• Darker Deals? Male Dark Tetrad preferences for female sex worker services

      Hughes, Sara; Adhikari, Joanna; Goulding, Katharine; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-06-24)
      The present study explored links between male Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism) and preferences for using outdoor and indoor female sex worker services. We also investigated the mediating effects of perceiving sex workers as deviant and as victims. Heterosexual males ( N = 347) were recruited to take part in an online survey investigating personality and attitudes towards female sex workers. Path analyses revealed that psychopathy and sadism positively predicted preferences for outdoor but not indoor female sex services. Sex worker choice mediated positive links between narcissism and outdoor female sex worker preferences. Compared to indoor, outdoor sex services are associated with increased aggression and violence. Our findings highlight the importance of considering narcissism and particularly psychopathy and sadism when investigating individual male preferences for outdoor sex services that are being offered by particularly vulnerable women.
    • Data completeness in healthcare: A literature survey.

      Liu, Caihua; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Zowghi, Didae; Daniel, Jay; University of Technology Sydney; University of Nevada (Association for Information Systems, 2017-09-19)
      As the adoption of eHealth has made it easier to access and aggregate healthcare data, there has been growing application for clinical decisions, health services planning, and public health monitoring with daily collected data in clinical care. Reliable data quality is a precursor of the aforementioned tasks. There is a body of research on data quality in healthcare, however, a clear picture of data completeness in this field is missing. This research aims to identify and classify current research themes related to data completeness in healthcare. In addition, the paper presents problems with data completeness in the reviewed literature and identifies methods that have been adopted to address those problems. This study has reviewed 24 papers (January 2011–April 2016) published in information and computing sciences, biomedical engineering, and medicine and health sciences journals. The paper uncovers three main research themes, including design and development, evaluation, and determinants. In conclusion, this paper improves our understanding of the current state of the art of data completeness in healthcare records and indicates future research directions.
    • Dead or alive? The role of personal characteristics and immediate situational factors in the outcome of serious violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Leiden University (Leiden University, 2014-12)
      Why do certain incidents of serious violence end lethally whereas others do not? What role do personal characteristics of offenders and victims play and how do immediate situational factors influence outcomes? So far, these questions have not been subjected to much empirical scrutiny in criminological studies. This study, conducted in the Netherlands, seeks to answer these questions by explicitly comparing violent events that ended lethally with those that ended non-lethally. By taking into account offenders’ and victims' personal characteristics as well as immediate situational factors, it offers a more complete understanding of differences in outcome. It shows that immediate situational factors contribute more significantly to the outcome of violent incidents than generally thought. The study also presents an overview of murder and manslaughter in the Netherlands and puts these figures into international perspective. A separate chapter compares different types of violent events. The findings provide crucial criminological insights which may also guide effor ts to reduce and prevent violent events from ending lethally in the future.
    • Dead or alive? The role of personal characteristics and immediate situational factors in the outcome of serious violence. American Society of Criminology, New Orleans, 16-19 Nov.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Nottingham Trent University (2016-11-17)
      This study explains why certain violent events end lethally while others do not. Is it on account of certain personal characteristics of those involved in these events – in particular, do offenders and/or victims have a criminal propensity, possibly reflected in their criminal history records? Or does it relate to certain immediate situational factors occurring during these incidents, such as weapon use, alcohol use, the presence of third parties or actors’ behavior? Or does a combination of both types of factors – i.e., criminal history and immediate situational factors – play a key role in differentiating lethal from non-lethal violent events? Although these questions are important for the understanding of serious violence in general, so far criminologists have not often addressed these questions simultaneously. This study – conducted in The Netherlands – has been designed to start filling this gap by focusing on the relationship between offenders’ and victims’ criminal history, immediate situational factors and lethal versus non-lethal outcomes of violent events. Based on data from criminal records and court files, findings show that immediate situational factors appear to be the most influential factor that contribute to the outcome of violent events, even more so than offenders’ and victims’ characteristics.
    • ‘Deal with it yourself?!’ The link between third parties’ involvement and the severity of conflict situations.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; University of Derby (2017-11-17)
      This study focuses on serious violent cases that happened in the presence of third parties (i.e. bystanders). Third parties are generally considered important for the understanding of violence. However, so far little empirical attention has been given to the role of third parties in serious violent events, leaving a major gap in our understanding. To fill this gap, this quantitative study aims to shed light on how third parties’ involvement – i.e. inactivity, settlement and partisanship – shapes the severity of violent conflicts and whether there is a link between victims’-offenders’ characteristics (e.g. age, gender and relationship) and third parties’ involvement. To achieve this, the study compares Dutch cases of lethal and nonlethal incidents that occurred in the presence of third parties. Based on an in-depth systematic examination of Dutch court files, findings reveal important differences between lethal and nonlethal violence in terms of third parties’ involvement, and that victims’ and offenders’ characteristics play a crucial role herein.
    • Decarbonising supply chain operations

