• Game park tourism.

      Azara, Iride; Wilcockson, Helen; University of Derby; West Notts College (Sage, 2017-07-03)
      The term game park tourism is used to define a range of tourism experiences specifically occurring within the designated boundaries of a game park. These experiences range from nonconsumptive activities, such as wildlife photography, observational activities, arts, and painting, to consumptive practices, such as hunting in game parks, fishing, petting lions, riding elephants, and so on.
    • Gender and bank lending after the global financial crisis: are women entrepreneurs safer bets?

      Cowling, Marc; Marlow, Susan; Liu, Weixi; University of Derby; University of Bath (Springer, 2019-04-13)
      Using gender as a theoretical framework, we analyse the dynamics of bank lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. Using six waves of the SME Finance Monitor survey, we apply a formal Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition to test whether gender impacts upon the supply and demand for debt finance by women. Reflecting established evidence, we found women had a lower demand for bank loans; contradicting accepted wisdom however, we found that women who did apply were more likely to be successful. We argue that feminised risk aversion might inform more conservative applications during a period of financial uncertainty which may be beneficial for women in terms of gaining loans. However, we also uncover more subtle evidence suggesting that bank decisions may differ for women who may be unfairly treated in terms of collateral but regarded more positively when holding large cash balances.
    • Gender and recovery pathways in the UK

      Andersson, Catrin; Wincup, Emma; Best, David; Irving, Jamie; Sheffield Hallam University; Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-12-16)
      Recovery is now the defining feature of UK drug and alcohol policy. Despite this policy emphasis, little attention has been paid to the lived experience of those in recovery. Instead, research has typically concentrated on treatment populations, which are predominantly male. Consequently, we have little insight into recovery experiences in general, and specifically how they might differ for females and males. This article makes an important contribution through offering a unique insight into the addiction/recovery pathways of 342 female and 410 male participants using data gathered via the UK Life in Recovery survey. Participants were recruited via social media and recovery groups. Bivariate analyses were used to explore gender differences in relation to personal characteristics, addiction and recovery (self-defined), well-being, and family life. These data suggest that a greater proportion of females in recovery report having specific needs in relation to mental health and relationships with children or partners whilst a greater proportion of males disclosed having specific needs in relation to physical health. Whilst the findings reflect the importance of ongoing support for everyone in recovery, they also suggest the need to provide gender-responsive recovery support.
    • Gender differences in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning in an offending and a matched non-offending population

      Spenser, Karin; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Sage, 2021-04-15)
      Previous research suggests that a lack of pro-social skills is characteristic of an offending personality. Two hundred male and female offenders and matched controls completed measures to assess: Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning. Significant differences between the offenders and the control group, as well as between the male and female participants, were detected in theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning with offenders scoring lower than the control group, and with males scoring lower than females on most tests. The ability to assess Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning, and subsequently to identify reduced ability, is not only useful for researchers but will also allow practitioners to tailor existing (or develop new) interventions specific to the needs of individuals. This could be particularly useful in terms of recidivism when applied to those involved in anti-social or offending behaviour.
    • Gender mainstreaming in South Korea – a critical analysis through discursive institutionalism around the issue of childcare

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (LHSS, University of Derby, 2016)
      The paper aims to reflect critically on the impact of the gender mainstreaming movement upon the issue of childcare in South Korea. To achieve this, I build on data generated from in-depth interviews with key policy actors who participated in relevant policy implementations as well as policy documents collected and analysed through a discursive institutionalism approach. The paper explores two aspects of gender mainstreaming discourse in South Korea and is especially related to the transfer of childcare duty from the Ministry of Welfare and Health to the Ministry of Gender Equality; how it was interpreted in front of politics (‘discourse as content’) and formulated at the back of it (‘discourse as process’). I argue that the discourse of gender mainstreaming around the transfer decision was variously approached by different policy interests and constrained by the dominant gender role regarding childcare (rhetoric policy dependency).
    • Gender, employment and careers in Pakistan

