• Pathways to Recovery and Desistance: The Role of the Social Contagion of Hope

      Best, David; Sheffield Hallam University (Policy Press, 2019-09-04)
      Using case studies and a strengths-based approach Best puts forward a new recovery and reintegration model for substance users and offenders leaving prison which emphasizes the importance of long-term recovery and the role that communities and peers play in the process.
    • Peasants, bandits, and state intervention: The consolidation of authority in the Ottoman Balkans and Southern Italy

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Wiley, 2017-05-11)
      This paper explores the role of bandits and state intervention in the Ottoman Balkans and Southern Italy in the 19th century by using archival documents. I argue that the states may react similarly and radically when their authority is challenged in the periphery. The Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy developed the same forms of state intervention to fight against the bandits, even though these two states had fundamentally different political, cultural, and socio-legal structures. I present three different forms of state intervention: (i) victim-centred state intervention; (ii) security-centred state intervention; and (iii) authority-centred state intervention. These three forms consolidated the state's authority while making the two states both fragile and dependent on other social agencies in the long term. I further claim that consolidation of the state's authority manifests the paradox of state intervention and creates more vulnerabilities in traumatic geographies.
    • Peer tutoring on Facebook to engage students with flipped classes: A correlational experiment on learning outcomes

      Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Daniel, Jay; University of Technology Sydney (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2016)
      This paper aims to demonstrate the potentials of using Facebook to improve the students’ engagements with the flipped learning materials through implementation of socially enabled peer learning. The article looks at comparing the correlations between the learning outcomes with online quizzes as well as with the Facebook engagement of students. The findings show that although the learning outcomes are correlated with the both of these two interventions, the students’ engagement on Facebook has a stronger correlation with the learning outcomes in the flipped classes. The study also reports the lessons learned in deploying Facebook groups to implement peer learning in flipped classes. The results have been discussed in the lens of Theory of Peer Learning and the future avenues of research have been suggested. This study also motivates teaching practitioners in Information Systems to improve flipped learning by the use of social networking sites in their courses.
    • Penal populism and the public thermostat: crime, public punitiveness, and public policy.

      Jennings, Will; Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Hay, Colin; University of Sheffield; Department of Politics & International Relations; University of Southampton; Centre for Criminological Research; University of Sheffield; Centre for Criminological Research; University of Sheffield; Sciences Po; Paris (Wiley, 2016-06-02)
      This article makes the case that feedback processes in democratic politics—between crime rates, public opinion, and public policy—can account for the growth of penal populism in Britain. It argues that the public recognize and respond to rising (and falling) levels of crime, and that in turn public support for being tough on crime is translated into patterns of imprisonment. This contributes to debates over the crime–opinion–policy connection, unpacking the dynamic processes by which these relationships unfold at the aggregate level. This uses the most extensive data set ever assembled on aggregate opinion on crime in Britain to construct a new over‐time measure of punitive attitudes. The analysis first tests the thermostatic responsiveness of punitive attitudes to changes in recorded crime rates as well as self‐reported victimization, and then examines the degree to which changes in mass opinion impact on criminal justice policy.
    • “People think it’s a harmless joke”: young people’s understanding of the impact of technology, digital vulnerability and cyberbullying in the United Kingdom

      Betts, Lucy R.; Spenser, Karin A.; Nottingham Trent University (Taylor and Francis, 2016-09-24)
      Young people's technology use has increased exponentially over the last few years. To gain a deeper understanding of young peoples' experiences of digital technology and cyberbullying, four focus groups were conducted with 29 11- to 15-year-olds recruited from two schools. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three themes: impact of technology, vulnerability and cyberbullying. Technology was seen as a facilitator and a mechanism for maintaining social interactions. However, participants reported experiencing a conflict between the need to be sociable and the desire to maintain privacy. Cyberbullying was regarded as the actions of an anonymous coward who sought to disrupt social networks and acts should be distinguished from banter.
    • Perceived social impacts of tourism and quality-of-life: A new conceptual model

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby, College of Business, Law, & Social Sciences, Derby Business School; UiT, School of Business & Economics, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johanneshburg, Johannesburg Business School, South Africa (Taylor & Francis, 2020-12-23)
      Residents’ overall well-being and quality-of-life require a deeper understanding of their perceived social impacts of tourism to determine appropriate management strategies to promote behaviours in support of tourism development. Aligning with the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, this paper proposes a new framework for residents’ quality-of-life. Bringing together multi-disciplinary evidence from environmental, social and cognitive psychology, political science and tourism, this study critically examines how residents’ perceived social impacts of tourism and their interpersonal trust can make them become more place attached and protect their tourism resources. The framework proposes that residents’ perceived social impacts of tourism exerts a direct influence on residents’ interpersonal trust. It further posits that residents’ perceived social impacts of tourism and their interpersonal trust exert a direct influence on residents’ place attachment. The proposed model further considers place attachment to exert a direct influence on residents’ pro-social and pro-environmental behavioural intentions. Pro-social behaviour is proposed to influence pro-environmental behaviour. Further pro-social and pro-environmental behaviors are proposed to influence residents’ support for tourism development. The framework then considers residents’ support for tourism development to exert a direct influence on residents’ overall quality-of-life. The theoretical contributions, practical implications for sustainable community tourism and sustainable tourism in general and the limitations of the study are discussed.
    • Perceptions of psychological coercion and human trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to know the unknown

      Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, Dave; Brierley, Robin; University of Derby (Public Library of Science, 2016-05-05)
      Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.
    • Performance Management in Public Employment Services

      Nunn, Alex; Leeds Beckett University (European Commission, 2012)
      There is a wide variety of practice in European PES in institutional design, services provided, welfare and unemployment benefit regimes and welfare spending. Some PES are responsible only for labour market services to the unemployed, while others are also responsible for the administration of unemployment and other welfare benefits, services to employers and occupational or worker licensing. Despite this variation, recent years have seen the increasing adoption of ‘activation’ as an approach to delivering labour market services and the use of performance management or Management By Objectives (MBO) as a management practice. The use of performance management has become more critical and widespread as PES resources have become more limited and there is a resulting increasing emphasis on demonstrating the impact of PES interventions as well as value for money. This report considers the variety of practice across EU Member States and makes suggestions about how all EU PES might learn from one another to strengthen their own practice, specifically in relation to labour market services to jobseekers. It incorporates a review of the research evidence on performance management in EU PES and draws out the practical implications of these approaches for the EU, policy makers, senior PES officials and employment counsellors.
    • Performance matters more than masculinity: violence, gender dynamics and mafia women

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-06-03)
      Narrating the stories of Italian mafia women and classifying their performance, this study shows that mafiosi masculinity creates a violent social atmosphere for women. The performance practised by women may give rise to a higher social status or credibility for the women or may make them vulnerable against violence and risks posed by mafia activity. Women's performances against violent mafia activity can bring definitive failure to the solid structure of the mafia family. Yet, conversely, the performance of women under the influence of mafiosi masculinity can also render the mafia more resilient against threat.
    • Performance, accountability and links with benchlearning.

      Scharle, Ágota; Adamecz, Anna; Nunn, Alex; Budapest Institute; University of Derby; ICF Inc (European Union, 2017-12)
    • The persistence of colonial constitutionalism in British overseas territories

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; Chowdhury, Tanzil; University of Birmingham (Cambridge University Press, 2019-03-07)
      This article argues that despite the UK Government’s exaltations of self-determination of its Overseas Territories, provisions of colonial governance persist in their constitutions. Further, it posits that such illustrations begin to answer the broader question of whether British Overseas Territories (BOTs) are modern day colonies. Such claims are not without merit given that 10 out of the 14 BOTS are still considered Non-Self-Governing Territories by the United Nations and have remained the target of decolonisation efforts. Drawing insights from post-colonial legal theory, this article develops the idea of the persistence of colonial constitutionalism to interrogate whether structural continuities exist in the governance of the UK’s British Overseas Territories. The analysis begins to unravel the fraught tensions between constitutional provisions that advance greater self-determination and constitutional provisions that maintain the persistence of colonial governance. Ultimately, the post-colonial approach foregrounds a thoroughgoing analysis on whether BOTs are colonies and how such an exegesis would require particular nuance that is largely missing in current institutional and non-institutional articulations of, as well as representations on, the issue.
    • Personal characteristics of bullying victims in residential care for youth

      Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David; Faculty of Education, University of Osijek, Croatia; University of Cambridge (Emerald, 2016-04-11)
      This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues. The results demonstrated that male and female victims lacked self-esteem, presented with neurotic personality traits and were likely to believe that bullying was just part of life in residential care. Female victims also presented with lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness, while male victims were young and had a history of victimisation during their previous placement, in school and at the beginning of their current placements.Victims in care might benefit from programmes addressing their low self-esteem, high neuroticism and attitudes approving of bullying. Male residential groups should not accommodate young boys together with older boys. New residents who have a history of victimisation during their previous placement and in school should be supervised more intensively but in a manner that does not increase their perception of being victimised.The present study is the first work that examines individual characteristics of bullying victims in care institutions for young people. As such, the study offers some insights on how to protect residential care bullying victims.
    • Place Affect Interventions during and post the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; College of Business, Law & Social Sciences, Derby Business School, University of Derby, UK; UiT, School of Business & Economics, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johanneshburg, Johannesburg Business School, South Africa (Frontiers, 2021-09-14)
      The COVID-19 health and economic crisis has also brought a rise in people being unable to cope with their existing medical conditions and other issues such as domestic violence, drugs, and alcohol among others. Suicidal tendencies have been on the rise. Feelings of isolation causing emotional distress in place-confined settings have put additional pressure on the healthcare systems demanding that we find additional and complementary means of support for those in need. This is important not only in the current pandemic but also in the post-pandemic world. The goal is to collectively contribute and address the recurring calls for actions to maintain global well-being and public health. An important discussion to bring on the table is the need to promote interventions for people to cope with the pandemic and to adjust to the post-pandemic world. Promoting affective attitudes toward place can foster well-being outcomes. This has important benefits and is of relevance to governments, policymakers, and healthcare professionals in delivering better healthcare equipping people with coping mechanisms both throughout the pandemic and in the long run. However, the key challenge is how to foster these place affect attitudes meeting the changing demands in the post-pandemic world. It is in the middle of a crisis that the conversation needs to start about how to strategically plan for the recovery.
    • Place and Post-Pandemic Flourishing: Disruption, Adjustment, and Healthy Behaviors