      Daniel, Jay; Dissanayake, C. Kalpani; University of derby; Pennsylvania State University (IEOM Society International, 2021-08)
      The United Nations (UN) developed sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2015 to end poverty as a global agenda for the future to protect the planet, create peace and prosperity for its population. The UN emphasises the development should be balancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability. Also, nowadays governments, customers, and stakeholders’ pressure to remark environmental and social footprints have been increased. Decarbonising and sustainability of the supply chain is one of such novel ideas involving all the business value-adding operations. This includes purchasing, upstream, and downstream supply chains, distribution and collaboration with suppliers and patrons in a way that has the least negative environmental and social effects. To minimise energy consumption and carbon emissions in the supply chain operations we need to integrate carbon efficiency in suppliers, transportation, plants, distribution centers/warehouses all the way to the market. The main objective of this study is to investigate measuring eco-efficiency of suppliers in the supply chain with data envelopment analysis (DEA). It has the potential to minimise carbon footprints in the supply chain and to address the UN sustainability goals relating to creating a sustainable supply chain in measuring technical (operational), environmental and eco-efficiency of suppliers. In this paper, we model the necessity of simultaneous application of worst and best practice DEA in measuring eco-efficiency of suppliers to minimise carbon footprint in the supply chain. This model would help organisations to balance environmental, economic, and social sustainability in the supply chain in response to the UN sustainable development goals. It is found that this proposed model can provide a more reliable evaluation and selection of right suppliers considering their environmental and other traditional criteria. We also develop an integrated approach through DEA models for measuring technical (operational), environmental and ecoefficiency of suppliers. The proposed models are applied to evaluate the eco-efficiency of a manufacturing company in an automotive industry.
    • Decreasing investment-cash flow sensitivity: Further UK evidence

      Machokoto, Michael; Tanveer, Umair; Ishaq, Shamaila; Areneke, Geofry; University of Northampton; University of Bristol; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2019-12-12)
      Using publicly listed firms in the UK, we examine the time-series variation of investment-cash flow sensitivity after directly controlling for future growth opportunities in cash flow, which if overlooked, as in the literature, could bias inferences. We find that investment-cash flow sensitivity is disappearing over time, even for constrained firms during the global financial crisis when credit constraints were more significant or binding. Our results not only confirm the decline in investment-cash flow sensitivity that is not explained by factors so far identified in the literature but also its diminishing usefulness as a proxy of financial constraints.
    • Deficits in Theory of Mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning: a comparison between young offenders and non-offenders

      Spenser, Karin A.; Betts, Lucy R.; Das Gupta, Mani; Nottingham Trent University; Staffordshire University (Routledge, 2015-04-09)
      Previous research suggests a lack of pro-social skills is characteristic of an antisocial or offending personality. It is therefore reasonable to assume that an inadequate understanding of another's mental state may contribute to antisocial or offending behaviour. Forty-six young-adult male offenders and a control completed measures to assess: Theory of Mind (ToM), empathic understanding (EU) and moral reasoning. Significant differences in the performance of young-adult offenders and the control group were detected in ToM, EU and moral reasoning with young-adult offenders scoring lower than the control group. A positive association was also found between ToM, EU and moral reasoning. These findings contribute to a further understanding of how individuals make sense of, and respond to, the social world around them. The ability to measure ToM, EU and moral reasoning and subsequently identify any specific deficits, as well as recognise the link between these three key skills, is not only useful for researchers but it will also allow practitioners to tailor existing (or develop new) interventions specific to the needs of an individual. This could be particularly useful in terms of recidivism when applied to those involved in antisocial or offending behaviour.
    • Defining and conceptualizing cyberbullying.

