• Narratives Of Navigation: Refugee-Background Women’s Higher Education Journeys In Bangladesh And New Zealand

      Anderson, Vivienne; Cone, Tiffany; Inoue, Naoko; Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago; Asian University for Women; Daito Bunka University; University of Derby (Sites: New Series, Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand, 2020-12-30)
      Navigating higher education (HE) is a complex exercise for many students, including those from refugee backgrounds. Internationally, only a very small percentage of refugee-background students access HE. In a 2018 study, we explored 37 women students’ narrative accounts of international study in Bangladesh and New Zealand. Our participants included 10 women from refugee backgrounds. Theoretically, our research was a response to calls from critical scholars to consider the different circumstances that shape students’ international study, and the ethical and pedagogical implications of these for ‘host’ institutions. In this article, we explore the refugee-background women’s accounts of accessing, navigating, and thinking beyond HE, and their thoughts on factors that support refugee-background students’ success in HE. We argue for the need to: reject ‘grand narratives’ in relation to refugee-background students; acknowledge students’ ‘necessary skillfulness’ while supporting their capacity to navigate HE; and recognise refugee-background students’ commitments and influence beyond HE institutions.
    • Nations as zones of conflict, nations as zones of selection: A Darwinian social evolutionary engagement with John Hutchinson's ‘Culture Wars’

      Kerr, William; University of Edinburgh (Wiley, 2019-09-12)
      This paper explores the use of Darwinian social evolutionary theory towards understanding the formation of nations through a specific engagement with John Hutchinson's Nations as Zones of Conflict, particularly the idea of ‘culture wars’. After outlining Hutchinson's framework and the principles of Darwinian social evolutionary theory – namely, the key concepts of inheritance, variation, and selection within an environmental context – I make a case for Darwinian concepts being able to support and expand on Hutchinson's ethno‐symbolic approach. I argue that Darwinian social evolutionary theory offers a powerful explanation for why particular myths, symbols, traditions, and memories endure and are revived and revitalized in nationalist contexts. The development of nationalism in Meiji Japan is used as an example to explore these ideas.
    • Navigating drugs at university: normalization, differentiation & drift?

      Patton, David; University of Derby (Emerald Publishing, 2018-10-08)
      Whilst drug use appears to be common amongst university students, this study moved beyond mere drug prevalence, and for the first time in the UK, used the 6 dimensions of normalisation to better understand the role and place drugs play in the lives of university students. 512 students completed a Student Lifestyle Survey. A differentiated normalisation is occurring amongst different student groups; the social supply of drugs is common, and some users are ‘drifting’ into supply roles yet such acts are neutralized. Students are ‘drug literate’ and have to navigate drugs, and their consumption, availability and marketing, as part of their everyday student life. Student drug use is not homogenous and very little is known about the nuances and diversity of their use/non-use beyond prevalence data.  Qualitative studies are needed to better understand the processes of differentiated normalisation and social supply. This is the first study in the UK to use the six dimensions of normalisation amongst a sample of university students
    • Navigating identities and emotions in the field: a local researcher’s strategies in Northern Ireland

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Cesran International, 2017-04)
      Divided societies like Northern Ireland present methodological challenges for researchers due to the roles that mutually-opposing group identities play in shaping social interactions. These challenges, which are heightened for local researchers due to their status as insiders to the conflict, can be overcome to some degree through the careful development of methodological strategies based on a reflexive approach. This article presents the case of a qualitative interviewing project undertaken by a local researcher that involved different identity groups in post-violence Northern Ireland. It examines the methodological challenges encountered because of the identitied and emotional nature of the research, and it shares successful strategies both for building rapport with a wide variety of participants and for eliciting responses during the discussion of sensitive topics. A reflexive approach is shown as important in enabling local researchers in divided societies to conduct rigorous and trustworthy research.
    • The need for new criminal justice & criminological approaches to end the ‘War on Terror’