      Javed, S.; Syed, J.; Turner, Royce; University of Huddersfield (Edward Elgar, 2018)
      This chapter looks at women’s labour market position in Pakistan, and examines the religio-cultural, economic and legal factors that determine and affect their career progress. The context is a long-established tradition of a lack of female participation in formal, paid employment (though many do work in a vast ‘informal sector’); a clear division in the economic sectors in which men and women are active; and a stark contrast between men and women in the labour market hierarchy. It is noted, however, that economic necessity, technological change and a trend to delay marriages are militating to promote female participation in economic activity, and that women’s empowerment schemes, examined in the chapter, will also contribute to this. Undoubtedly, these factors and interventions will make a difference to many individual women’s lives, but whether they are sufficient to promote wider change in the economic structure remains in question.
    • Generating and sustaining value through guided tour experiences’ co-creation at heritage visitor attractions

      Azara, Iride; Bezova, Kamila; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis Group, 2021-02-11)
      Experience co-creation has been acknowledged as an important process to generate and sustain value. However, research in the arena of heritage visitor attractions remains limited. A qualitative cross-sectional design was used to assess UK heritage attractions providers’ engagement with guided tour experiences’ cocreation and the barriers faced in the adoption of this process. Findings from 11 interviews with visitor experience managers show most of the heritage attraction providers engage in processes of guided tour experience “co-production” rather than “co-creation”. Barriers include limited knowledge, and “knowhow” of value co-creation processes; financial, time, and human resource constraints. Importantly, findings show visitors’ satisfaction with current arrangements influence the type of tour offering. This study reveals the need to further investigate heritage audiences’ variations in preferences and suggests better sector integration in terms of knowledge sharing and best practice to fully explore the benefits and worth of value cocreation in this tourism sector.
    • Genocide: punishing a moral wrong

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Bradford (2009)
    • The geographical impact of the Covid-19 crisis on precautionary savings, firm survival and jobs: Evidence from the United Kingdom’s 100 largest towns and cities

      Brown, Ross; Cowling, Marc; University of St Andrews; University of Derby (SAGE Journals, 2021-01-28)
      In this commentary, we trace the economic and spatial consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic in terms of potential business failure and the associated job losses across the 100 largest cities and towns in the United Kingdom (UK). The article draws on UK survey data of 1500 firms of different size classes examining levels of firm-level precautionary savings. On business failure risk, we find a clear and unequal impact on poorer northern and peripheral urban areas of the UK, indicative of weak levels of regional resilience, but a more random distribution in terms of job losses. Micro firms and the largest firms are the greatest drivers of aggregate job losses. We argue that spatially blind enterprise policies are insufficient to tackle the crisis and better targeted regional policies will be paramount in the future to help mitigate the scarring effects of the Covid-19 pandemic in terms of firm failures and the attendant job losses. We conclude that Covid-19 has made the stated intention of the current government’s ambition to ‘level up’ the forgotten and left-behind towns and cities of the UK an even more distant policy objective than prior to the crisis.
    • The geography of business angel investments in the UK: Does local bias (still) matter?

      Cowling, Marc; Brown, Ross; Lee, Neil; University of Derby; University of St Andrews; London School of Economics and Political Science (SAGE Publishing, 2021-01-20)
      Business angels (BAs) - high net worth individuals who provide informal risk capital to firms - are seen as important providers of entrepreneurial finance. Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that the need for face-to-face interaction will ensure angels will have a strong predilection for local investments. We empirically test this assumption using a large representative survey of UK BAs. Our results show local bias is less common than previously thought with only one quarter of total investments made locally. However, we also show pronounced regional disparities, with investment activity dominated by BAs in London and Southern England. In these locations there is a stronger propensity for localised investment patterns mediated by the ‘thick’ nature of the informal risk capital market. Together these trends further reinforce and exacerbate the disparities evident in the UK’s financial system. The findings make an important contribution to the literature and public policy debates on the uneven nature of financial markets for sources of entrepreneurial finance.
    • A gift or a waste? Quintavalle, surplus embryos and the Abortion Act 1967.

