• Against all odds: Embedding new knowledge for event continuity and community well-being.

      Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, Peter; Greatorex, Jamie; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
      Ashbourne Royal Shrovetide Football (ARSF) is a sporting event that occurs yearly on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the market town of Ashbourne, in Derbyshire. Sometimes referred to as "mob football," Shrovetide can arguably be perceived as the quintessential sensorial and fully immersive event, being played out across town and involving the entire community. The event is also a unique tourism spectacle and a tool for tourism destination positioning. This article presents some of the results of a larger study that looks at challenges in the matter of events safety and the impacts that this has on event survival and the sustainable development of local communities. Findings highlight the need to support communities to learn from events in order to preserve them as they are essential for the maintenance of a unique and inimitable community identity.
    • Community-based tourism in the developing world: Community learning, development & enterprise

      Wiltshier, Peter; Clarke, Alan; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-10-16)
      This book analyses community-based approaches to developing and regenerating tourism destinations in the developing world, addressing this central issue in sustainable tourism practices. It reviews a variety of systems useful for analysing and understanding management issues to offer new insight into the skills and resources that are needed for implementation, ongoing monitoring and review of community-based tourism. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, this book explores alternatives to the dominant interpretation which argues against tourism as a benefit for community development. International case studies throughout the book illustrate and vouch for tourism as a transformative force while clarifying the need to manage expectations in sustainable tourism for community development, rejuvenation and regeneration. Emphasis is placed on accruing relevant decision-support material, and creating services, products and management approaches that will endure and adapt as change necessitates. This will be of great interest to upper-level students, researchers and academics in the fields of tourism impacts, sustainability, ethics and development as well as the broader field of geography.
    • Creating and storing a toolkit for pilgrimage and religious tourism sites.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2017)
      This paper reflects our abiding interest in our origins and of those religious and pilgrimage spaces that we attest to actively being part of our cultural inheritance. It explores options for, and barriers to, the creation of a repository of information to support practitioners and the clergy to maintain and develop these religious and pilgrimage sites. A model toolkit for storing collected knowledge is presented with illustrative examples from a range of sources. The examples used are largely drawn from a Northern / Western perspective.
    • Derby Cathedral as a beacon: the role of the Church of England in tourism management.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (2015)
      In this research the role of the Cathedral is as a beacon inspiring and guiding community development. Good practice case studies in community collaboration, like the Cathedral's, are perceived as central and critical to the success of regeneration and development. The philosophical approach used engages the paradigms of community development (Moscardo, 2014; Ness, 2014; Goodson and Phillimore, 2012; Gilchrist and Taylor, 2011). A bottom-up, endogenous approach to development is perceived to deliver unique selling points to the community. An exogenous and centralist approach is perceived to deliver standardised outcomes that may not encourage actors to develop distinctive and special features for future strategies. This report measured the strength of the Cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Derby, in delivering community outcomes that reflect both the values, beliefs and aims of the Church of England and of the city. At the same time it identifies the structures required within the Cathedral to support these aims and objectives. A participatory action approach, rooted in social constructivism, is used to frame the investigation into delivery and operation (Mayo et al., 2013). With the active encouragement of participants at the Cathedral and within other specific organisations located in the City the future requirements of strategy and operations to deliver exceptional outcomes that encompass the good practices are explored. This approach incorporates analysis of community's beliefs, expectations and values. The model then creates a framework for supporting, advocating and co-creating a development agenda that has the Cathedral at its core. The model reflects on the achievements of the Cathedral, the structure needed to make those achievements, it sells the strategy for people to operate it, and it tells the stories of that strategy to reflect the output and outcomes and concludes with indicators for future development by the Cathedral. The paper concludes reflecting the increased social capital that is created in this approach.
    • An evaluation of practitioners’ views of consultancy and applied research at the University of Derby

