• S.A.S v France : supporting 'living together' or forced assimilation?

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Strathclyde (Brill Academic Publishers, 2014-11-19)
      The Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights has upheld the French law which prohibits the concealment of one’s face in public places. The law is directed principally at prohibiting Muslim women covering their faces in public spaces in France. The decision of the Strasbourg Court is premised on the French notion of ‘le vivre ensemble’; ‘living together.’ This critical analysis of the judgment contends that the decision is flawed and retrogressive for women’s rights in particular and undermines the socio-cultural rights and freedoms of individuals who belong to minority groups in general. On wider implications of the decision, it is worrisome that the decision appears to pander to dangerous political leanings currently growing in many parts of Europe and beyond. The Court risks promoting forced assimilation policies against minorities in various parts of the world. To illustrate its implications, the article highlights the experience of the Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
    • Samadhi spa & wellness retreat

      Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 23/08/2013)
    • Saving world market society from itself? The new global politics of inequality and the agents of world market society.

      Nunn, Alex; Leeds Beckett University (Spectrum, 2015-12-31)
      Socio-economic inequality is now firmly on the international political agenda. In recent years the World Economic Forum, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank and International Monetary Fund have all produced publications lamenting increased inequality and its impact on political stability, the fragility of the international financial system and growth. This paper argues that this interest needs to be located in the emergence of an expanding ‘world market society’ (WMS) that these organisations are both representative of and have sought to promote. They are now also engaged in a complex process of identifying and seeking to manage systemic risks to WMS expansion, arising from the expansion process itself, with socio-economic inequality now seen as one of these. Several factors though suggest that their efforts may not be successful. These include the lack of capacity of international organisations to manage risk independently of their mainly state-scale allies and their inability to escape the objective of WMS expansion as they seek to manage risks to it. The paper argues therefore that there is an emergent New Global Politics of Inequality whose forlorn objective is to save world market society from itself.
    • Second-life retailing: a reverse supply chain perspective

      Beh, Loo-See; Ghobadian, Abby; He, Qile; Gallear, David; O'Regan, Nicholas; University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; University of Reading; Coventry University; Brunel University; University of the West of England (Emerald, 2016-03-14)
      The authors examine the role of entrepreneurial business models in the reverse supply chain of apparel/fashion retailers. The purpose of this paper is to offer an alternative approach to the “return to the point of origin” prevalent in the reverse chain of manufacturers but less technically and economically feasible in the case of apparel/fashion retailers. This approach, second-life retailing, not only reduces waste but also democratises consumption. The paper is based on an extensive literature review, semi-structured interviews with managers of two second-life retailers in Malaysia and observations of a number of stores. Using the Business Model Canvas, the authors demonstrate the essential characteristics of second-life retailers. Retailers in this study, unlike retailers in the developed world, combine traditional business models with off-price retailing. There is no clear demarcation between the forward and reverse supply chain used to manage first- and second-hand retailing. The paper demonstrates the potential of innovative business models in the reverse supply chain. It encourages managers to look beyond the “return to the point of origin” and seek imaginative alternatives. Such alternatives potentially could result in additional revenue, enhanced sustainability and democratisation of consumption meeting triple bottom line objectives. This paper highlights the importance and relevance of entrepreneurial business models in addressing the reverse supply chain, demonstrating this with the aid of two Malaysian off-price retailers. It also contributes to our nascent knowledge by focusing on emerging markets.
    • The secret world of liver transplant candidate assessment

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Bradford (2011)
    • Sector-focused approach to business events in Manchester

      Vokacova, Zuzana; Antchak, Vladimir; University of Derby (Goodfellow, 2019-09-05)
    • Selecting a disabled embryo can constitute grievous bodily harm

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Derby (2015)
      The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 (as amended) in the UK allows parents to select a disabled embryo for implantation as part of fertility treatment services. There was widespread condemnation of a couple in the United States who intentionally conceived two deaf children, and there is evidence to suggest that requests for dwarfism are on the rise. This article suggests that it is an offence against the person to give birth to an intentionally disabled child, and that this is a unique criminal act that can be distinguished from a wrongful life action (rejected in UK law by McKay v Essex Area Health Authority [1982] Q.B. 1166). The components of s.18 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 will be explored to prove that should an intentionally disabled child ever come forward, a prosecution may be possible under the criminal law.
    • Self-disclosure and self-deprecating self-reference: Conversational practices of personalization in police interviews with children reporting alleged sexual offenses

