• Value co-creation and co-destruction: considerations of spa servicescapes

      Buxton, Louise; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-19)
      Spas are places that enable mind, body and spiritual harmony, and are therefore inextricably linked to the pursuit of health and wellbeing, as one of the most prominent forms of wellness tourism. Recent growth in the global spa industry is fuelled by increasing consumer interest in the pursuit of wellness. Concepts within the spa industry remain largely unexplored, thus, this conceptual paper aims to progress our understanding by considering opportunities for value co-creation and co-destruction in a spa context. In doing this, the paper unpacks the concept of the servicescape, explores the concept of authenticity and argues that understanding the consumption and production of experiences is central to understanding the creation of value in spa service settings.
    • 'Value for money' and the restaurant experience: a case study of supply and demand stakeholders.

      Alonso, Abel Duarte; Sakellarios, Nikolaos; Jones, Chris; Cseh, Leonard; Cooper, Sandra J.; Edith Cowan University; University of Derby (Inderscience Publishers, 2016-06-18)
      Using the case of a training restaurant open to paying guests, this study compares the perceptions of two groups of stakeholders with regard to different factors of the dining experience. The first group represents the supply side and is composed of 73 students involved in the preparation and delivery of menu dishes, while the demand side consists of 222 guests of the training restaurant. Both groups' level of agreement was similar when they identified gaps regarding the restaurant's performance in terms of décor, design, lighting and background music. The groups, however, differed in their perceptions of other elements, most notably regarding the selection of beverages, and the entertainment aspect of the dining experience (e.g., deboning fish in front of guests), with students clearly in lesser agreement. Overall, the study's findings demonstrate that involving different groups of stakeholders to evaluate the restaurant's performance could potentially enhance the dining experience.
    • Varieties of radicalism. examining the diversity of radical left parties and voters in Western Europe

      Gomez, Raul; Morales, Laura; Ramiro, Luis; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-08-07)
      Radical left parties (RLPs) are a diverse lot and several RLP subtypes have been distinguished in the literature. However, the degree to which these subtypes are associated with significantly different policy proposals has not been analysed. At the same time, little is known about whether these predicated subtypes are associated with differences in their voters' characteristics. In this article, we analyse the policy positions of RLPs across a number of issues using manifesto and expert survey data, allowing us to assess the nature of the differentiation between types of RLPs. We find that RLPs differ in the extent to which they adopt New Politics issues, and we propose a classification of Traditional and New Left RLPs. Using cross-national survey data coming from the European Election Studies series and multilevel multinomial models, we also examine the ideological, policy and social differences in the electorates of the various types of RLPs. We find socio-demographic and attitudinal differences between the voters of Traditional and New Left RLPs that are consistent with the programmatic differences of the parties.
    • Victims and protest in a social space: Revisiting the sociology of emotions

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-01-31)
      This article explores how activism and protest shaped cultural renewal through a march organised against the Italian mafia. Drawing on ethnographic insights, employing a reflexive method, taking research notes, using photos and recording the social protest, I introduce 'static agency' and 'dynamic agency' concepts to analyse the perplexing relationship modes among the activists and wider society. I argue that sociocultural codes are the pillars of static and dynamic agency through which the progressive actors strive for a change in the social space of activism. I claim that the fight against the public trouble -the mafia- has the capacity to sustain itself as a persistent cultural movement among the activists through emotional solidarity. However, this does not guarantee the defeat of public trouble in traumatic social geographies where the public culture dominates social behaviours and social memory. Yet the progressive social movements can attain cultural transformation through persistence in their struggle.
    • Violence and the crime drop