      Patton, David; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2016)
      Violent attacks in the West in recent years by terrorist groups have reinforced the fact that acts of violence by extremist groups are increasingly becoming a feature of 21st Century life. Understandably, such acts have been met with outrage, condemnation, horror and fear. In addition, the West's responses to such events have been amongst other things, more bombing for Syria; more resources given to the police; more powers for security agencies, greater surveillance employed and new laws passed which highlight that the war on terror is active. However, George Bush’s declaration that the ‘war on terror’, "will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated" is unrealistic. The state response to terrorism broadly follows a ‘war on terror’ approach; similarly current criminal justice and criminological approaches also broadly follow a retributive style approach. This paper will argue that a new paradigm for an emotionally intelligent CJS is needed, one which utilises theories and models of criminal justice that are also emotionally intelligent, in order to put an end to the patterns of separation, exclusion, excessive punishment, shaming and humiliation and thus end the misguided approach used at present specifically in relation to terrorism (and more generally in relation to criminality).
    • Neoliberalisation, fast policy transfer and the management of labor market services

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-27)
      Neoliberalism has been a core concern for IPE for several decades, but is often ill-defined. Research offering greater definitional clarity stresses the role of contingent and local level factors in diverse processes of neoliberalisation. This paper contributes to that literature, addressing a surprising gap in critical IPE knowledge; the management practices by which pressures to activate the unemployed and to make them more competitive, are implemented. The paper suggests that performance management, is significant as both a depoliticising policy coordination mechanism and a highly politicised policy implementation practice. The paper invokes a scalar-relational approach which sees the pressure to innovate and compete at lower scales as driven by the political economy of competitiveness at the system scale. The paper reports on research undertaken within the empirical frame of EU meta-governance, showing how performance management is part of lower-scale attempts to adapt to system-scale pressures. It is neoliberalising in both form and content. It concludes by showing that while performance management may be a significant component of neoliberalisation there is scope for engagement and contestation motivated by egalitarian ideals. Critical IPE scholars interested in contesting neoliberalisation should therefore engage with the political economy of management practice as well as policy design.
    • Neoliberalism, prisons and probation in the USA and England and Wales

      Teague, Michael; Whitehead, Philip; Crawshaw, Paul; Teesside University (Anthem Press, 2012-09)
      The correctional populations of the USA and England and Wales have undergone substantial and relentless expansion over the last forty years. Throughout this period, these countries have also experienced neoliberal governments. This chapter aims to analyse the impact of those governments upon the criminal and community justice systems of the USA and of England and Wales with a particular focus on prisons, probation, and privatization, and to consider whether neoliberalism has undermined liberal and rehabilitative approaches.IIn particular, this chapter explore the way in which neoliberalism has prioritised punitiveness, de-prioritised rehabilitation, fostered a growing incarcerated population, and engaged in the pursuit of private profit at the expense of social justice within the carceral and probation systems.
    • New Age visitors and the tourism industry.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2018-12-31)
      This conceptual paper establishes a framework for socially constructed research activity to help gauge the intention of travellers in more-developed countries (MDC) of the wealthy and largely affluent North to undertake forms of continuing personal and professional development (CPD) through their travel experiences. Human physiological needs have in large already been achieved for many in more developed countries and exceeded in terms of nourishment and entertainment. Humans are social and societal creatures and in need of realisation of their spiritual, intellectual and societal choices and selections. New spiritual values are threatened by monetarism, by an ‘enveloping outside world’, as Giddens terms it (Giddens, 1991; Giddens, 1994). We must look to the South for inspiration, for restoration of group values and creation of acceptable norms that define society and are elemental in the construction of society from the bottom up.
    • NGO accountability on environmentalism: a literature review of relevant issues and themes

