• Balancing within three dimensions.

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (2017)
      Arising out of UK empirical research into religion, belief and discrimination, this paper argues that the three dimensional approach taken by the project to understanding and applying its findings is potentially applicable also in the wider European context. Arguably such an approach will enable a theological and social policy connection with respect to the Christian, secular, and religiously plural context of interreligious and wider social relations. In contrast to such an approach, a call for Christianity to retain a privileged central position within such social policy milieu does not adequately take account of the realities of a growing religious plurality as well as increasingly non-religious or otherwise secular dimensions of today's world. At the same time, strident campaigns for secular measures to be given priority do not take sufficient account of the substantial numbers of those who continue to identify with a religion in varied ways, or the relatively highly valued significance of religion found especially among cultural minorities. Further, any attempt to try to equalize the various religious traditions will run into the clearly different historical and social position of Christianity within Europe; while any of the apparently seductive options for the religions to form a united front, either apart from or over and against the secular, would likely result in damage to the theological and social health of all the religions. In contrast to these approaches, I argue that in both theology and social policy, a balancing of the Christian, secular and religiously plural dimensions is capable of facilitating the kind of evolutionary development that can mediate constructively between the importance of historical inheritance and the need for adaptive and creative change within interreligious and wider social relations.
    • Barack Obama: changing American criminal justice?

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (Taylor and Francis, 2009-12)
      Barack Obama's election as the USA's 44th president signalled the end of an era of entrenched conservatism in American government. Following his inauguration on 20 January 2009, one fundamental question confronts anyone concerned with the state of American criminal justice. Energised by a wave of popular support, will the new president go down in history as someone who radically reformed America's overloaded criminal justice system?
    • Beauty and elegance: value co-creation in cosmetic surgery tourism

      Majeed, Salman; Zhou, Zhimin; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby; UiT, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (SAGE Publications, 2020-06-16)
      This study presents an emerging trend in medical tourism, cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore tourists’ perceptions of CST for medical service quality as an antecedent to tourists’ emotional attachment, trust, and intentions to visit, which is underexplored in CST. This study examines the mediating role of value co-creation in influencing behaviors of CST-seeking tourists to experience a better quality of life. Using a sample drawn from 279 tourists, comprised of Australian, Japanese, and Chinese nationalities at two international airports in China, findings show that perceived medical service quality positively influences tourists’ emotional attachment, trust, and intentions to visit directly and through the mediating role of value co-creation across the three nationalities. CST-seeking tourists’ inputs in value co-creation may positively influence their behaviors, which are vital antecedents to promoting CST business. Implications for future research are discussed.
    • Behavior displayed by female victims during rapes committed by lone and multiple perpetrators.

      Woodhams, Jessica; Hollin, Clive R.; Bull, Ray; Cooke, Claire; University of Birmingham; University of Leicester; University of Gloucestershire (American Psychological Association, 2012-08)
      Research with both the general public and members of the criminal justice system reports a pervasive rape myth of a violent offender and a physically resistant victim. Despite research being conducted on victims' postrape behavior, few studies have examined victim behavior during sexual assaults, and many of those which have been conducted have tended to focus on physical resistance. This article reports two studies that examined qualitatively the behavior of female rape victims during sexual assaults. The first study is an analysis of 78 stranger sexual assaults, committed in the United Kingdom, by male offenders. The second study is an analysis of 89 allegations of stranger rape, again from the United Kingdom, perpetrated by multiple male suspects. Information about victim behavior was extracted from victims' accounts made to the police. More than 100 different victim behaviors were identified in each study, and more than 80 behaviors were common across studies. Myth-congruent behaviors were present in the sample; however, the behaviors engaged in by victims were complex and diverse. Indirect and face-saving communications were used by victims and are discussed in terms of expectations regarding victim behavior and rape stereotypes. The implications of the findings for training legal professionals, educating jurors, and counseling victims are discussed.
    • Behavioural thatcherism and nostalgia: tracing the everyday consequences of holding thatcherite values

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; Hay, Colin; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Palgrave, 2020-01-21)
      With the passing of time and the benefit of hindsight there is, again, growing interest in Thatcherism – above all in its substantive and enduring legacy. But, to date at least, and largely due to data limitations, little of that work has focussed on tracing the behavioural consequences, at the individual level, of holding Thatcherite values. That oversight we seek both to identify more clearly and to begin to address. Deploying new survey data, we use multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling to unpack the relationship between ‘attitudinal’ and ‘behavioural’ Thatcherism. In the process we reveal the considerably greater behavioural consequences of holding neo-liberal, as distinct from neo-conservative, values whilst identifying the key mediating role played by social, political and economic nostalgia. We find that neo-liberal values are positively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism, whilst neo-conservative values are negatively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism. In exploring the implications we also reveal some intriguing interaction effects between economic nostalgia and neo-conservative values in the centre-left vote for Brexit. In the conclusion we reflect on the implications of these findings for our understanding of the legacy of Thatcherism and, indeed, for Brexit itself.
    • Behind the confession: Relating false confession, interrogative compliance, personality traits, and psychopathy