      Childs, Carrie; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-11-06)
      This article examines how police officers ostensibly reveal personal information about themselves in investigative interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses. We identify two practices of personalization. First, we show how, during the opening phase of interviews, officers engage in clear, unambiguous self-disclosure and how these self-disclosures are designed to elicit expressions of affiliation from witnesses. Second, we identify instances of self-deprecating self-reference as in ‘I’m going deaf that's all’. These self-references are delivered to manage trouble responsibility in environments of repair. We show how they manage the conflicting demands of rapport building and the requirement to make interviewees feel as if they are being listened to and understood, on the one hand, and the need for effective evidence gathering, on the other. The present study extends understanding of how officers personalize the investigative interview, as recommended by best practice guidelines.
    • Self-selection policing: Theory, research and practice.

      Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; Loughborough University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016)
    • Selling the total spa product

      Buxton, Louise; University of Derby (Goodfellow Publishers, 2016-11-30)
      Retail sales can contribute significantly to a spa’s revenue, however, many spas do not realise their full retail potential. This chapter presents strategies to maximise retail sales, including: brand selection, brand ambassadors, incentives, training, retail design and visual merchandising to provide a tool kit for success. Consideration is also given to the importance of integrating retail throughout the entire customer journey. A case study is presented at the end of the chapter to encourage the application of knowledge. Selling experiences is seen as the principal function of a spa (Wuttle and Cohen, 2008), nevertheless, retail and other sales such as up-selling and link selling can all make significant contributions to a spa’s revenue. In exploring approaches to selling, the benefits of, and barriers to, selling are presented as well as strategies to maximise sales. The chapter is therefore essentially a more practically based one, but needs to be read in conjunction with the chapters on consumer behaviour, guest service and journey and marketing spas.
    • Sex difference in homicide: comparing male and female violent crimes in Korea

      Sea, Jonghan; Youngs, Donna; Tkazky, Sophia; Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; University of Huddersfield (SAGE Publications, 2017-11-09)
      The comparison of the South Korean male and female homicide offenders’ characteristics and crime scene behaviours is presented in this study. A total of 537 cases of homicide offenders prosecuted in Korea between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed in terms of offenders’ characteristics, victim–offender interaction, places of crime, and crime scene actions. Significant differences between male and female offenders were revealed in prior criminal history, offenders’ personal characteristics, choice of victim, crime scene behaviours during and after the homicide, and choice of weapon. The parallel with the gender differences in homicides found in Western countries is discussed as well as the possible explanations for the gender-related characteristics found in this study.
    • The sexual life of men with psychopathic traits

      Zara, Georgia; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Farrington, David P.; University of Turin; University of Cambridge; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-08-03)
      This paper explores the sexuality of individuals with psychopathic traits. Sexuality is not only a physiological need, it is a way by which people connect to others. According to a Darwinian perspective, psychopathic traits are seen as adaptive responses to environmental conditions, and as a nonpathological and reproductively viable life history strategy, although superficial emotionality and a detached interpersonal style characterise individuals who are high on psychopathic traits. Data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development are analyzed. This is a prospective longitudinal study of 411 London males, with face-to-face interviews from age 8 to age 48. Men who are high on psychopathic traits were likely to drift from one relationship to another, without a particular attachment to any of them, to be sexually promiscuous, and they never used contraception, which increased their likelihood of having several children from different partners. Findings provide: ▪ An insight into the non-criminal sexual behaviour of males with high psychopathic traits. ▪ Evidence on a pattern of unsafe/risky sexual relations by males with high psychopathic traits. ▪ Information on targeting risk factors to prevent the intergenerational transmission of psychopathy. These findings are significant in highlighting the impact of psychopathic traits upon interpersonal and family dynamics in community samples, since detecting the impact of problematic intimate relationships is difficult in the absence of evident criminality. Rather than completely neglecting their children, men with psychopathic traits spent time with their sons but not with their daughters.
    • Shareholder protection in China from a numerical comparative law perspective