      Spenser, Karin A.; Betts, Lucy R.; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2017-06)
      Although cyberbullying is undoubtedly a by-product of the union of adolescent aggression and electronic communication; it is it's propensity for growth which gives cause for concern for researchers and educational practitioners (Cassidy, Faucher, & Jackson, 2013). Further, empirical evidence reports that the impacts of cyberbullying include: distress (Li, 2010), loneliness (Sahin, 2012), depression (Tynes, Rose, & Williams, 2010), increased psychosomatic symptoms (Sourander et al., 2010), suicidal ideation (Hinduja & Patchin, 2010), and reduced academic performance (Smith et al., 2008). Despite this attention, many questions remain unanswered with regard to the conceptual and theoretical similarities between face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying. It is widely accepted that definitions of face-to-face bullying include aspects of repetition, power imbalance, and intention (Olweus, 2013). There are three forms of face-to-face bullying: physical, verbal, and social (Rigby, 1997). Physical bullying is a ‘direct’ form of aggression that involves hitting, punching, kicking, or any other action that can inflict physical pain or harm. The power imbalance between the perpetrator and the target in physical bullying makes it difficult for the target to defend themselves and prevent the actions being repeated (Rigby, 2002).
    • Defining contextual advantage: exploring the contextual relation between effectuation and entrepreneurial marketing for creating new markets effectually

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; Stephens, Paula; University of South Wales (Asia Pacific Institute of Advanced Research, 2016-01-12)
      The paper explores the behaviour of the Entrepreneur and the Effectual use of available resources mainly social capital in new market creation. The study dwells on creating a unique ‘Context’ by leveraging these resources to increase the Entrepreneurial orientation of a firm. The paper further attempts to explore whether the Contextual link between Effectuation and Entrepreneurial Marketing helps develop a ‘Contextual Advantage’, which can be used as a mean of developing a unique business model which differentiates the firm in the market. The paper hence explores contemporary theories of Entrepreneurship and Marketing namely Entrepreneurial Marketing, Effectuation and Contextual Marketing by studying their inter-relation. The nature of these theories is under-explored according to the authors and requires further investigation to evolve the field of Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    • Defining the Platform of Positive Peace

      Standish, Katerina; Devere, Heather; Suazo, Adan; Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021-07-23)
      After a brief introduction of typical notions of peace, this chapter ventures to trace the idea of positive peace in recent scholarship to establish how the term is utilized in the PACS world. It then endeavors to introduce each editorial domain within this handbook including a synopsis of each form of intervention theoretically followed immediately by a summary of the chapters that inhabit the PALGRAVE Handbook of Positive Peace.
    • Democratic transition, judicial accountability and judicialisation of politics in Africa: The Nigerian experience.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (Emerald, 2008-10)
      Purpose – This paper aims to examine the growing incidence of judicialisation of politics in Nigeria’s democratisation experience against the backdrop of questionable judicial accountability. Design/methodology/approach – The article draws on legal and political theory as well as comparative law perspectives. Findings – The judiciary faces a daunting task in deepening democracy and (re) instituting the rule of law. The formidable challenges derive in part from structural problems within the judiciary, deficient accountability credentials and the complexities of a troubled transition. Practical implications – Effective judicial mediation of political transition requires a transformed and accountable judiciary. Originality/value – The article calls attention to the need for judicial accountability as a cardinal and integral part of political transitions.
    • Derby car parking review

      Ghosh Dastidar, Sayantan; Lynch, Nicola; University of Derby (2017-02)
    • Derby Cathedral as a beacon: the role of the Church of England in tourism management.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (2015)
      In this research the role of the Cathedral is as a beacon inspiring and guiding community development. Good practice case studies in community collaboration, like the Cathedral's, are perceived as central and critical to the success of regeneration and development. The philosophical approach used engages the paradigms of community development (Moscardo, 2014; Ness, 2014; Goodson and Phillimore, 2012; Gilchrist and Taylor, 2011). A bottom-up, endogenous approach to development is perceived to deliver unique selling points to the community. An exogenous and centralist approach is perceived to deliver standardised outcomes that may not encourage actors to develop distinctive and special features for future strategies. This report measured the strength of the Cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Derby, in delivering community outcomes that reflect both the values, beliefs and aims of the Church of England and of the city. At the same time it identifies the structures required within the Cathedral to support these aims and objectives. A participatory action approach, rooted in social constructivism, is used to frame the investigation into delivery and operation (Mayo et al., 2013). With the active encouragement of participants at the Cathedral and within other specific organisations located in the City the future requirements of strategy and operations to deliver exceptional outcomes that encompass the good practices are explored. This approach incorporates analysis of community's beliefs, expectations and values. The model then creates a framework for supporting, advocating and co-creating a development agenda that has the Cathedral at its core. The model reflects on the achievements of the Cathedral, the structure needed to make those achievements, it sells the strategy for people to operate it, and it tells the stories of that strategy to reflect the output and outcomes and concludes with indicators for future development by the Cathedral. The paper concludes reflecting the increased social capital that is created in this approach.
    • Derbyshire Virtual School: Creative Mentoring Programme Final Report