      Larmour, Simon R.; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Gillen, Christopher T. A.; Forth, Adelle E.; Carleton University; Institute of Criminology (Springer, 2014)
      The present study further supports the established notion that personality traits contribute to the phenomenon of false confessions and compliance in an interrogative setting. Furthermore, the study provides an investigation into the more recent interest in the potential effect of psychopathic traits in this context. A sample of university students (N = 607) completed questionnaires measuring psychopathic traits, interrogative compliance, and the big five personality factors. Of these, only 4.9% (n=30) claimed to have falsely confessed to an academic or criminal offense, with no participant taking the blame for both types of offense. Across measures the big five personality traits were the strongest predictors of compliance. The five personality traits accounted for 17.9 % of the total variance in compliance, with neuroticism being the strongest predictor, followed by openness and agreeableness. Psychopathy accounted for 3.3% of variance, with the lifestyle facet being the only significant predictor. After controlling for the big five personality factors, psychopathy only accounted for a small percentage of interrogative compliance, indicating that interrogators should take into account a person’s personality traits during the interrogation.
    • Beyond Expansion or Restriction? Models of Interaction between the Living Instrument and Margin of Appreciation Doctrines and the Scope of the ECHR

      Ita, Rachael; Hicks, David; De Montfort University; University of Derby (Brill, 2021-06-23)
      The living instrument doctrine of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is criticized as restricting the margin of appreciation of States and expanding the scope of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Systematic examination of this claim is usually overlooked in the context of the relationship between the admissibility and merits phase of ECtHR cases. This paper considers this claim in the context of jurisdictional arguments on incompatibility ratione materiae (subject matter outside the scope of the Convention) and the link to the merits of the case. Case law of the ECtHR from January 1979 to December 2016 is assessed to elaborate four models of interaction between the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines. This paper argues the need to go beyond consideration of expansion and restriction of the scope of the ECHR, and to assess the Court’s appetite for allocating new duties to States based upon the case arguments and positioning of living instrument and margin of appreciation doctrines.
    • Beyond the policy rhetoric: the limitations of gender mainstreaming in South Korea relating to women and childcare

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-12-26)
      This article examines the limitations of the gender mainstreaming discourse regarding the issue of childcare by women in South Korea, an area of responsibility that was transferred from the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) to the Ministry of Gender Equality (MGE)1 in 2003. Through employing a discursive institutionalism approach, this article articulates that whilst the gender mainstreaming discourse has been interpreted at the surface level of politics, it has been formulated differently behind the scenes due to various policy interests. I argue that the discourse has remained at the level of superficial political rhetoric with underdeveloped understanding about the relationship between childcare and gender, thus retaining a stereotypical view of women as caregivers.
    • BIM-based deconstruction tool: Towards essential functionalities

      Akinade, Olugbenga O.; Oyedele, Lukumon O.; Omoteso, Kamil; Ajayi, Saheed O.; Bilal, Muhammad; Owolabi, Hakeem A.; Alaka, Hafiz A.; Ayris, Lara; Henry Looney, John; Bristol Enterprise, Research and Innovation Centre; et al. (2017-06)
      This study discusses the future directions of effective Design for Deconstruction (DfD) using BIM-based approach to design coordination. After a review of extant literatures on existing DfD practices and tools, it became evident that none of the tools is BIM compliant and that BIM implementation has been ignored for end-of-life activities. To understand how BIM could be employed for DfD and to identify essential functionalities for a BIM-based deconstruction tool, Focus Group Interviews (FGIs) were conducted with professionals who have utilised BIM on their projects. The interview transcripts of the FGIs were analysed using descriptive interpretive analysis to identify common themes based on the experiences of the participants. The themes highlight functionalities of BIM in driving effective DfD process, which include improved collaboration among stakeholders, visualisation of deconstruction process, identification of recoverable materials, deconstruction plan development, performance analysis and simulation of end-of-life alternatives, improved building lifecycle management, and interoperability with existing BIM software. The results provide the needed technological support for developing tools for BIM compliant DfD tools.
    • The bitter end: apocalypse and conspiracy in white nationalist responses to the Islamic State attacks in Paris.