      Yekini, Liafisu Sina; Yekini, Kemi, C; University of Derby (Emerald Publishing, 2021-01-04)
      This chapter, which is in themes, starts with a survey of the rise of environmentalism for the purpose of sustainability. It then evaluates the roles of nongovernmental organisations' (NGOs') self-regulation and government regulation on the need for accountability that ensures sustainability. NGOs' accountability is a way of making sure that stakeholders' social, environmental and economic sustainability are protected and rigorously evaluated. This chapter further examines what the enduring mechanisms should be if true accountability, which leads to sustainability, will be achieved to suggest a holistic accountability that involves downward and upward accountability. In doing so, this chapter utilised the identified five mechanisms that ensure the continuity of world sustainability, which is prima-facie, the objective of funders/donors, beneficiaries/stakeholders and the NGO's loop.
    • NHS values of data management

      Grace, Jamie; University of Derby (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2009-02)
    • A non- conference review: a note on conferences that never were, those that may be and those that will be in 2021

      Azara, Iride; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-07-02)
      A non-traditional conference review offering a synthetic update on the latest academic and industry conference developments in the areas of wellness and wellbeing as well as some thoughts on what future conferences may look like in the near and long term future.
    • Non-founder human capital and the long-run growth and survival of high-tech ventures

      Siepel, J; Cowling, M; Coad, A.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 16/11/2016)
      This paper considers the impact of non-founder human capital on high-tech firms' long-run growth and survival. Drawing upon threshold theory, we explore how lack of access to complementary skills at different points in the life course impacts founders' thresholds for exit. We examine these factors using a unique longitudinal dataset tracking the performance and survival of a sample of UK high-tech firms over thirteen years as the firms move from youth into maturity. We find that firms that survive but do not grow are characterized by difficulty in accessing complementary managerial skills in youth, while firms that grow but subsequently exit are characterized by shortfalls of specialized complementary skills during adolescence. Firms that grow and survive do not report skills shortfalls. We discuss the implications of these resource constraints for entrepreneurs’ decisions to persist or exit through the life course.
    • Not everything in textbooks is true: teaching discourse analysis to undergraduate business students

      Bass, Tina; Coventry University (Greenleaf Publishing/ Routledge, 2014-09-08)
      Coventry University adopted the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Management in 2007 and the Business School has taken up the challenge to embed these important principles throughout their course offerings in order to provide the very best education for future business leaders. ‘Managing Business Responsibly’ is a final-year, undergraduate module which grew partly out of some of the author's teaching. The module poses a series of critical challenges to students and in the first few weeks many find it uncomfortable as the theories drawn upon are not those generally found within a business course. Within the module students are invited to think of themselves as agents of change in the broadest sense and to carefully consider those aspects of their future organisations that they might be able to influence. The module team have to work extremely hard to manage student anxiety around the coursework and have to repeatedly stress that discourse analysis is an invaluable critical thinking tool.
    • The notion of growth: A research agenda for SMEs and entrepreneurs

      Deacon, Jonathan; Amoncar, Nihar; University of South Wales (AMED and ISBE, 2016-07-15)
      Academics within the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise (SME) sector have been working towards identifying the factors that are impediments to the growth and development of SMEs around the world. This article attempts to understand the ‘notion of growth’ as experienced by SMEs in Wales and East India (particularly West Bengal), by exploring the narratives of entrepreneurs within those regions (see images 1 and 2 below). Our research is primarily qualitative in nature and is based on a semi-structured interview approach in Wales, and on narrative inquiry in India. We believe that such a methodology is critical in understanding the notion of growth, and our method involved interviewing established entrepreneurs in order to ascertain their multiple perspectives on growth. We assert the importance in Government policy formulation of understanding and using the language of growth as defined by the ‘context’ of the entrepreneurs. Our research approach: briefly, our research involved the collection and interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative data. In Wales, we worked with six gender-balanced focus groups, each consisting of eight business-owners who represent a range of MSMEs across the regions. Group discussions were augmented by in-depth 1:1 interviews. We also conducted a comprehensive, questionnaire-based pan-Wales telephone survey. In West Bengal, we engaged in a narrative inquiry, derived from 1:1 conversations and field notes, with a group of eight male entrepreneurs. Requests for confidentiality were a particular issue here. We selected the West Bengal Chamber of Commerce and CREDAI – (the Bengal branch of the Confederation of Real Estate Developers Association of India), as well as other forums that we mention throughout this article, according to their relevance to thematic analysis of the data we collected. If you would like a more detailed account of our sampling and research methods, please feel free to contact Nihar Amoncar.
    • Nutritional benefits of local meat produce