      Edwards, Mike; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (2013)
      The aim of this research has two objectives; firstly, to evaluate the development of cognitive, transferable and intellectual skills in Higher Education students, secondly, to transfer that knowledge by means of collaboration with community organisations. Experiential learning and regeneration/diversification project work is needed by all communities. The collaboration is built upon our ability to provide graduates and a community with portfolios of independent evidence of achievement obtained from working with a partner organisation. The work-related learning supports the Community Charitable Trust “New Opportunities Wirksworth” in the market town of Wirksworth, Derbyshire through the delivery of specially negotiated work-based learning. Teaching, learning and assessment in Higher Education use problem-based learning, especially in vocation-specific domains that is usually undertaken using a constructivist approach. Such constructivist methodologies are often predicated, for students and for teachers, on the delivery of experiential, entrepreneurial and applied skills. Students are seen as short-changed if they are not engaging with Problem Based Learning from lecturers working at the ‘frontiers of knowledge’. We also acknowledge that Problem Based Learning provides an opportunity for producing outcomes in new knowledge for students and communities that is highly usable when compared to memory-based learning . So, in this research we directed and managed a cadre of students to consider PBL as experiential and practical learning. The project meets the contemporary employability agenda through the application of PBL and knowledge transfer to our specific organisation, ‘Wirksworth NOW!’. The outcomes and outputs of the collaboration have applications in NOW’s core cluster components for community regeneration: arts, creative industries and culture, trade and tourism, education and training, youth. Keywords Problem-based
    • Health and welfare at the boundaries: community development through tourism

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Emerald, 2019-12-30)
      Concepts of health and wellbeing have long been conceived as relevant to leisure, recreation and rejuvenation. These are now conceived as being necessary and useful as potential measures of success in community development and in that subset of leisure and recreation pursuits that is designated as tourism at a destination. The paper aims to discuss this issue. A post-modern approach to development of community and markers of sustainable development more-or-less correspond to sustainable development goals (there are 17) that often overlay the concepts of good health and wellbeing that concern all stakeholders. This paper encompasses best practice experiences from two case studies conducted in a tourism “hot spot” in the environs of the first National Park established in Derbyshire in the UK. There is some urgency about this topic as resources for community development are increasingly under pressure from local, central government and the expectation is now that local communities take full responsibility for that development. An inter-disciplinary approach using concepts of health and wellbeing is recommended. Wellbeing may demand a greater allocation of scarce resources in an era of self-determination, bottom-up and locally sourced community aspiring to become, or remain, a destination of choice. Two case studies’ outcomes in this development are presented with a special focus on creation of a repository for the know-how and know what of the learning acquired.
    • Legacies from nurturers in tourism; Inspiring people for communities.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (The University of Aveiro, 2017)
      In this paper a review of pre-requisites for supply side competency in developing community based tourism is offered. Using an interpretive and phenomenological approach, the skills, aptitudes and capacity to nurture within the community, are considered in a focus on improving a destination’s ability to sustain tourism as an element of development. This development agenda is dependent on marshalling an array of skills in a complex, differentiated and individualised marketplace. It is difficult to achieve triple-bottom line sustainability without acknowledging key skills in nurturing planning, policy interpretation, building of networks and partnerships, building relationships with other hosts in the community, understanding and interpreting triple-bottom line sustainability, mentoring others, understanding lifestyle choices, innovating whilst at all times enjoying and living a chosen life (Tinsley and Lynch, 2001). Nine UK based informants prioritise the antecedents of successful tourism development from a community based approach. This paper seeks to identify and illuminate practices amongst stakeholders termed ‘nurturers’ that develop tourism and destinations through excitement of image and identity, engagement of many and often diverse groups of people, capturing values and beliefs that are often inimitable and working with supportive public sector stakeholders.
    • Lessons learned: knowledge management and tourism development

      Clarke, Alan; Raffay, Agnes; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Routledge, 2012-07-02)
    • Losing IT: knowledge management in development projects

      Clarke, Alan; Raffay, Agnes; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Pannonia (University of the Aegean, 2009)
      Knowledge management and the development of the destination’s capacity of the intellectual skills needed to use tourism as an effective tool in the search for regeneration and development are central themes explored within this paper. The authors have lived and worked with the problems inherent in short term funding of special projects designed to achieve or facilitate tourism development. We have witnessed with growing sadness the results – and the lack of them – as funding cycles end and staff with experience move away. Development processes require multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels, bringing together governments, NGOs, residents, industry and professionals in a partnership that determines the amount and kind of tourism that a community wants (Sirakaya et al., 2001). Planners need to provide knowledge sharing mechanisms to residents, visitors, industry and other stakeholders in order to raise public and political awareness. We note an absence of literature relating to the capacity of communities to learn from short-term funded projects that inherently are destined to provide a strategic blueprint for destination development and in most cases regeneration through community-based tourism action.
    • Management Practices for the Development of Religious Tourism Sacred Sites: Managing expectations through sacred and secular aims in site development; report, store and access

