• An assessment of the prevent strategy within UK counter terrrorism and the implications for policy makers, communities and law enforcement

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2016-09-12)
      Prevent - the strategy - has become embedded in counter terrorism policy in the UK since 2007. It was reviewed and re-written in 2011 and has taken on even greater significance at the level of addressing questions of how to challenge and prevent 'radicalisation' in the context of managing security in the nation? This paper examines the tensions associated with the Prevent strategy and its legacy in the UK since 2007. It will explore the juxtaposition of policy making, which on one hand sees the means-ends solutions of avoiding further instances of terrorism at all costs, set against a potential community-based and local authority engagement model that foregrounds safeguarding against radicalisation and extremism in all its forms as a priority when working with communities across the country. There are apparent tensions in the emphasis of implementation and deliver of this strategy, which continue to challenge perceptions against the growing strengthening of fears associated with the erosion of civil liberties. The paper argues for a significant change in awareness of the behaviours and attitudes associated with 'radicalisation' and suggests policy could better reflect practice as we move through the second decade of the century.
    • Do We Need a New Legal Framework for Fighting Non-Conventional Wars? The International Law of War, Human Rights and the Global Fight Against Extremism and Terrorism

      Jegede, Francis; Todd, Malcolm; University of Derby (Global Science and Technology Forum, 2016-11-16)
      This paper examines the existing legal framework for fighting violent extremism and terrorism. Highlighting the inherent limitations of the current International Law of War in dealing with the growing challenges posed by terrorists and violent extremist groups, the paper discusses the problem facing military commanders, security agents, state actors and the international community in confronting extremist groups while upholding human rights values and respecting the law of war. The paper poses the question as to whether the current legal framework for dealing with extremist groups is sufficient without contravening the essential provisions and ethos of the International Law of War and Human Rights. Using examples, the paper examines how extremist groups flagrantly disregard the rule of law and disrespect human rights in their campaign of terror. The paper also notes instances in which the current Western strategy in fighting terrorism may be viewed or considered as conflicting with human rights and international law.
    • Evolutionary Psychology and Terrorism

      Taylor, Max; Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken; University of Derby (Routledge, 2016-08-24)
      The origins of this volume of collected papers lie in a series of concerns, perhaps not of great moment in themselves, but sufficient to suggest a general sense of unease about progress towards the understanding of terrorism and the terrorist. The first issue is recognition of how meagre is the contribution of psychology to that enterprise. Before the events of 9/11, terrorism was certainly recognized as a problem, but the academic response to it was limited and the topic attracted relatively few researchers from a narrow range of disciplines; there were even fewer researchers with a discipline base in psychology. Since 9/11 there has been an enormous outpouring of generously funded research, spawning papers and comment by scholars from a much wider range of disciplines. Arguably little of substance has emerged. Sageman (2014) critically commenting on the state of terrorism research, asserted that ‘……we are no closer to answering the simple question of “What leads a person to turn to political violence?” We concur. The factors that may be associated with engagement in terrorism are doubtless complex. They may be idiosyncratic, socially and or politically determined, or religiously motivated. Personally expressed reasons may be fundamental or incidental. The mosaic of reasons will vary over time. While we wallow in our ignorance, rates of recruitment into terrorism provide a striking metric suggesting that Sageman was indeed correct in his diagnosis.
    • Post crisis tourism: attitudes and perceptions of the risk society traveller

      Mandelartz, Pascal; University of Derby (UniversityPublications.net, 2012)
      This paper investigates a tourist segment which has been created out of Ulrich Beck’s Risk Society (1989, 2009). These travellers have been dubbed ‘Risk Society Travellers’. The paper follows Beck’s arguments of a society in which everyday life is increasingly governed by risks that have become incalculable, uncompensatable, unlimited, unaccountable and, most important of all, invisible to our senses. The contention is that people live with permanent non-knowing or with the simultaneity of threats and non-knowing and cannot grasp which concerns one should have and in what situations. These problems of risk and uncertainty pose dilemmas for us all (Mythen and Walklate, 2006). Therefore the nature of the tourism experience is investigated, which this study is trying to connect to post crises tourism in order to gain further understanding of the people that travel to such destinations. During the current times of crisis, in which headlines of terror and catastrophes are predominant in the media, each and every one of us still has to make choices, whether to travel and where to travel. The historical discussions and theoretical development in tourism suggests that catastrophes, such as terrorism and natural disasters impact negatively on tourists’ perception of a destination and therefore have a negative impact on the demand for such destinations. However, tourism numbers are still rising and are forecasted to rise in the future (WTO, 2012). This paper sheds light on the travellers within today’s risk society by use of a case study from Morocco’s post terrorist incident that occurred on 28th April 2011, where the ambivalence by the traveller to the notion of risk contradicts these earlier concepts and research findings. The tourists visiting destinations post-crisis are truly ‘Risk Society Travellers'
    • Towards a Deeper Understanding of 21st Century Global Terrorism

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2016)
      This paper examines essential issues relating to the rise and nature of violent extremism involving non-state actors and groups in the early 21st century. The global trends in terrorism and violent extremism are examined in relation to Western governments' counter terror operations. The paper analyses the existing legal framework for fighting violent extremism and terrorism and highlights the inherent limitations of the current International Law of War in dealing with the growing challenges posed by terrorists and violent extremist groups. The paper discusses how terrorist groups use civilians, women and children as tools and weapon of war to fuel their campaign of terror and suggests ways in which the international community could deal with the challenge of fighting terrorist groups without putting civilians, women and children in harm way. The paper emphasises the need to uphold human rights values and respect for the law of war in our response to global terrorism. The paper poses the question as to whether the current legal framework for dealing with terrorist groups is sufficient without contravening the essential provisions and ethos of the International Law of War and Human Rights. While the paper explains how terrorist groups flagrantly disregard the rule of law and disrespect human rights in their campaign of terror, it also notes instances in which the current Western strategy in fighting terrorism may be viewed or considered as conflicting with human rights and international law.
    • Violent extremism: Naming, framing and challenging.

      Harris, Emma Jane; Bisset, Victoria; Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Dialogue Society, 2015)
      To understand the causes of violent extremism, with a view ultimately to tackling them, this booklet argues that one must first consider the ways in which communication takes place about and around the subject. While knowledge of violent extremism and terror in the name of religion has increased exponentially over recent decades, the public and political language surrounding the issue has, generally speaking, failed to adapt accordingly. This publication aims to show how certain language frames can negatively contribute towards and reinforce major misunderstandings. The report first provides an overview of how relevant work in the field of cognitive linguistics and related approaches can aid and illuminate examples of problematic language use. It explains how terms such as ‘Islamism’ and ‘Islamist’ should not be used without first considering their etymological roots, and that the use of such terms can convey and conflate concepts distinct from their intended meaning. The issue of demands for Muslims to denounce acts of terror is then addressed and shown to be connected to the misuse of linguistic frames and terms which too easily tend in the direction of conflating Islam and Islam and which "other" Muslims, calling into question their civic loyalty and create stereotypes of "good Muslims" as "moderate Muslims". Finally, the report offers to politicians, policy makers and media organisations some recommended alternatives to currently used linguistic frameworks that are often used in discussing violent extremism, and commends some alternative narratives and approaches that can contribute to bringing about positive change in relation to this phenomenon.