      Counted, Victor; Cowden, Richard; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Western Sydney University; Harvard University; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-09-22)
      This book rekindles the well-known connection between people and place in the context of a global pandemic. The chapters are divided into two sections. In the first section, “Place Attachment During a Pandemic,” we review the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and the extent of its impact on place attachment and human-environment interactions. We examine how restrictions in mobility and environmental changes can have a significant psychological burden on people who are dealing with the effect of place attachment disruption that arises during a pandemic. In the second section, “Adjusting to Place Attachment Disruption During and After a Pandemic,” we focus on adaptive processes and responses that could enable people to adjust positively to place attachment disruption. We conclude the book by discussing the potential for pro-environmental behavior to promote place attachment and flourishing in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic by introducing an integrative framework of place flourishing and exploring its implications for theory, research, policy, and practice.
    • Planning ahead? An exploratory study of South Korean Investigators' beliefs about their planning for investigative interviews of suspects.

      Kim, Jihwan; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; Bergstrøm, Henriette; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-11-16)
      Preparation and planning has been argued to be vitally important as to how effectively investigators undertake their interviews with suspects. Yet it has also been found in previous research that investigators admit that they plan only occasionally, often attributing insufficient time as reason for not undertaking the task. Employing a novel research paradigm that utilized theoretical foundations concerning planning, the present study explored empirically 95 South Korean financial crime investigators’ views, using a self-administered questionnaire. Through the use of second generation statistical modelling, an understanding was developed of the relative relationships between various concepts (which had themselves emerged from an established theoretical framework of planning that had been further extended to accommodate the context of the present study) The study found that perceived time pressures actually showed a very low association with interview planning. Rather, investigators self-belief as to their own capability alongside workplace culture were each found to have stronger associations with investigators’ intentions to plan for their interviews. As such, we argue that there should be more focus on improving occupational culture relating to interview planning, while developing training programs that identify, evaluate and enhance investigators’ planning skills. Implications for practice are therefore discussed.
    • Plastics and the spa industry

      Buxton, Louise; Stockdale, Isobel; University of Derby (2019-05-08)
    • Police interrogation practice in Slovenia

      Areh, Igor; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (2015-12-23)
      Interrogation techniques are well explored, but in Slovenia it has remained unknown what interrogation techniques are used and what the basic characteristics of suspect interrogations are. The Slovenian interrogation manual proposes some coercive interrogation techniques and neglects their weaknesses. The aim of the current study was to examine Slovenian police officers’ beliefs as to the basic characteristics of their interrogations and whether techniques proposed by the manual are used in practice to begin to provide some insight into what actually happens in such interrogations. A survey instrument was used to obtain selfreport data from a sample of criminal investigators. From 86 completed questionnaires it was found that a typical interrogation of a suspect lasts around 90 minutes and is not recorded. Interviewers typically use three interrogation techniques namely (i) conducting interrogations in isolation; (ii) identifying contradictions in the suspect’s story; and (iii) confronting the suspect with evidence. Findings suggest that some coercive interrogation techniques are used in practice (e.g. offering moral justifications, alluding to have evidence of guilt, good cop/bad cop routine, and minimization). The study is the first insight into the practices of Slovenian investigators when questioning suspects. Differences among general, white-collar and organized crime investigators are also discussed.
    • Police interview of suspects in China: developments and analyses

      Zeng, Fanging; Huang, Ching-Yu; Bull, Ray; University of China; Keele University; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-13)
      This paper investigates the power dynamics in police interviews with suspects in China by examining a real-life sample. It first overviews some recent developments and legislation in China regarding police interviewing of suspects, followed by outlining the linguistic and psychological research which the analyses are based upon. The interviews are examined using critical discourse analysis that reveals the high-power position of the Chinese police in suspect interviews. However, the large proportion of open questions found in the interviews is encouraging, as this suggests that the regulations outlawing use of evidence obtained by torture or other illegal means is taking effect. This paper is the very first to empirically examine actual Chinese police interviews with suspects, providing valuable insights for theories and practice.
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John L.M.; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; University of Wolverhampton; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-02-25)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and well-being of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.