      Wiltshier, Peter; Griffiths, Maureen; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2016)
      Through a distillation of practices reflective of the extant literature and socio-economic approaches to inclusive development of sites of religious experiences and worship, we posit that there are seven core conceptual approaches to support evolving site management needs. Therefore, developing sites of special significance necessarily requires the dissemination and sharing of both intellectual and practical contributions to meet those needs in a planned and stakeholder-driven approach. Traditional approaches to development emerged half a century ago with a focus on core competencies and the agreed understanding that open and fair competition would raise quality and assure reasonable profit margins. Creating awareness of services and products and mapping those to our marketing practices are the first two tools in the toolkit. Analysis and synthesis through primary research enables cleric and manager to grasp visitors’ and worshippers’ needs and develop audiences for sites. Fourthly we present the importance of maintenance and plans for developing sites to accommodate factors in both internal and external environments that acknowledge the requirement to remain competitive. Next, the importance of networks, grappling with the wider community and perhaps establishing a wider, even global, reach, is appraised as important. In seeking to tap into resources traditionally not employed in managing religious and pilgrimage sites we elevate the need for an enterprise culture (this enterprise culture is seen in the other papers in this special issue). The final offer includes dimensions of volunteering, nontraditional support networks, altruism and philanthropy which we name as ‘the third way'.
    • Managing knowledge transfer partnership for a rural community: the outcomes at Wirksworth, UK

      Wiltshier, Peter; Edwards, Mike; University of Derby (2014)
      Purpose – This paper aims to propose a knowledge transfer partnership (KTP) model, using higher education (HE) students researching in the UK. It is focused on community engagement via charitable trusts, New Opportunities Wirksworth (NOW) & Ecclesbourne Valley Rail (EVR). The researchers designed and implemented a pilot study that explored the potential of a small, yet attractive and active, market town to diversify and regenerate using tourism. This project, which has been funded by the UK Higher Education Innovation Fund (HEIF), has been devised to operate and monitor a KTP in the culturally important heritage market town of Wirksworth, in Derbyshire. Design/methodology/approach – A systems-thinking constructivist approach is used and employs problem-based learning (PBL) through engagement of students in research and data collection. The authors identified that skills for sustainable development within the community are dependent on the reintegration of complex, inter-dependent and inter-disciplinary factors. A holistic approach to the learning and knowledge shared within the community underpins UK initiatives to promote capacity development in ways to change knowledge applications across product and service boundaries. Therefore, in addition to encouraging diversification and regeneration through tourism, this project supported the University of Derby's academic agenda to promote experiential and entrepreneurial learning in students working at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. This paper accords with the current university initiatives to meet the student employability agenda through the application of PBL and knowledge management. Findings – The creation of outcomes and recommendations for Wirksworth's stakeholders provides sustainability through the knowledge creation and sharing processes. There are seven outcomes that chart a path to development and knowledge transfer (KT) and sharing. The authors simultaneously provided an environment for students to gain skills and a community to acquire new knowledge, and these are the outcomes and output of this project. New learning styles may support inclusive academic practice (see related samples of PBL such as Ineson and Beresford in HLST resources 2001). Implications for building a KT community through the social capital accumulated in the project are explored. Originality/value – In taking PBL from the classroom to the community, the authors have created a new KT environment in which skills can be acquired and a regeneration strategy can be tested in a work-or-practice-related setting. Students recognise that they are building learning for themselves that is unique in that it cannot be recreated in a classroom setting. The authors see this project developing into a robust long-term partnership between communities and institutions with KT benefits to teaching staff in addition to students. These benefits will include new skills for PBL, working collaboratively with partners in the community to develop key skills in HE students, innovation in assessment, inclusive learning and teaching, experiential and entrepreneurial learning in practice.
    • Managing knowledge transfer partnership for a rural community: the outcomes at Wirksworth, UK.

