the experience at Wirksworth.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (The University of Naples Federico II, 2017-12-30)
      This paper explores the legacy of regeneration project work and knowledge management and transfer as a result of intervention through a charity designed to support new business opportunities, specifically in arts and entertainment, tourism, skills development and training. As part of the University of Derby’s own work-related learning and problem-based learning, a project team was assigned to work alongside the charity ‘New Opportunities in Wirksworth!’ (NOW!). A participant observation, action research approach has been used to elicit and analyse the knowledge transfer, both explicit and implicit. Staff and students from the University of Derby have been contracted to research tourism development specifically in festival supply and demand, the attractiveness of the destination and its key features the market, mining heritage and volunteer railway. Staff and students also committed to an events strategy, marketing the destination and finance for start-ups. The University is engaged in tacit and explicit knowledge transfers. Key stakeholders have reflected on a decade of achievements and both fails and success stories. Agendas for the future have been identified and the project NOW! Has a legacy of both tacit and explicit knowledge for the benefit of other communities. There is an ongoing desire to explore how both public and private sectors can benefit from knowledge sharing and to benefit ongoing problem-based learning in education and training.
    • What really happens to small and medium-sized enterprises in a global economic recession? UK evidence on sales and job dynamics

      Cowling, M; Liu, W; Ledger, A; Zhang, N.; University of Brighton (Sage, 13/01/2014)
      This article uses UK data to consider how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)1 coped during the recent financial crisis. This is important, as SMEs are major contributors to job creation, but are vulnerable to falling demand. It finds that 4 in 10 SMEs experienced a fall in employment during the recession, and 5 in 10 experienced a fall in sales. Within 12 months of the recession, three-quarters of entrepreneurs had a desire to grow. This suggests that while the immediate effects of recession are severe, entrepreneurs recover quite quickly. Importantly, the analysis found that recessionary growth is hugely concentrated among entrepreneurs with the highest human capital.
    • Whatever happened to repeat victimisation?

      Pease, Ken; Ignatans, Dainis; Batty, Lauren; University of Derby (Springer Link, 2018-10-04)
      Crime is concentrated at the individual level (hot dots) as well as at area level (hot spots). Research on repeat victimisation affords rich prevention opportunities but has been increasingly marginalised by policy makers and implementers despite repeat victims accounting for increasing proportions of total crime. The present paper seeks to trigger a resurgence of interest in research and initiatives based on the prevention of repeat victimisation.
    • When a journalist defies more than the mafia: The legacy of Giuseppe Fava and Italian Antimafia Culture

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (University of Toronto Press, 2017-02)
    • When do frontline hospitality employees take charge? Prosocial motivation, taking charge, and job performance: the moderating role of job autonomy

      Cai, Z.; Huo, Y.; Lan, J.; Chen, Z.; Lam, W.; City University of Hong Kong; University of Surrey; Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, PR China; City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, PR China; The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, PR China (SAGE, 2018-09-04)
      This study draws on trait activation theory to examine the effects of frontline hospitality employees’ prosocial motivation on their taking charge and job performance and how job autonomy moderates these effects. We collected data in two stages from 185 pairs of frontline hospitality employees and their direct supervisors, and we found a positive relationship between employees’ prosocial motivation and their taking charge. In addition, job autonomy strengthened this positive relationship, and taking charge mediated the interactive effect of prosocial motivation and job autonomy on job performance. These results suggest that when frontline hospitality employees perceive their level of job autonomy to be high enough to activate their expression of prosocial motivation, they will be more likely to engage in taking charge, which should lead to a higher evaluation of their job performance. Theoretical and practical implications for hospitality industry were discussed at the end of the article.
    • When too little or too much hurts: evidence for a curvilinear relationship between team faultlines and performance

      Chen, S.; Wang, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, Z.; Wu, D.; Zhejiang University of Finance & Economics, Hangzhou, 310018, China; City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (Springer, 2017-04-27)
      Faultlines are inherent to many workgroups, but the literature has not fully explained what faultlines mean for team functioning. In this study, we investigate the curvilinear relationship between faultlines and team performance from a crosscategorization perspective. Analyses of multisource data obtained from 61 workgroups located in China support an inverted U-shaped relationship between faultlines and team performance. Additionally, we find that this curvilinear relationship is moderated by a team’s climate of psychological safety such that the curvilinear relationship is more pronounced among teams with a weaker psychological safety climate. The findings contribute to elaborating the nature of and advancing a contingency view of the relationship between faultlines and team performance. Theoretical implications are discussed along with possible limitations and directions for future research.
    • #whitegenocide, the alt-right and conspiracy theory: How secrecy and suspicion contributed to the mainstreaming of hate.

      Wilson, Andrew Fergus; University of Derby (San Jose State University, 2018-02-16)
      This article considers the relationship between “hashtag activism” as it is currently being used by the alt-right and the tendency to draw on conspiracy theory that Richard Hofstadter identified as being prevalent among what he termed “pseudo-conservatives” half a century earlier. Both the alt-right and Hofstadter’s “pseudo-conservatives” can be characterised by a pronounced populist nationalism that understands its aims as protecting a particular way of life whilst drawing on an aggrieved sense of injustice at being conspired against by an unseen enemy. That this “enemy” is typically foreign in actuality or in spirit confirms the cultural dimension on which their politics is played out. It is argued here that this paranoid populist nationalism has been figuratively drawn upon in the rhetoric of Donald Trump and that this apparent openness to the “pseudo-conservative” discourse on nationalism has provided a bridging effect via which far right elements are seeking to normalize extremist viewpoints.
    • Who are the victims of electoral fraud in Great Britain? Evidence from Survey Research

      Farrall, Stephen; Wilks-Heeg, Stuart; Rober, Struthers; Gray, Emily; University of Derby; University of Liverpool; BMG Research, Birmingham (Springer, 2021-07-07)
      Interest in electoral integrity and the validity and accuracy of election results has come to the fore as a topic of concern both amongst politicians and academic researchers in the last twenty years. The literature has identified a number of key variables and processes associated with electoral fraud, and lower levels of integrity. However, one deficiency with this research is that it has relied on the perceptions of fraud and malpractice, rather than first-hand data on the extent of such behaviour. In this paper we report on the results of a novel small-scale survey of people in Britain in which respondents reported some of their direct experiences of electoral fraud in recent national elections. The results indicate that the rates of electoral fraud are currently around six to eight per cent, but that this rises for members of some ethnic minority groups. We end by raising another question: if we can identify victims of electoral fraud, how are we to redress this victimisation?
    • Who is fit to serve? person–job/organization fit, emotional labor, and customer service performance

      Lam, W.; Huo, Y.; CHEN, Ziguang; Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong; University of Surrey (Wiley, 2018-11-07)
      This study investigates person–job (P–J) fit and person–organization (P–O) fit perceptions and relates these perceptions to employees' emotional labor and customer service performance. Data from a two-point, time-lagged study of 263 employees and 690 customers reveal that both P–J and P–O fit relate positively to deep acting and negatively to surface acting, in accordance with an emotional labor perspective. In addition, P–J and P–O fit are jointly associated with emotional labor, such that the positive link between P–J fit and deep acting is stronger, and the negative link between P–J fit and surface acting is weaker when P–O fit is high. Emotional labor partially mediates the interactive effects of P–J and P–O fit on service interaction quality and customer satisfaction; service interaction quality relates positively to customer satisfaction. These findings have multiple theoretical and practical implications.