• U.S. franchise regulation as a paradigm for the European Union

      Meiselles, Michala; Emerson, Robert; University of Derby; University of Florida (Washington University, 2021)
      The protection afforded to franchisees differs widely across the world. Nations with economically strong franchise sectors typically regulate the contract’s bargaining phase and post-formation. Sparked by the European Parliament’s call to review regulations governing Europe’s underperforming retail franchise sector, we propose reforms to counter the structural and economic inequality between franchise parties. Drawing on lessons from comparatively successful federal frameworks, we present a regulatory trifecta of mandatory disclosures to prospective franchisees, required express or implied contractual obligations and rights for both franchisors and franchisees, and compulsory adherence to certain protections of franchisees throughout the franchise relationship.
    • UK credit and discouragement during the GFC

      Cowling, M; Liu, W; Minniti, M; Zhang, N.; University of Brighton (Springer, 06/06/2016)
      The availability of credit to entrepreneurs with good investment opportunities is an important facilitator of economic growth. Under normal economic conditions, most entrepreneurs who requested loans receive them. In a global financial crisis, popular opinion is that banks are severely restricting lending to smaller businesses. This assumes that low levels of investment are caused by supply-side restrictions in the credit market. Little is said about potential changes in the demand for credit and how it is influenced by entrepreneurs’ perceptions about supply-side restrictions. One particularly interesting, and under-researched, group of small businesses is that who have potentially good investment opportunities, but are discouraged from applying for external funding as they fear rejection. In this study, we question whether these entrepreneurs were correct in their assumptions. We find that levels of discouragement are quite low in general at 2.7 % of the total smaller business population. Further analysis implies that 55.6 % of discouraged borrowers would have got loans had they applied.
    • The UK's reading culture and consumers' emotional response to books

      Lawson, Alison; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-01-27)
      This chapter explores why books are so popular in today’s society, discussing the idea of ‘reading culture’ and the various factors that support and encourage that culture, such as the general ubiquity of books, the impact of book clubs, literary prizes, reviews, festivals and best-seller lists. The role of libraries and the link between reading and literacy is also considered. Having established the strength of the UK’s reading culture and the various factors that support it, the chapter then moves on to consider readers as consumers, using some relevant theories from the field of consumer behaviour, to attempt to understand from a different perspective what books really mean to people. The results of a small research project about consumers’ emotional attachment to books are presented, showing that consumers are complex individuals with a range of varied needs. Consumers may be placed within a continuum of readers that ranges from those who are simply seeking information through to genuine book lovers with high involvement in the products.
    • The UN Committee of 24’s dogmatic philosophy of recognition: toward a Sui Generis approach to decolonization.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Birmingham (2019)
      The time is ripe for the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization (‘the Committee of 24’) to accept sui generis categories that enable it to achieve its aim of ‘finishing the job’ of decolonization. This would mean a departure from the Committee of 24’s rigid adherence to the three forms of decolonization currently recognised by it - independence, integration and free association. This article adopts Gilles Deleuze’s critiques of the ‘dogmatic philosophy of recognition’ and how this can be overcome through his articulation of ‘the Encounter’ to interrogate the philosophical basis of the Committee of 24’s inability to recognise sui generis forms of decolonization. It is through the Encounter that the rigid adherence to the categories is challenged such that sui generis categories are created in furtherance of the Committee’s stated aim. In applying this theoretical analysis, the article uses Gibraltar as a nascent example of what a sui generis category of decolonization could look like.
    • Uncovering the impact of triadic relationships within a team on job performance: an application of balance theory in predicting feedback‐seeking behaviour

      Lan, Junbang; Huo, Yuanyuan; Cai, Zhenyao; Wong, Chi‐Sum; Chen, Ziguang; Lam, Wing; Sun Yat‐sen University, China; University of Surrey; Shanghai University, China; University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; et al. (Wiley, 2020-04-14)
      Although a great deal of knowledge has accumulated about dyadic relationships (i.e., leader–member exchange (LMX) or team–member exchange (TMX)) within a team, employee behaviours that involve triadic relationships among focal employees, leaders, and teammates have seldom been investigated. Using balance theory, which describes triadic relationships from a power dependence perspective, in the current study, we explore how the interplay of LMX, TMX, and peers’ LMX jointly impacts employees’ feedback‐seeking behaviour (FSB) and subsequent job performance. By conducting a multilevel moderated polynomial regression on three‐wave, multi‐source data from 147 team members and their leaders (from 45 work teams), we found that the incongruence between LMX and TMX facilitates FSB when peers’ LMX or task interdependence is high. We also found an asymmetrical incongruence effect concerning the way in which individuals are more likely to seek feedback when LMX is worse than TMX, compared with when LMX is better than TMX. This differential effect is stronger when peers’ LMX or task interdependence is high. The interplay of LMX, TMX, peers’ LMX, and task interdependence eventually has an indirect effect on job performance through FSB. The results from a follow‐up study of 270 employees from 77 teams further confirm our predictions about the mechanism of balance theory. Specifically, the results indicate that when peers’ LMX is high, the incongruence between LMX and TMX decreases employees’ psychological safety.
    • Underpinning prosociality: Age related performance in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning