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-06)
      The destruction of an embryo must be justified in law. This is to prevent frivolous wastage and to show the respect afforded by the Warnock Report (1984). For example, embryonic destruction during pregnancy is underpinned by the Abortion Act 1967, and embryonic destruction during fertility treatment is regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. However, following the appeal decision in R (Quintavalle) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (and Secretary of State for Health) [2005] 2 A.C. 561, embryos can now be created for a bone marrow tissue match to a sick sibling under the Human Fertility and Embryology Act 1990 according to the subjective desires of the mother. This opens the door to the first example of embryonic destruction on unique social-eugenic grounds with no clear lawful justification. It is argued that these embryos should be afforded a unique destruction provision under an amended version of section 1(1)(a) of the Abortion Act 1967 in light of their ‘social-eugenic’ nature. This would protect the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority from accusations of undercover eugenic practices and reinstate the respect shown towards embryos in law.
    • Gillick, bone marrow and teenagers

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Derby (2015)
      The Human Tissue Authority can authorise a bone marrow harvest on a child of any age if a person with parental responsibility consents to the procedure. Older children have the legal capacity to consent to medical procedures under Gillick, but it is unclear if Gillick can be applied to non-therapeutic medical procedures. The relevant donation guidelines state that the High Court shall be consulted in the event of a disagreement, but what is in the best interests of the teenage donor under s.1 of the Children Act 1989? There are no legal authorities on child bone marrow harvests in the United Kingdom. This article considers the best interests of the older saviour sibling and questions whether, for the purposes of welfare, the speculative benefits could outweigh the physical burdens.
    • The global crime drop and changes in the distribution of victimisation

      Pease, Ken & Ignatans, Dainis; University of Derby (Springer, 2016-09-27)
      Over three decades crime counts in England and Wales, as throughout the Western world, have fallen. Less attention has been paid to the distribution of crime across households, though this is crucial in determining optimal distribution of limited policing resources in pursuing the aim of distributive justice. The writers have previously demonstrated that in England and Wales the distribution of crime victimisation has remained pretty much unchanged over the period of the crime drop. The present paper seeks to extend the study of changes in the distribution of victimisation. Over time using data from 25 countries contributing data to the International Crime Victimisation Survey (ICVS) sweeps (1989–2000). While fragmentary, the data mirror the trends discerned in England and Wales. The trends are not an artefact of the inclusion of particular countries in particular sweeps. The demographic, economical, geographical and social household characteristics associated with victimisation are consistent across time. The suggested policy implication is the need for greater emphasis on preventing multiple victimisation.
    • Growth in emerging economies: is there a role for education?

      Lenkei, Balint; Mustafa, Ghulam; Vecchi, Michela; Middlesex University London; Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Pakistan; Middlesex University London (Elsevier, 2018-04-01)
      We study the relationship between human capital and growth using a model which encompasses previous specifications and estimates the short and the long-run effects of human capital accumulation. We adopt an empirical framework which accounts for countries’ heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in a dynamic panel. Results for a sample of 14 Asian countries reveal a large and positive long-run impact of human capital on growth in the 1960–2013 period. Looking at different types of education we find that the diffusion of primary and secondary education has a positive long-run impact, while the long-run effect of tertiary education is negative. Low proportion of people educated at the tertiary level, lack of opportunities for highly educated workers and the brain drain phenomenon could explain this result. These results support policies directed towards increasing investments in primary and secondary education rather than focusing on a minority educated at the tertiary level.
    • Growth processes of high-growth firms as a four-dimensional chicken and egg

      Coad, A; Cowling, M; Siepel, J.; University of Brighton (Oxford Academic, 03/10/2016)
      This article investigates whether high-growth firms grow in different ways from other firms. Specifically, we analyze how firms grow along several dimensions (growth of sales, employment, assets, and operating profits) using Structural Vector Autoregressions. Causal relations are identified by using information contained in the (non-Gaussian) growth rate distributions. For most firms, the growth process starts with employment growth, which is then followed by sales growth, then growth of operating profits, and finally growth of assets. In contrast, high growth firms put more emphasis on growth of operating profits driving other dimensions of growth, with employment growth occurring at the end.
    • Growth, human development, and trade: the Asian experience.