      Huang, Flora; Yeung, Horace; University of Essex; University of Leicester (Oxford Academic, 2019-04-16)
      The traditional approach in legal comparative research is doctrinal rule based. A relatively recent breakthrough has been the use of econometric techniques in comparing the extent of success in different jurisdictions with respect to, for example, protecting shareholders. The meshing of legal research and econometrics is known as ‘leximetrics’. One of the most prominent and widely cited use of leximetrics is the seminal study by Rafael La Porta and colleagues on the correlation between shareholder protection and financial development. The study, though highly influential, has attracted various criticisms. Subsequent studies have sought to build on the study by coming up with improved research design. For example, using a panel data set covering a range of developed and developing countries, researchers from the Cambridge Centre for Business Research have discovered that a significant upward movement in the level of shareholder protection was made by China between 1990 and 2013. It has been suggested that, during this period, China experienced the ‘biggest increase in shareholder protection’ among 30 countries studied, and China was amongst the top performers (along with France and Russia) in shareholder protection in 2013, performing even better than the United Kingdom and the USA. At the same time, the World Bank’s Protecting Minority Investors Index, which forms part of its Doing Business reports, has recently painted a rather opposite picture, in contrast to the positive assessment by the Centre for Business Research, by putting China in the 119th position out of 190 countries, which indicates a very mediocre performance. This article seeks to address the question of whether and how the two studies, both employing leximetric techniques and examining an ostensibly similar issue, can point to discrepant results.
    • Should we expect exemplary integrated reporting to increase organisational ESG ratings?

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-07-03)
      The aim of this chapter is to assess whether firms which have been recognised for exemplary integrated reporting () should see an increase in their Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) ratings, or indeed, whether firms that rate highly for their ESG performance manage to produce exemplary integrated reports. Studying 111 firms worldwide recognised for their excellent , the number of accolades awarded was estimated against their ESG ratings over six years from 2012–2017. The reverse relationship was also explored, together with regressions using the determinants of the CSR score; environmental, social and governance. Finally a necessary condition analysis (NCA) was carried out to ascertain whether having a good ESG score is a prerequisite for producing an exemplary integrated report (and vice versa). There appears to be no correlation between companies producing exemplary  and their ESG ratings; nor indeed the reverse. However, there was some evidence that firms producing exemplary  have higher governance scores and in turn, higher governance scores appear linked to more exemplary . There were no findings for the other two determinants of ESG (environmental and social). There was also no indication that having a good ESG score is a prerequiste for producing an exemplary integrated report based on the NCA. This chapter is of interest to practitioners and academics since it is the first study to consider whether there is a link between exemplary  and highly rated ESG scores. It is also the first study to use the novel methodology of NCA in this arena to determine whether one ( or high ESG scores) is a prerequisite for the other. Given the relative low numbers of firms using  the results may lack generalisability, however the results are positive in that firms are not constrained by having to produce an exemplary integrated report in order to increase ESG ratings, should this be a corporate objective.
    • Sino-African trade: A multi-layered appraisal

      Huang, Flora; Yeung, Horace; University of Derby; University of Leicester (Electronic Publications, 2020-04)
      There are both believers and critics on the state and potential of Sino-African trade. For example, China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is expected to benefit several African countries. At the same time, some critics refer to it as ‘debt trap diplomacy’ for China to politically and economically exploit the countries involved. Nearly a decade ago, China surpassed the US to become Africa’s largest trading partner. Sino-African trade is now four times larger than that of US-Africa. While the importance of Sino-African trade can be seen in the scale of trade and investment, this article at the same time concerns the legal, and also some non-legal mechanisms such as BRI and the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, to take the bilateral/multilateral relations to the next level. Other than continental and country level perspectives, firm level considerations cannot be ignored. Chinese companies now dominate in certain Africa’s business sectors and are rapidly expanding into new sectors. There have been concerns regarding the behaviour of certain Chinese companies in Africa. Through a multi-level analysis, the article endeavours to form a comprehensive picture of the closer than ever Sino-African trade relations.
    • A situational approach to heritage crime prevention.