      Spenser, Karin; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-06)
      This paper investigates the idea that Theory of Mind (ToM), empathic understanding and moral reasoning are linked, and together contribute to prosocial behaviour. All three cognitive processes are explored in adolescents (aged 14–17 years), young-adults (aged 18–24 years) and middle-adults (aged 25–55). A statistically significant age-related difference was found on all measures between the adolescent group and the middle-adult group. Except for verbal ToM, all measures detected a statistically significant age-related difference between the adolescent group and the young adult group. However, except for verbal and visual ToM, no statistically significant age-related difference was found between the young-adult and middle-adult groups. A small to medium positive association was found between each of the five measures. These findings suggest that beyond adolescence ToM, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning might be improved which could be useful to researchers and practitioners interested in the later enhancement of prosociality in older individuals.
    • Understanding key motivations for using a hotel gamified application.

      Parapanos, Demos; Michopoulou, Elina; University of Derby (Springer., 2018-12-15)
      While hospitality has been one of the industries that have been keen to adopt and use various technologies, the proliferation of gamification application is still to materialise. It is therefore very interesting to investigate the potential benefits of gamified applications for both demand and supply in the area of the hospitality industry by identifying the motives of individuals’ when they use a hotel-gamified application. Since fun has become the requirement to ensure continuous demands for many products or services, companies and organizations feel the need to involve fun in their offerings to secure continuity in consumption and use. Hence, this study aims to understand the meaning of fun for individuals when they will use a hotel-gamified application. Visual material was prepared so the interviewees would have an idea of how a hotel-gamified application would look if it were in existence today based on the current definitions of gamification.
    • Understanding mega-events success and customer satisfaction.

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Giuliano, Chiara; University of Derby; Google (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
      The events industry is growing every year, the number of events is increasing, and their role in society is becoming more significant. Satisfied participants are the key to successful events and the main objective of event organizers. The aim of the article is to understand what costumers consider more important when attending mega-events. A quantitative survey design was adopted by deploying the American customer satisfaction index (ACSI) that included an event specific customer value package in the context of the EXPO Milan 2015 mega-event. Results demonstrate that expectations of visitors, staff, and volunteers vary considerably, and so do the levels of satisfaction. They also highlight that, alongside other customers' priorities such as cleanliness and safety, capacity plays a role in determining satisfaction. This article presents the summarized findings of a broader study.
    • Understanding radicalisation: issues for practitioners, communities and the state

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (Palgrave MacMillan, 2020)
    • Understanding the core elements of event portfolio strategy: lessons from Auckland and Dunedin

      Antchak, Vladimir; Michael, Luck; Tomas, Pernecky; University of Derby; Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand (Emerald, 2021-05-17)
      An event portfolio is a vital part of economic and socio-cultural processes designed around the use of public events in cities and destinations around the world. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a new research framework for comparative studies of diverse event portfolio strategies. The discussion in this paper is based on a review of the literature and content analysis of event strategies from two New Zealand cities: Auckland and Dunedin. The paper suggests an empirically tested framework for exploring event portfolios. It entails such dimensions as the event portfolio strategy, event portfolio focus, portfolio objectives and evaluation tools and event portfolio configuration. This exploratory research provides a comparative analysis of diverse portfolio contexts and offers insights on developing sustainable event strategies while considering diverse local contexts. Core conditions and processes shaping event portfolio design and management are evaluated and strategic factors articulated.
    • Understanding the cultural dimension of intractable conflict: What are the implications for peace education practice?