      Wilson, Andrew Fergus; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-11-21)
      Wilson's article examines how apocalyptic thinking converges with the use of conspiracy theory in white nationalist world-views at a time of crisis. Apocalyptic thinking is, typically, a religious response to secular threats to the faith community that prophesize, or are attendant on, the End. These millenarian outlooks provide communities in crisis a promise of confirmation of the object of their faith, the vanquishing of enemies and, crucially, continuity for the community in a better world to come. In the latter half of the twentieth century and the early years of the twenty-first, apocalypticism and conspiracy theory have tended to coincide. The tendency towards a binary distinction between terms of absolute good and absolute evil, and the revelation of secrets relating to human destiny through prophesy or ‘truth-seeking’ provide a broad transposability between the two interpretative strategies. An increasing amalgamation of political paranoia and eschatology have given rise to what has been termed ‘conspirituality’. Much recent white nationalist rhetoric can be understood as emerging from this discursive position, and Wilson's analysis will demonstrate how one white nationalist community drew on conspiratorial apocalypticism in its response to the multiple attacks by Islamic State in Paris on 13–14 November 2015.
    • Blockchain in supply chain management: Australian manufacturer case study

      Abou Maroun, Elias; Daniel, Jay; Zowghi, Didar; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; University of Technology Sydney; University of Derby; University of Nevada (ASSRI and Springer, 2019-10-06)
      The recent explosion of interest around Blockchain and capabilities of this technology to track all types of transaction more transparently and securely motivate us to explore the possibilities Blockchain offers across the supply chain. This paper examines whether Blockchain makes a good fit for use in an Australian manufacturer supply chain. To address this, the research uses Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a framework from the literature. Blockchain allows us to have permissioned or permission-less distributed ledgers where stakeholders can interact with each other. It details how Blockchain works and the mechanism of hash algorithms which allows for greater security of information. It also focuses on the supply chain management and looks at the intricacies of a manufacturers supply chain. We present a review of the processes in place of an electrical manufacturer and the problems faced in the supply chain. A model is proposed in using public and private Blockchains to overcome these issues. The proposed solution has the potential to bring greater transparency, validity across the supply chain, and improvement of communication between stakeholders involved. We also point out some potential issues that should be considered if adopting Blockchain.
    • Body-worn cameras: determining the democratic habitus of policing.

      Cayli, Baris; Hargreaves, Charlotte; Hodgson, Philip; University of Derby (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018-10-08)
      Purpose – This study advances our knowledge about the effectiveness of body-worn cameras (BWCs) through exploring the perceptions of English police officers in three principal areas: (i) positive perceptions, (ii) negative perceptions, and (iii) evidence-focused perceptions. In doing so, this study aims to shed new light on the democratising process in the habitus of policing. Design/methodology/approach – This study presents a novel dataset that evaluates the introduction of BWC to police officers in the East Midlands area of England. We conducted an extensive survey to explore the perceptions of 162 police officers about the BWCs. We examine our empirical data using Stata within the theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu concerning the concept of habitus. Findings – We have found that most police officers perceive that BWCs have a positive impact on policing practices and evidence collection. The positive perceptions and evidence-focused perceptions increase the importance of BWCs; however, there are also negative perceptions regarding effective policing, administrative functionality, and establishing a better relationship with the community. We argue that all three areas: (i) positive perceptions, (ii) negative perceptions and (iii) evidence-focused perceptions play a stimulating role to democratise the habitus of policing. On the other hand, BWCs do not guarantee the consolidation of democratic principles in the habitus of policing because of the authority of police to decide when, where, and how to use BWCs. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to the perceptions of 162 police officers in East Midlands before they actually started using it. A future study to analyse their real-life experiences after using the BWCs may help us to compare their perceptions before using it with real-life experiences after BWCs are used. In addition, a comparative approach between countries in future research will help to explain the role of technological applications in different social geographies and legal systems Originality/value – This study offers new insights about the perceptions of police on BWCs before they started using them. We introduce the democratic habitus of policing as an innovative concept and explore power dynamics in the habitus of policing through BWCs. Our findings provide a strong empirical contribution to determine the conditions of democratic habitus of policing. In doing so, this study develops our theoretical knowledge about the habitus concept in sociology by employing BWCs in policing activities.
    • Book review: Cultural tourism

      Azara, Iride; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-11-05)
      Review of Cultural Tourism (2nd ed.), edited by Hilary du Cros and Bob McKercher, Abingdon, Routledge, 2014, 270 pp., £33.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0415833974
    • Brexit: A colonial boomerang in a populist world