      Ganpat, Soenita; Garius, Laura; Andromachi, Tseloni; Tilley, Nick; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; University College London (Sage, 2020-05-15)
      According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, violence fell dramatically between 1995 and 2013/14. To improve understanding of the fall in violent crime, this study examines long-term crime trends in England and Wales over the past two decades, by scrutinizing the trends between (a) stranger and acquaintance violence (b) severity of violence, (c) age groups, and (d) sexes. It draws on nationally-representative, weighted data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, and examines prevalence, incidence and crime concentration trends. The overall violence fall was driven by a decline in the victimisation of young individuals and/or males, perpetrated by acquaintances since 1995. Stranger and acquaintance violence followed different trajectories, with the former beginning to drop post 2003/04. Falls in both stranger and acquaintance violence incidence rates were led by fewer victims over time. Counting all incidents reported by the same victim (instead of capping at five incidents) significantly affects trends in stranger violence but not in acquaintance violence In relation to the distributive justice within the crime drop, this study provides unique evidence of equitable falls in acquaintance violence but inequitable falls in stranger violence. These findings highlight the need to examine violence types separately and point to a number of areas for future research.
    • Violence trends and other criminology research.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Nottingham Trent University (2016-05-11)
    • Violence trends project: Homicide and other criminology research.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Nottingham Trent University (2014-05-17)
      This presentation will showcase research relevant to policing undertaken by academics at Nottingham Trent University, Social Sciences. Based on rigorous statistical analyses of large national data, evidence of the work included herein can assist police public protection and reassurance operations and crime reduction via targeting: • Individuals or households in different circumstances experiencing or at high risk of: o acquaintance violence and / or stranger violence (Prof Andromachi Tseloni and Dr Soenita Ganpat); o night -time economy violence (Dr Laura Garius); o lethal violence / homicide (Dr Soenita Ganpat); o anti-social behaviour (Dr Rebecca Thompson, Professor Andromachi Tseloni and Bethany Ward); o domestic burglary via offering advice or practical assistance for security upgrades depending on their circumstances (Prof Andromachi Tseloni, Dr Rebecca Thompson, Dr James Hunter and Bethany Ward); • Young people and children in abusive families with effective measures to interrupt inter-generational transmission of violence (Dr Chris Crowther-Dowey); • Sites and circumstances of high risk of metal theft (Dr Matt Ashby); • Using CCTV in crime investigations, crime analysis methods and transport crime (Dr Matt Ashby); • Types of retail sector businesses and local areas profiles of high risk of shop theft, including measures to discourage offenders and interrupt their Modus Operandi (Dr James Hunter and Dr Laura Garius); and • Muslim women at high risk of experiencing hate crime (Dr Irene Zempi). In addition an analysis of the new, hybrid system of professionalisation and regulation of the police in England and Wales will also be presented (Prof Simon Holdaway). Resources on all the above studies and a directory of relevant on-going research will be made available
    • Violence unfolding. An exploration of the interaction sequence in lethal and non-lethal violent events.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University (Medwin Publishers, 2017-08-04)
      Violent events typically entail an interaction between an offender, a victim and a context. Many of these events involve different stages which can be decisive, and some eventually end fatally. To better understand the mechanisms leading to a lethal or non-lethal outcome of violent encounters, this explorative study investigates the interaction sequence during these serious violent events. Based on detailed analysis of 160 Dutch court files, this study uses an innovative methodology examining the unfolding of events that ultimately resulted in a lethal or a non-lethal outcome. Findings show differences in the interaction sequence, and especially when the role of third parties and subtypes of conflict (i.e. male-to-male violence and male-to-female intimate partner violence) are considered.
    • Violent extremism: Naming, framing and challenging.

      Harris, Emma Jane; Bisset, Victoria; Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Dialogue Society, 2015)
      To understand the causes of violent extremism, with a view ultimately to tackling them, this booklet argues that one must first consider the ways in which communication takes place about and around the subject. While knowledge of violent extremism and terror in the name of religion has increased exponentially over recent decades, the public and political language surrounding the issue has, generally speaking, failed to adapt accordingly. This publication aims to show how certain language frames can negatively contribute towards and reinforce major misunderstandings. The report first provides an overview of how relevant work in the field of cognitive linguistics and related approaches can aid and illuminate examples of problematic language use. It explains how terms such as ‘Islamism’ and ‘Islamist’ should not be used without first considering their etymological roots, and that the use of such terms can convey and conflate concepts distinct from their intended meaning. The issue of demands for Muslims to denounce acts of terror is then addressed and shown to be connected to the misuse of linguistic frames and terms which too easily tend in the direction of conflating Islam and Islam and which "other" Muslims, calling into question their civic loyalty and create stereotypes of "good Muslims" as "moderate Muslims". Finally, the report offers to politicians, policy makers and media organisations some recommended alternatives to currently used linguistic frameworks that are often used in discussing violent extremism, and commends some alternative narratives and approaches that can contribute to bringing about positive change in relation to this phenomenon.
    • Virtual cultural tourism: six pillars of VCT using co-creation, value exchange and exchange value

