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Neoliberalism, prisons and probation in the USA and England and WalesThe correctional populations of the USA and England and Wales have undergone substantial and relentless expansion over the last forty years. Throughout this period, these countries have also experienced neoliberal governments. This chapter aims to analyse the impact of those governments upon the criminal and community justice systems of the USA and of England and Wales with a particular focus on prisons, probation, and privatization, and to consider whether neoliberalism has undermined liberal and rehabilitative approaches.IIn particular, this chapter explore the way in which neoliberalism has prioritised punitiveness, de-prioritised rehabilitation, fostered a growing incarcerated population, and engaged in the pursuit of private profit at the expense of social justice within the carceral and probation systems.