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Critical review on social marketing planning approachesThis paper presents the first attempt to map and critically review existing social marketing planning approaches. The discussion highlights that existing social marketing planning approaches have moved on from older product-driven models towards a more customer/citizen-oriented, stakeholder engagement and value creation narrative. There is also a growing connection between social marketing planning approaches and theories from other disciplines. This recognises that a simple push marketing strategy, which was the working principle of many early social marketing-planning approaches, is not often effective for contemporary social marketing practice. Effective social marketing planning requires a greater emphasis on new social marketing principles derived from the new global consensus social marketing definition such as more citizen focus, sustainable outcomes, and ethical practice. Thus, highlighting a need for more comprehensive social marketing planning approaches with a better understanding of recent theory development of social marketing as a field in order to be relatable and efficient. The review sets out some original thinking about how planning in the field of social marketing can be strengthened through a more inclusive adoption of both system thinking analysis and integration with other fields of theory and practice that are seeking to influence behaviour for social good. This review is exploratory in nature and evaluates only 14 social marketing planning approaches; more social marketing approached exist and could be considered in further reviews.
Social Marketing: Advancing a New Planning Framework to Guide ProgrammesThis paper develops and presents a new planning framework of social marketing, known as CSD-IES (Consumer Research, Segmentation, Design of the Social Programme, Implementation, Evaluation and Sustainability). The proposed framework is based on recent theoretical developments in social marketing and is informed by the key strengths of existing social marketing planning approaches. The CSD-IES planning framework incorporates emerging principles of social marketing. For example, sustainability in changed behaviour, ethical considerations in designing social marketing programmes, the need for continuous research to understand the changing needs of the priority audience during the programme, and the need for explicit feedback mechanisms. Research Implications – The CSD-IES framework is a dynamic and flexible framework that guides social marketers, other practitioners, and researchers to develop, implement, and evaluate effective and sustainable social marketing programmes to influence or change specific behaviours based on available resources. This paper makes an important contribution to social marketing theory and practice by integrating elements of behaviour maintenance, consideration of ethical perspectives and continuous feedback mechanisms in developing the CSD-IES framework, bringing it in line with the global consensus definition of social marketing.