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Neoliberalism, prisons and probation in the USA and England and WalesThe correctional populations of the USA and England and Wales have undergone substantial and relentless expansion over the last forty years. Throughout this period, these countries have also experienced neoliberal governments. This chapter aims to analyse the impact of those governments upon the criminal and community justice systems of the USA and of England and Wales with a particular focus on prisons, probation, and privatization, and to consider whether neoliberalism has undermined liberal and rehabilitative approaches.IIn particular, this chapter explore the way in which neoliberalism has prioritised punitiveness, de-prioritised rehabilitation, fostered a growing incarcerated population, and engaged in the pursuit of private profit at the expense of social justice within the carceral and probation systems.
Probation, people and profits: the impact of neoliberalismProbation's original reintegrative ethos is being eroded by neoliberal policies and the formation of a systematically marketised environment. There can now be little doubt that a momentous cultural shift is being engendered as probation is propelled swiftly down the road of privatization. The pace of change is fast. While this is a partial privatization (those assessed as posing the highest risk remain subject to public sector supervision), the eventual endgame of neoliberal political philosophy may be total privatization. Regardless of the rehabilitative rhetoric, the reality may be that the privatization of probation is about the deprioritisation of rehabilitation and penal-welfare intervention.