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (2014-01)
      Societies marked by a sharp ethnic or religious cleavage are vulnerable to outbreaks of mass violence. Understanding the cultural dimension to such conflicts carries important implications for improving peace education practice in divided societies. Typical peace education practices have been criticized for being overly-naïve in ignoring the cultural environment or not doing enough to address the surrounding ‘culture of conflict’. Insights on the cultural dimension of intergroup conflict can help educators to design peace education practices that actively address the role that cultural factors play in perpetuating conflict in their societies. This paper will examine the cultural dimension to intractable conflicts and draw conclusions as to how peace education practice in divided societies can better be shaped to address this phenomenon.
    • Understanding the customer journey through the prism of service design methodology.

      Baranova, Polina; University of Derby (Routledge, 2016-09-15)
      Purpose: This chapter explores how use of the service design methodology can contribute to in-depth understanding of the customer journey and to the design of service improvement interventions aimed at enhancing customer experience. Context: The notion of customer journey is becoming increasingly important for both private and public sector organisations. Understanding customer experience and interactions that take place during service delivery is critical to the service design, delivery and improvements where the quality of customer experience take a strategic priority. Learning outcomes: At the end of this chapter you will be able to confidently use the service design methodology in order to understand customer experience, develop a service blueprint, design-in service improvements to enhance service user experience or redesign and reengineer existing services in order to respond to changes in organisational environment.
    • Understanding the Dynamics of UK Covid-19 SME Financing

      Calabrese, Raffaella; Cowling, Marc; Liu, Weixi; University of Edinburgh; University of Derby; University of Bath (Wiley, 2021-12-14)
      The scale of the UK government’s response to the Covid-19 crisis after the first lockdown in March 2020 was unprecedented. For the business sector two financing schemes were particularly relevant, the Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan (CBILS) and the Bounce Back Loan (BBLS). Both were designed to support the capitalisation of businesses through this difficult trading period. In this paper we use data covering the first two quarters of the Covid-19 crisis to explore the dynamics of SME financing and in particular the role of government support schemes. Our findings show that 92.1% of all debt funds provided in this period were backed by the UK government which compares to less than 5% under normal circumstances. We find that the demand, supply, and government share of SME lending increased from Covid-19 quarter 1 (April to June 2020) to quarter 2 (July to September 2020), that micro and small businesses had the highest demand for loans, and that better-performing firms were more likely to receive loans. Further, in a world where more loan requests than ever were granted the government share of this pool of loans had a different risk profile than the small pool of non-government backed loans.
    • Understanding the educational needs of joint honours degree students in a post Brexit United Kingdom higher education sector.

      Pigden, Louise; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (GRDS Publishing, 2018-03-24)
      The motivation for this research was to explore the lived experience of joint honours students, for whom there is little in the literature at present. The objective was to critique primary data collected from the students via a self-administered questionnaire. This phenomenological methodology permitted and unfiltered view of the students’ learning experiences to be explored. The research is based on a cross-university student survey, conducted over a period of six months. The online survey, which ran between June 2016 and January 2017, involved self-administered questionnaires designed to collect information on the learning experience of students on joint honours degrees, from four different Universities in England. A key finding of this paper is the need for university administrators to pay particular attention to joint honours degrees in their portfolios in the light of the growing and significant number of students opting to study these degrees and the general tendency amongst universities to focus attention on single honours degrees. Particular areas of concern are highlighted where students on joint honours degrees feel improvements in their educational experience could be made. The future scope of the survey results are discussed inthe context of Britain exiting the European Union and in relation to the growing debate on the intrinsic value of university education and the increasing necessity for university management to recognise the unique nature of joint honours degrees and design policy to meet the needs of students enrolled on joint honours degrees.
    • Understanding the quality of life of family carers of people with dementia: Development of a new conceptual framework

      Daley, Stephanie; Murray, Joanna; Farina, Nicolas; Page, Thomas E.; Brown, Anna; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Bowling, Ann; Knapp, Martin; Banerjee, Sube; et al. (Wiley, 2018-09-25)
      Dementia is a major global health and social care challenge, and family carers are a vital determinant of positive outcomes for people with dementia. This study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the Quality of Life (QOL) of family carers of people with dementia. We studied family carers of people with dementia and staff working in dementia services iteratively using in‐depth individual qualitative interviews and focus groups discussions. Analysis used constant comparison techniques underpinned by a collaborative approach with a study‐specific advisory group of family carers. We completed 41 individual interviews with 32 family carers and nine staff and two focus groups with six family carers and five staff. From the analysis, we identified 12 themes that influenced carer QOL. These were organised into three categories focussing on person with dementia, carer, and external environment. For carers of people with dementia, the QOL construct was found to include condition‐specific domains which are not routinely considered in generic assessment of QOL. This has implications for researchers, policy makers, and service providers in addressing and measuring QOL in family carers of people with dementia.
    • Unusual venues for business events: Key quality attributes of museums and art galleries

