• Assessing risk factors for homicide victimisation in the Netherlands.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University (2017-03-01)
      This study explains why certain violent events end lethally while others do not. Is it on account of certain personal characteristics of those involved in these events – in particular, do offenders and/or victims have a criminal propensity, possibly reflected in their criminal history records? Or does it relate to certain immediate situational factors occurring during these incidents, such as weapon use, alcohol use, the presence of third parties or actors’ behaviour? Or does a combination of both types of factors – i.e., criminal history and immediate situational factors – play a key role in differentiating lethal from non-lethal violent events? Although these questions are important for the understanding of serious violence in general, so far criminologists have not often addressed these questions simultaneously. This study – conducted in The Netherlands – has been designed to start filling this gap by focusing on the relationship between offenders’ and victims’ criminal history, immediate situational factors and lethal versus non-lethal outcomes of violent events. Based on data from criminal records and court files, findings show that immediate situational factors appear to be the most influential factor that contribute to the outcome of violent events, even more so than offenders’ and victims’ characteristics.
    • The influence of criminal history on the likelihood of committing lethal versus nonlethal violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Liem, Marieke; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Leiden University; Harvard University; Leiden University, Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Leiden, The Netherlands; Harvard Kennedy School; Harvard University; Cambridge, MA; Leiden University, Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Leiden, The Netherlands; Leiden University, Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Leiden, The Netherlands (Sage, 2012-11-08)
      This study focuses on the criminal history of serious violent offenders. Our aim is to determine: (a) to what extent the criminal history of lethally violent offenders differs from nonlethally violent offenders and (b) to what extent one’s criminal history influences the likelihood that violence ends lethally. We use criminal record data of offenders convicted of lethal violence (i.e., homicide offenders, N = 2,049) and offenders convicted of nonlethal violence (i.e., attempted homicide offenders, N = 3,387). The results suggest that nonlethally violent offenders have a more severe criminal history and that offender’s criminal history can be influential in predicting lethal versus nonlethal outcomes.
    • The relationship between a person’s criminal history, immediate situational factors, and lethal versus non-lethal events.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University; Loughborough University, UK; Leiden University, The Netherlands; Leiden University, The Netherlands (Sage, 2015-07-20)
      When investigating serious violence, studies tend to look primarily at offenders and their background. This study investigates the influence of offenders’ and victims’ criminal history and immediate situational factors on the likelihood that violent events will end lethally. For this purpose, we compare lethal with non-lethal events, and combine Dutch criminal records with data from court files of those involved in lethal (i.e., homicide, n = 126) versus non-lethal events (i.e., attempted homicide, n = 141). Results reveal that both criminal history and immediate situational factors clearly matter for the outcome of violent events; however, immediate situational factors have the strongest effect on violent outcomes.
    • Violence unfolding. An exploration of the interaction sequence in lethal and non-lethal violent events.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University (Medwin Publishers, 2017-08-04)
      Violent events typically entail an interaction between an offender, a victim and a context. Many of these events involve different stages which can be decisive, and some eventually end fatally. To better understand the mechanisms leading to a lethal or non-lethal outcome of violent encounters, this explorative study investigates the interaction sequence during these serious violent events. Based on detailed analysis of 160 Dutch court files, this study uses an innovative methodology examining the unfolding of events that ultimately resulted in a lethal or a non-lethal outcome. Findings show differences in the interaction sequence, and especially when the role of third parties and subtypes of conflict (i.e. male-to-male violence and male-to-female intimate partner violence) are considered.