      Wiltshier, Peter; Clarke, Alan; University of Derby, University of Pannonia (2016-02)
      This paper examines antecedents to the successful use of Virtual Cultural Tourism and the ways in which virtual realities can add value to Cultural Tourism offers. Success can be seen to derive from the deeper understanding of consumers’ preferences and motivations to engage with Virtual Cultural Tourism. It is also necessary to see these initiatives from the perspective of multiple stakeholders: the armchair traveller, the frequent flyer and the service provider at destinations. The latter include public sector providers such as park site managers, museum curators, interpretation and information services for tourism as well as the private sector developers.
    • Visitor satisfaction and place attachment in national parks

      Smith, L. D. G; Kneebone, S. C.; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 01/08/2014)
      This study examines the relationships between visitor satisfaction and place attachment. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test competing models of visitor satisfaction and place attachment represented as a (i) unidimensional, (ii) first-order, and (iii) second-order factor. Data were collected from a sample of 525 visitors at the Bruce Peninsula National Park, in the state of Ontario, Canada. Results indicate visitor satisfaction is a better predictor of place attachment as a second-order construct. Findings are discussed with respect to their applied and theoretical relevance. Practical applications of the study include strategies aimed at achieving optimum visitor satisfaction and promoting place attachment in national parks.
    • Visitors' experience, place attachment and sustainable behaviour at cultural heritage sites: a conceptual framework

      Buonincontri, P; Marasco, A; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (MDPI, 26/06/2017)
      Sustainable tourism research has attracted wide interest from scholars and practitioners. While several heritage sites are mandated to provide optimum visitor satisfaction with increasing competition in the market, managers of heritage sites face growing challenges in striking a balance between consumption and conservation. This calls for promoting more sustainable behaviours among consumers of heritage. This study proposes a conceptualization of sustainable behaviour for heritage consumers. Using the attitude–behaviour relationship underpinned by the Theory of Reasoned Action, it develops and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates visitors’ heritage experiences, their attachment to heritage sites, and their general and site-specific sustainable heritage behaviour and presents their interrelationships as proposed hypotheses. Theoretical contributions and practical implications for heritage site managers are discussed.
    • Voles don't take taxis

      Pease, Ken; Loughborough University (Wiley, 2014-07-05)
      Johnson’s paper advances understanding of sequences of burglaries committed by thesame offender. Furthermore, it has heuristic value in suggesting new avenues for applicable research. Each of the current data shortcomings represents an opportunity for novel research approaches, and the optimum forager metaphor holds continuing appeal as an organizing principle helpful to operational policing.
    • Volunteers: their role in the management of the visitor and pilgrimage experience

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (2014)
      This research acknowledges the strong customer-relationship management achievements of a Cathedral located in Derby in the Midlands of England. In conjunction with the clergy and volunteers, the researcher identifies, through visitor data capture and analysis of a customer satisfaction survey and interviews with key stakeholders, that high levels of satisfied visitors and volunteers exist. Using a recognised expectations and perceptions approach driven by the service quality model (SERVQUAL) and elaborated by literature, the researcher offers recommendations to maintain customer and volunteer satisfaction (Bitner et al., 1997; Atilgan et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2000). These recommendations include a reliable reward system generated for volunteers, some compelling narratives for sacred and secular pilgrims, relevant displays and performance and appropriate resource allocation. The exceptional service and experience model is derived from an analysis of data from visitor surveys conducted by the Cathedral’s volunteer greeters and guides over the course of a year. In addition to delivering outcomes on the importance attached to expected and perceived service quality attributes, the report concludes by suggesting factors to help maintain a low-cost strategy for sites of pilgrimage and worship that inform future management. As a result of the volunteers and visitor strategy, this Cathedral benefits from delivering a low cost visitor-friendly invitation, welcome and experience and is able to use core human resources to support the mission and share faith and identity in a continuously refreshed manner. Recommendations for marketing the Cathedral, for managing and inspiring volunteers and for recruitment of volunteers and customer-relationship management are offered. Key
    • WAF0042 - Inquiry: Women in the Armed Forces: From Recruitment to Civilian Life