      Grove, Louise; Pease, Ken; University College London (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
    • Small cities with big dreams: creative placemaking and branding strategies

      Antchak, Vladimir; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-09-12)
    • The snowballing penalty effect: Multiple disadvantage and pay

      Woodhams, Carol; Lutpon, Ben; Cowling, Marc; University of Exeter; Manchester Metropolitan University (Wiley, 2013-06-26)
      This paper makes the case that the current single-axis approach to the diagnosis and remedy of pay discrimination is inadequate in the case of multiple disadvantage. While a good deal is known about pay gaps, particularly those affecting women, less is known about those affecting people in other disadvantaged groups and those in more than one such group. This analysis of multiple years of pay data, n = 513,000, from a large UK-based company shows that people with more than one disadvantaged identity suffer a significantly greater pay penalty than those with a single disadvantage. The data also suggest that penalties associated with multiple disadvantage exponentially increase. In other words, disadvantages seem to interact to the detriment of people at ‘intersections’. The paper considers the implications for policies aimed at reducing pay inequalities. These currently take a single-axis approach and may be misdirected.
    • Social and transitional identity: exploring social networks and their significance in a therapeutic community setting

      Best, David; I. Lubman, Dan; Savic, Michael; Wilson, Ann; Dingle, Genevieve; Alexander Haslam, S.; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Eastern Health: Eastern Health, Fitzroy, Australia and Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia (Emerald, 2014-04-08)
      There is considerable literature indicating the importance of social connectedness and its relationship to wellbeing. For problem substance users, a similar literature emphasises the importance of the transition from a social network supportive of use to one that fosters recovery. Within this framework, the therapeutic community (TC) is seen as a critical location for adopting a transitional identity (i.e. from a “drug user” to a “member of the TC”), as part of the emergence of a “recovery identity” following treatment. The purpose of this paper is to outline a model for conceptualising and measuring identity based on the theories of social identity and recovery capital, and pilots this model within a TC setting. A social identity mapping was used with TC residents to test their identification with “using” and “TC” groups, and their relationship to recovery capital. The network mapping method was acceptable to TC residents, and provided valuable insights into the social networks and social identity of TC residents. This paper explores issues around mapping social identity and its potential in the TC and other residential settings. The paper integrates a number of conceptual models to create a new framework for understanding transitions in social networks during treatment and reports on a novel measurement method underpinning this.
    • Social capital in Jordan: wasta in employment selection

      Sa'ad, Ali; Raiden, A; Kirk, S; University of Worcester; Nottingham Trent University (2015)
      Social capital has emerged as a concept of great interest and potential to help understand and explain how social structures and networks impact political, social and business practices at the collective and individual levels. The basic premise is: investment in social relations will yield expected returns. Extant research has largely focused on the West; our knowledge of how social capital plays out in the Middle East is limited. We marry social capital with ‘wasta’, the strong family and tribal based connections secured in networks in the Arab world, and investigate HR managers’ perceptions of wasta in employment selection in Jordan. Often use of wasta in employment selection is related to favouritism and nepotism and the many negative outcomes of not adhering to merit-based selection. Through in-depth interview data we reveal a more nuanced and multifaceted view of wasta in employment selection. When examined through the social capital lens six distinct themes emerge: (i) wasta as an enabler to get jobs, (ii) wasta as social ties/ solidarity, (iii) wasta as a method to transfer/ attain information, (iv) wasta as a guide in decision-making, (v) wasta as an exchange, and (vi) wasta as pressure. Our findings confirm that at times wasta grants individuals unfair access to employment that is beyond their qualifications, skills, knowledge and/ or abilities. However, organisational context is relevant. In banking, not all roles are open to wasta. Where the possible negative impact on the organisation poses too great a risk HR managers feel able to resist even strong wasta. Context also emerges as being of key importance with regards to the background and business model of an organisation. Family businesses tend to operate wasta more frequently and extensively using tribal connections, religious networks and geographical area based networks as a key source in hiring. Despite globalisation and international nature of banking, wasta and tribalism feature strongly in daily business conduct in Jordan. Our paper illuminates the positive effects of wasta, e.g.as a method to transfer information, together with discussion on the dangers of ‘cloning’, a (lack of diversity), and the dangers of an incompetent workforce