      Antchak, Vladimir; Adams, Eleanor; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-05-15)
      This paper aims to identify the key quality attributes a museum or art gallery should possess and enhance to become an attractive business event venue. The research adopted a two-stage case-study methodology. Firstly, three museums were selected in Manchester, UK, to explore the venues’ approaches to hosting business events. These were the Lowry Art Centre, Salford Museum and Manchester Art Gallery. Secondly, a business event at another museum in the city, Science and Industry Museum, was accessed to explore the audiences’ perceptions and industry requirements regarding the organisation of events in museums. In total, 21 qualitative semi-structured and structured interviews were conducted with the event delegates, event planners and museums’ management. Thematic analysis was applied to identify three key attributes: venue character, memorability and functionality and feasibility. Venue character refers to the overall appeal of a venue, including its history, status and interior design. Memorability refers to the authenticity and uniqueness of the attendee experience at a corporate event organised in a museum. Finally, functionality and feasibility deals with the availability of functional facilities, space flexibility and diverse venue regulations. The findings of the research provide valuable insights to both museums and event companies. The research reveals the main benefits and drawbacks of using a museum or an art gallery as a venue for business events and suggests key aspects to consider while staging a business event in a cultural institution. Museums could apply the findings in marketing to emphasise their uniqueness, authenticity and flexibility.
    • The US incarceration machine

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (The Justice Gap, 2012-02)
      The American criminal justice has long exerted a substantive impact on UK crime control policy. Issues such as the privatisation of criminal justice,'three strikes and you're out' (mandatory minimum prison sentencing), curfews and electronic monitoring ('tagging') all have their roots in US criminal justice. Our Europe-leading imprisonment rate appears positively puny compared to the USA's muscular embrace of mass incarceration. There is substantial evidence that US criminal justice system exerts a disproportional impact upon African Americans. Mass incarceration cannot proceed without immense social and economic resources. The penal system is the USA’s second biggest employer, with around three quarters of a million staff. It costs taxpayers $70 billion dollars each year.
    • Usability requirements for accessible tourism systems

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Buhalis, Dimitrios; University of Derby (Texas A&M University, 2014-01)
    • Use of lean robotic communication to improve social response of children with autism

      Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Lewis, Lundy; Kaul, Mala; Daniel, Jay; Sharma, Rajeev; University of Nevada; Southern New Hampshire University; University of Derby; University of Waikato (Association for Information Systems, 2017-01-01)
      In light of inconclusive results reported in the literature on the benefits of using robots to foster social skills in autistic children, this paper assesses the use of robots with no facial expressions to create basic structured communication with autistic children. We address the complexity of communication when autistic children cannot understand the unintentional facial expressions of human instructors in training sessions. The paper reports 19 training sessions of a mild autistic child interacting with a humanoid robot with approximate duration of 20 minutes each. It was observed that during these 19 sessions, the child improved his responses to the directives given by the robot. The paper discusses the results in terms of the implications for professionals in the field. Further, the study serves as a proof of concept for future contributions to media richness theory.
    • Use of social marketing principles in sexual health: an exploratory review

      Akbar, M Bilal; French, Jeff; Lawson, Alison; University of Derby (Westburn Publishers Ltd, 2020-09-17)
      This paper presents a systematic review of the use of social marketing principles in sexual health studies in order to determine the effectiveness of the programmes. Systematic literature review method was used, and Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria were adopted to analyse the use of social marketing principles in the selected studies. There is evidence of full use of some elements of Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria, for example, consumer research, behaviour change objectives and segmentation. The use of the marketing mix theory and exchange elements were limited, whereas the evidence of the use of competition is not noted. In addition, the majority of the selected studies focus on short-term objectives leading to varying and inconsistent outcomes. Overall, no single element of Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria was independently associated with the success of any of the selected studies. The review highlights a need to use more social marketing principles in planning and implementing sexual health programmes to enhance their effectiveness. Improvement in performance might be achieved through the development and application of a new social marketing informed methodology for designing social programmes on sexual health.