      Spenser, Karin; Childs, Carrie; Adhikari, Joanna; University of Derby (UK Parliament, 2021-03-03)
      It is acknowledged that once military service is complete, personnel embark on a long metaphorical journey back to civilian life. Women military service leavers (WMSLs) are the fastest growing segment of the armed forces, and for them this transition can be even more traumatic than for their male counterparts. Whilst, it is recognised that to make this change seamless, they must have timely access to high quality women-centric services, it is suggested that such support is both limited and male-focused. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight WMSLs to gain a better understanding of the transition from military to civilian life. Thematic analysis was adopted to identify themes and subthemes. Two main themes were identified from the narratives – an environment of stress and long-term impact of service. Both themes are composed of several subthemes, which capture aspects of each main theme. Findings suggest the being in the military is stressful for all, but there is a perceived lack of support for WMSLs as they move into to civilian life. Their struggle with issues such as housing, employment and mental health was noted. Therefore, this research concludes that women need specific support during and after their military career.
    • Was Quashing the Maji-Maji Uprising Genocide? An Evaluation of Germany’s Conduct through the Lens of International Criminal Law

      Bachmann, Klaus; Kemp, Gerhard; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities; University of Derby (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-07-30)
      Recently, political actors in Tanzania have demanded compensation from Germany for colonial atrocities against various ethnic and religious groups during the Maji-Maji uprising (1905–1907). By analyzing first-hand archival records from Germany and Tanzania, this article examines whether German actions constitute genocide according to the Genocide Convention or the International Criminal Tribunals’ jurisprudence. The authors find strong evidence to support a claim of genocide, and assess the viability of potential compensation claims against Germany; they conclude, however, that such claims would meet significant obstacles due to the concept of state immunity for sovereign actions under international customary law, as well as case law of the International Court of Justice.
    • Wasta in Jordanian banking: An emic approach to a culture-specific concept of social networking and its power-implications

      Ali, Sa'ad; Weir, David; University of Worcester (Routledge, 2019-11-07)
      This chapter reviews the background and cultural implications of wasta business networking in the Jordanian banking sector. The chapter starts with exploring this practice, its origin and its use in Jordanian society and business context, highlighting how wasta is often viewed with an etic approach by its researchers and related to concepts such as corruption and favouritism. The wider context of wasta in Jordan is explored and wasta is viewed with an emic approach, drawing on insights from 17 interviews in the case of Jordanian banking sector. A more balanced exploration of wasta is offered, drawing on the role of identity and power in wasta practice and highlighting its possible benefits and drawbacks in employee selection. Reflexive considerations of using wasta to research wasta and the authors’ insider/outsider statuses are discussed and recommendations to students, researchers and practitioners are offered.
    • Wasta: Advancing a holistic model to bridge the micro-macro divide

      Ali, Sa'ad; Weir, David; University of Derby; York St John's University (Cambridge University Press, 2020-07-21)
      This paper offers a synthesis of understandings of Wasta, seen as a form of social network prevalent in the Arab Middle East. Whilst there has been increasing interest in this practice, research remains fragmented and has been criticised for its limited theoretical rigor. To address this issue, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles exploring Wasta published between 1993 and 2019 was conducted. The authors analysed the identified papers according to the theoretical lens from which Wasta was viewed, creating a bridge between a theoretical focus on the macro aspect of Wasta and an alternative focus on its micro aspects, leading to the development of a holistic model of Wasta. The model also helps us to understand the complexity of Wasta, both as the network itself and as the social ties that exist among its members, and sheds light on the complex nature of the role and interactions of the Waseet. The findings respond to calls for more holistic and inclusive research to inform social networks research and bridge the micro–macro divide. The paper offers recommendations to future researchers to build on the holistic and emic approach to Wasta research adopted here.
    • Wasta: advancing a holistic model to bridge the micro-macro divide in network studies

      Weir, David; Ali, Sa'ad; York St John's University; University of Derby (2020-09)
    • Wasta: towards an integrated approach

      Ali, Sa'ad; Weir, David; University of Worcester; York St John University (2019-06)