• Adolescents’ involvement in cyber bullying and perceptions of school: The importance of perceived peer acceptance for female adolescents.

      Betts, Lucy R.; Spenser, Karin A.; Gardner, Sarah E.; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2017-03-15)
      Young people are spending increasing amounts of time using digital technology and, as such, are at great risk of being involved in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim. Despite cyber bullying typically occurring outside the school environment, the impact of being involved in cyber bullying is likely to spill over to school. Fully 285 11- to 15-year-olds (125 male and 160 female, M age = 12.19 years, SD = 1.03) completed measures of cyber bullying involvement, self-esteem, trust, perceived peer acceptance, and perceptions of the value of learning and the importance of school. For young women, involvement in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school, and perceived peer acceptance mediated this relationship. The results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying negatively predicted perceived peer acceptance which, in turn, positively predicted perceptions of learning and school. For young men, fulfilling the bully/victim role negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school. Consequently, for young women in particular, involvement in cyber bullying spills over to impact perceptions of learning. The findings of the current study highlight how stressors external to the school environment can adversely impact young women’s perceptions of school and also have implications for the development of interventions designed to ameliorate the effects of cyber bullying.
    • Defining and conceptualizing cyberbullying.

      Spenser, Karin A.; Betts, Lucy R.; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2017-06)
      Although cyberbullying is undoubtedly a by-product of the union of adolescent aggression and electronic communication; it is it's propensity for growth which gives cause for concern for researchers and educational practitioners (Cassidy, Faucher, & Jackson, 2013). Further, empirical evidence reports that the impacts of cyberbullying include: distress (Li, 2010), loneliness (Sahin, 2012), depression (Tynes, Rose, & Williams, 2010), increased psychosomatic symptoms (Sourander et al., 2010), suicidal ideation (Hinduja & Patchin, 2010), and reduced academic performance (Smith et al., 2008). Despite this attention, many questions remain unanswered with regard to the conceptual and theoretical similarities between face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying. It is widely accepted that definitions of face-to-face bullying include aspects of repetition, power imbalance, and intention (Olweus, 2013). There are three forms of face-to-face bullying: physical, verbal, and social (Rigby, 1997). Physical bullying is a ‘direct’ form of aggression that involves hitting, punching, kicking, or any other action that can inflict physical pain or harm. The power imbalance between the perpetrator and the target in physical bullying makes it difficult for the target to defend themselves and prevent the actions being repeated (Rigby, 2002).
    • Developing the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales.

      Betts, Lucy R.; Spenser, Karin A.; Nottingham Trent University; Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom (Taylor and Francis, 2017-04-12)
      The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11–15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.
    • Examining the roles young people fulfill in five types of cyber bullying

      Betts, Lucy R.; Gkimitzoudis, Athanasios; Spenser, Karin A.; Baguley, Thom; Nottingham Trent University (Sage, 2016-09-14)
      The roles that young people fulfill in face-to-face bullying have been well documented and there is some evidence that young people take on similar roles in cyber bullying. A person-centered analytical approach was adopted to identify the roles that young people fulfill across five different types of cyber bullying assessed for up to nine media. Four hundred and forty (281 females and 154 males) 16- to 19-year-olds completed measures to assess their involvement in various types of cyber bullying and across the various media. Cluster analysis identified four distinct groups: “not involved,” “rarely victim and bully,” “typically victim,” and “retaliator.” Two thirds of the sample reported some involvement in cyber bullying. Distinct patterns emerged for each group according to the type of cyber bullying. The lack of a clear bully group and the presence of the retaliator group strengthen the growing evidence base that young people may cyber bully others as a mechanism of retaliation when they are the victim of cyber bullying.