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby; Coventry University; Regent's Park College, Oxford University (2019)
      This article argues that there are important connections between what is happening in Brexit and matters with which people in the Two Thirds World have long experience. It posits that a serious understanding of the roots of the Brexit crisis requires an analytical engagement with the cross-currents that swirl between the UK's global imperial and colonial inheritance and some of the key trends and issues arising from the highly varied, ambiguous, but also irresistible contemporary forces of globalisation resulting from what the British historian Arnold Toynbee called “the annihilation of distance”. ‘Brexit’ has shaken up political configurations and complacency about what English politicians for too long have tended to refer to in an unconsciously culturally and politically assimilationist way as “the nation” when, as a matter of both historical fact and contemporary reality, the present UK state is a specific configuration of nations within a single state that was created as part of an overall “internal” trajectory of a colonial and imperial enterprise that was rolled out into the wider world. If this analysis is accepted then it is not surprising that issues relating both to Scotland and to Northern Ireland have been playing a very big role in the present Brexit crisis. The published article is an abridged form of an unpublished longer paper on "Roots, Routes, and Times of Decision: Brexit, Populisms, Colonialism and Imperialism in Global Perspective", which is downloadable open access from https://pure.coventry.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/23840319/Roots_Routes_and_Times_of_Decision_long_form_article.pdf. Finally, the article argues that it is likely that those of us who live and work in the UK will need to call in aid against our temptation to despair, the analytical, spiritual and practical resources that sisters and brothers from the ‘Two Thirds world’ have developed over several centuries of understanding the destructive phenomena of colonialism and imperialism, and in identifying some possible ways to overcome them.
    • Bringing cross-disciplinarity to the fore: a methodological framework for leadership in destination management organisations

      Hristov, Dean; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Monash University (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018-07-27)
      Grounded in three core paradigms from the mainstream organizational literature _ namely destination management organizations (DMOs) and destinations; leadership and distributed leadership (DL); and network theory and SNA _ this chapter puts forward and discusses a cross-disciplinary, three-phase methodological framework for the study of the enactment and practice of DL in contemporary DMOs.
    • Building addiction recovery capital through online participation in a recovery community

      Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Best, David; Iqbal, Muhammad; Upton, Katie; Western Sydney University; Sheffield Hallam University; Monash University; Job, Friends and Houses, UK (Elsevier BV, 2017-09-30)
      This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building – as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions – and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program. To map how participants interact online, social network analysis (SNA) based on naturally occurring online data (N = 609) on the Facebook page of a recovery community was conducted. Computerised linguistic analyses evaluated sentiment of the textual data (capturing social identity markers). Linear regression analyses evaluated whether indicators of recovery capital predict program retention. To illustrate the findings in the context of the specific recovery community, presented are two case studies of key participants who moved from the periphery to the centre of the social network. By conducting in-depth interviews with these participants, personal experiences of engagement in the online community of group members who have undergone the most significant changes since joining the community are explored. Retention in the program was determined by a) the number of comment 'likes' and all ‘likes' received on the Facebook page; b) position in the social network (degree of centrality); and c) linguistic content around group identity and achievement. Positive online interactions between members of recovery communities support the recovery process through helping participants to develop recovery capital that binds them to groups supportive of positive change.
    • Building bridges? South African foreign policy and trilateral development cooperation

      Masters, Lesley; Institute for Global Dialogue, UNISA (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-08)
      As questions concerning international development climb the international agenda, so countries find themselves drawn into a burgeoning number of negotiations on issues ranging from the future shape and direction of the post-2015 development agenda to ‘aid effectiveness’ and international development cooperation. Moving from the position of a ‘beneficiary’ state in the traditional donor–recipient aid hierarchy, South Africa is looking to define its own niche within the wider development diplomacy context as a development partner. This paper provides an assessment of South Africa’s evolving approach towards international development cooperation, with a particular focus on trilateral development cooperation, and what this means for Pretoria’s foreign policy in bridging the divide between developed and developing country positions within the international development regime.
    • Building Recovery Capital through Community Engagement: A Hub and Spoke Model for Peer-based Recovery Support Services in England

      Best, David; Higham, David; Pickersgill, Ged; Higham, Kerrie; Hancock, Richard; Critchlow, Theresa; University of Derby; The Well (Informa UK Limited, 2020-07-02)
      There is a growing evidence base that recovery is contagious and its primary mechanism of spread is through peer champions and groups. This paper examines a model of peer-based recovery support services from Cumbria, England, that uses a hub and spoke method to create visible recovery while actively engaging with and supporting community growth. Three case studies are used to illustrate how peer engagement, using the principles of community connection and assertive linkage, can offer core resources to a local community. The key conclusion is that sustainability of recovery communities rests on effective community engagement and meeting the needs of those communities.