      Mustafa, Ghulam; Rizov, Marian; Kernohan, David; Federal Urdu University; University of Lincoln; Middlesex University London (Elsevier, 2016-12-14)
      This study looks at the three-way relationship between economic growth, human development, and openness to trade in a large panel of developing Asian economies. Using a theoretically motivated simultaneous equations system, we find that although human development contributes positively to economic growth, in the case of our Asian sample growth does not appear to have had a positive influence on human development. Uneven growth accompanied by lagging institutional development, preventing human capital formation, might have inhibited human development in the short to medium run. Complementary to the literature showing that growth is sustainable only when accompanied by human development, we confirm a role for trade liberalisation policies in achieving higher growth as well as human development.
    • Guest introduction: Making sense of event experiences.

      Ramsbottom, Olivia; Michopoulou, Eleni; Azara, Iride; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
    • The Gülen Movement in the United Kingdom.

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Peter Lang AG, 2015)
    • Gülen on dialogue

      Sleap, Frances; Shener, Oemer; Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Centre for Hizmet Studies, 2014-05)
      This booklet is about the thought and practice espoused and practised by Fethullah Gülen and the Hizmet movement. Fethullah Gülen is one of the most important Muslim scholars of our time for whom dialogue is not just about overcoming problems of our globalising world but is necessitated by our very humanity and his Islamic faith. Therefore, dialogue is an ever present and underlying theme for Gülen in addition to being a particular area of thought and practice that he seeks to promote and develop. What is significant about Gülen, however, is that he is not just a scholar and thinker but also a doer who has inspired millions to think and act alongside him in what has now emerged as a civil society movement known as the Hizmet movement. As pointed out by editor Paul Weller, "Gülen does not teach a “liberal” or “modernist” version of Islam. Rather, his teaching offers a robust renewal of Islam that is engaged with the contemporary world. It is rooted in a deep knowledge of authentically Islamic sources." The fact that Gülen bases his ideas and thought (and by extension, the movement its practice) on authentically Islamic sources is significant at a number of levels – not least because it demonstrates how Muslims can engage and respond to modern ideas, culture and society while remaining true to their identity. This booklet provides a short biography of Gülen’s life in relation to his dialogue efforts and then goes on to study the main features and characteristics of his dialogue thought such as: love, tolerance, empathetic acceptance, positive action, and humility. It then explores how Gülen’s notion of dialogue, dialogically developed and practised by the Hizmet movement, is now being put into practice in different parts of the world. The section on practice concludes with a list of the twelve ‘dialogue principles’ developed by UK registered charity the Dialogue Society from Gülen’s teachings and the Hizmet movement’s practice.
    • Harvest of violence: the neglect of basic rights and the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Strathclyde (Taylor & Francis, 2013-09-26)
      Drawing on the core commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies, and mostly, the ethic of emancipation, this article focuses on the Boko Haram insurgency to investigate recurring violent conflict in Nigeria. It identifies a governance gap not adverted to in the official narrative which has led to gross discontent at the lower levels of the society. The governance gap has created fertile breeding grounds for the recruitment of disillusioned youths who are easily mobilised to violence and lately, insurgency. There are normative and pragmatic reasons to adopt and prioritise social welfare through the implementation of economic, social and cultural obligations and due-process rights as a viable approach to at least reducing the spate of violence in the country. The discussion has relevance for resolving situations of violence and conflict in sub-Sahara Africa in particular and elsewhere in the developing world.