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Has childcare become less of a burden in South Korea? Exploring the nature of pre-and post-reform childcare provisionThis paper aims to explore whether any changes in institutional settings and the conditions for care practice have occurred in South Korea following a notable policy shift in childcare provision that took place during the Roh Moo-hyun administration (2003-2007). In order to assess the changes, two dimensions of care provision are introduced: affordability and adequacy. Empirical evidence of what has transpired is discussed in the way of data from large scale national surveys and census reports. By comparing changes in employing childcare services on a longitudinal basis for the period 2002 to 2009, the paper critically evaluates the limitations of the policy changes with respect to these two dimensions. The comparison of the changes in the institutional settings and conditions in care practice for each year assist in evaluating where the policy has and has not altered the burden of childcare in Korea.