      Nunn, Alexander; Turner, Royce; Adhikari, Joanna; Brooks, Catherine; University of Derby (Derby Virtual School, 2021-06)
    • The descent of nations: social evolutionary theory, modernism and ethno‐symbolism

      Kerr, William; University of Edinburgh (Wiley, 2019-01-30)
      This article explores the use of a revised conception of social evolutionary theory towards an understanding of nationalism. First, I review the debate between ethno‐symbolism and modernism, through the lens of the Warwick Debate between Gellner and Smith, arguing that both are partly right. Secondly, I outline what the revised conception of social evolution is looking first at its traditional conception before outlining a Darwinian view of social evolutionary theory. Finally, I examine how Darwinian social evolutionary theory can help fruitfully bring the ethno‐symbolic and modernist perspectives together. This is done by a sustained engagement primarily with the theories of Anthony Smith and Ernest Gellner pointing to how Darwinian social evolutionary theory can provide a link between the two theories that makes them mutually supportive rather than opposed.
    • Describing Disclosure of Cybervictimization in Adolescents from the United Kingdom: The Role of Age, Gender, Involvement in Cyberbullying, and Time Spent Online

      Betts, Lucy, R.; Spencer, Karin, A.; Baguley, Thom; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-30)
      Disclosing experiences of cybervictimization is an important first step in many anti-bullying interventions. Gender, age, cybervictimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, and time spent online were examined as factors that describe: (a) disclosing cybervictimization and (b) perceptions of helpfulness following disclosure. The sample comprised 750 (384 boys and 365 girls, Mage = 12.57 years, SDage = 1.25 years) 11- to 15-year-olds recruited from two schools. Participants completed self-report measures of cybervictimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, intent to disclose cybervictimization, who they thought would be helpful following disclosing cybervictimization, and technology use. Over 88% of the sample reported that they would disclose cybervictimization. Girls and those experiencing low levels of cybervictimization reported they would disclose cybervictimization. Those who were older, and girls reported that they thought friends would be helpful following a disclosure of cybervictimization, whereas those who were younger reported that parents and the police would be helpful. A Gaussian graphical model was used to further explore perceptions of helpfulness following disclosure of cybervictimization and highlighted a complex pattern between targets. The findings add to the growing evidence of the complexity around adolescents' propensity to disclose experiences of cybervictimization which has implications for anti-bullying interventions.
    • Desert island data: an investigation into researcher positionality

      Dean, Jon; Furness, Penny; Verrier, Diarmuid; Lennon, Henry; Bennett, Cinnamon; Spencer, Stephen; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Sheffield (SAGE Publications, 2017-06-22)
      The nature of qualitative research means that the personal values of an individual researcher can and do (unwittingly) shape the way in which they analyse data sets, and the resultant conclusions drawn. However this phenomenon is under-studied in social research and this article seeks to help rectify this. This article presents findings from a small research project focused on discourses of class, masculinity and work among British male comedians from working-class backgrounds, interviewed on the popular BBC Radio 4 radio programme Desert Island Discs. Six different researchers, from varying disciplinary, methodological and theoretical groundings, as well as from varying personal backgrounds, analysed three interview recordings and transcripts separately. All the researchers wrote up their individual analyses of these interviews and wrote reflexive pieces examining why they thought they approached the data as they did. The researchers then came together as a group to compare and contrast findings and approaches. The results from this study, including the discrepancies and distinctions and final group analysis, are reported alongside a thorough discussion of the project’s methodology. We find that the project evidenced how a diverse research team can bring out deeper and richer analyses, and was a refreshing way to try and answer questions of individual and collective positionality.
    • Desistance: A utopian perspective

      Patton, David; Farrall, Stephen; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-02-22)
      The written diaries of forty-three adult male respondents from a prison sample that had participated in a restorative justice intervention reveal a nuanced and dynamic process of desistance via their hopes and pains of anticipated desistance at the micro, meso and macro level. A utopian reading of the respondents’ hopes and pains of desistance is developed which reveal that their diaries express a utopian vision that is not just personal, but also inherently political, radical, collective and transformative. Their pains of desistance on the other hand, reveal a critique and condemnation of the current societal and structural apparatus. The necessity for radical and collective change is clear, if desisters and society are to reach their full potential.