      Cseh, Leonard; Close, Hariett; University of Derby, Buxton (Council for Hospitality Management Education, 2012-05-09)
    • An odd “foreign policy couple”? Syria and Saudi Arabia 1970-1989

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019)
      This paper analyses the alliance between Syria and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the years 1970-1989. The relations between the two Arab powers were characterized by cooperation and support amid ideological and ‘structural’ differences. This was a stark contrast with the conflictual relations of the previous decade. The change was driven mainly by a reshaping in Syria’s regional policy. The new ‘realist’ foreign policy imposed by Hafiz Al-Assad created an overlapping of interests between Syria and the KSA. Riyadh valued Syria’s role in the region and used its support of Damascus vis-à-vis Israel as a tool to obtain domestic and regional legitimacy. On the other hand Syria benefited from the KSA’s generous economic and diplomatic help. This study will use an approach based on neoclassical realism to show how domestic and international factors led to these changes.
    • Oil on troubled waters: Multi-national corporations and realising human rights in the developing world, with specific reference to Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (2008-04-23)
      This article examines the current state of tension in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. It locates the current unrest in the continued denial of economic, social and cultural rights to the oil-rich communities in the area. The author argues that this denial happened with the complicity and acquiescence of the international community. The Nigerian government as well as multinational corporations operating in the area have not been responsive to the development needs of the people. The article argues that, although the primary obligation for realising the economic, social and cultural rights of host communities rests on the government, multi-national corporations in developing countries, considering their awesome resources and influence on government policies, should be similarly obligated to respect, promote and protect those rights.
    • On the association between routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintance violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Tilley, Nick; Farrell, Graham; Nottingham Trent University; Loughborough University; University College London; Simon Fraser University (2015-11-18)
      Crime rates have fallen dramatically over the past two decades. This phenomenon is typically referred to as the crime drop. What still remains puzzling, however, is why most crimes – including violent crimes – have fallen in recent years. The current gap in knowledge impedes violence reduction opportunities not just in the UK but across the world. To understand better why violence has fallen in the past decades, the current study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council Secondary Data Analysis Initiative Phase 2, investigates the relationship between changes in routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintances in the past two decades. In particular, insights from the routine activity theories will be used (Cohen & Felson, 1979) to explain the decline in both types of violence. To examine violence trends, the study uses rich data stemming from the Crime Survey for England & Wales (CSEW). Findings show that an important relationship exists between changes in routine activities and the fall in violence.
    • On the productive efficiency of Australian businesses: firm size and age class effects

      Cowling, M; Tanewski, G.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 22/06/2018)
      After 26 years of growth, the Australian economy is beginning to show signs of stress and declining productivity. In this paper, we consider aspects of productive efficiency using an Australian business population data set. Using a production function approach, several key findings are uncovered. Firstly, decreasing returns to scale are identified as a significant feature of the Australian business sector. This implies that not all firm growth will lead to productivity gains. Secondly, there are significant differences in the way value added is created between small and large firms. In the largest 25% of firms, the capital contribution to value added is four times that of the smallest 25% of firms. Thirdly, efficiency follows an inverted ‘U’ shaped in firm age with the youngest (0–2 years) and oldest (> 9 years) firms being less productive than the middle 50% of firms. Fourthly, there are also huge industry sector variations in productivity. In particular, financial services appears to be the most productively efficient sector in the Australian economy and mining the least efficient.