      Wiltshier, Peter; Edwards, Mike; University of Derby (2014)
      Purpose This paper proposes a knowledge transfer partnership model, using Higher Education (HE) students researching in the United Kingdom. It is focused on community engagement via charitable trusts, New Opportunities Wirksworth (NOW) & Ecclesbourne Valley Rail (EVR). The researchers designed and implemented a pilot study that explored the potential of a small, yet attractive and active, market town to diversify and regenerate using tourism. This project, which has been funded by the UK Higher Education Innovation Fund (HEIF), has been devised to operate and monitor a knowledge transfer partnership (KTP) in the culturally important heritage market town of Wirksworth, in Derbyshire.. Design, Methodology, Approach A systems-thinking constructivist approach is used (Checkland & Scholes, 1981; Kolb & Kolb, 2005) and employs problem-based learning (PBL) through engagement of students in research and data collection. We identified that skills for sustainable development within the community are dependent on the re-integration of complex, inter-dependent and inter-disciplinary factors. A holistic approach to the learning and knowledge shared within the community underpins UK initiatives to promote capacity development in ways to change knowledge applications across product and service boundaries (Taylor & Wilding 2009; Hislop 2009; Leitch, 2006; Dawe et al 2005; Wals et al 2002; Haskins 2003;;). Therefore, in addition to encouraging diversification and regeneration through tourism, this project supported the University of Derby’s academic agenda to promote experiential and entrepreneurial learning in students working at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. This paper accords with the current University initiatives to meet the student employability agenda through the application of PBL and knowledge management (KM). Findings The creation of outcomes and recommendations for Wirksworth’s stakeholders provides sustainability through the knowledge creation and sharing processes. There are seven outcomes that chart a path to development and knowledge transfer and sharing. We simultaneously provided an environment for students to gain skills and a community to acquire new knowledge, and these are the outcomes and output of this project (Hendry et al, 1999; Brown & King, 2000; Kolb & Kolb, 2005). New learning styles may support inclusive academic practice (see related samples of PBL such as Ineson (2001) and Beresford (2001) in HLST resources 2001). Implications for building a knowledge transfer community through the social capital accumulated in the project is explored (Ellis, 2010; Mulgan, 2010; Senge, 1994). Originality In taking PBL from the classroom to the community, we have created a new knowledge transfer environment in which skills can be acquired and a regeneration strategy can be tested in a work-or-practice related setting. Students recognise that they are building learning for themselves that is unique in that it cannot be recreated in a classroom setting. We see this project developing into a robust long-term partnership between communities and institutions with knowledge transfer benefits to teaching staff in addition to students. These benefits will include new skills for PBL, working collaboratively with partners in the community to develop key skills in HE students, innovation in assessment, inclusive learning and teaching, experiential and entrepreneurial learning in practice.
    • Managing Religious Tourism

      Wiltshier, Peter; Griffiths, Maureen; University of Derby; Monash University (CABI, 2019-02-08)
      This book endeavours to put forward a toolkit that will aid positive outcomes in religious tourism management, drawing on case studies from multiple countries and regions. This book is divided into three main sections. The first deals with the theoretical aspects of managing sacred sites; the second with best practice in the management of sacred sites; and the third provides case studies in this area. The book has 14 chapters and a subject index.
    • New Age visitors and the tourism industry.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2018-12-31)
      This conceptual paper establishes a framework for socially constructed research activity to help gauge the intention of travellers in more-developed countries (MDC) of the wealthy and largely affluent North to undertake forms of continuing personal and professional development (CPD) through their travel experiences. Human physiological needs have in large already been achieved for many in more developed countries and exceeded in terms of nourishment and entertainment. Humans are social and societal creatures and in need of realisation of their spiritual, intellectual and societal choices and selections. New spiritual values are threatened by monetarism, by an ‘enveloping outside world’, as Giddens terms it (Giddens, 1991; Giddens, 1994). We must look to the South for inspiration, for restoration of group values and creation of acceptable norms that define society and are elemental in the construction of society from the bottom up.
    • Spa services and wellness activities within the surf tourism experience; the case study of Jersey, Channel Islands.

      Iliuta, Maria-Alexandra; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby; University of Derby, Derby, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-03-23)
      This paper explores the feasibility of developing spa and wellness activities within the surf tourism experience in Jersey (Channel Islands) from the surf traveller’s perspective. Using this worldview, we evaluate a surf tourism offer in Jersey. Through an analysis of the lifestyle and attitudes of today’s surf traveller, we offer preliminary suggestions to marketers and surf lodge owners to capitalise on this unique target market. The conceptual position, that we term Swellness, refers to the perceived wellness dimensions and benefits of surfing. We identify that spa and wellness elements are feasible add-ons for surf product development. The study has also revealed an openness towards other wellness-related concepts, such as Surf Set Fitness or man­made wave surfing parks. Furthermore, the research has shown that wellness and personal responsibility for well-being are part of a surf subculture.
    • Tourism and ethnodevelopment: Inclusion, empowerment and self determination – a case study of the Chatham Islands of New Zealand/Aotearoa.

      Cardow, Andrew; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Goodfellow Publishers, 2017-08)
      In the twenty-first century indigenous tourism development research has focused on projects aligned with planning destinations diversifying and regenerating using tourism as a lever. There is an obvious impact upon indigenous and imported destination culture and society because of the effect of increased economic and environmental activities (Moyle & Evans 2008; Brown, 2009; Gurung & Seeland 2008; Hinch & Butler, 2009). This research examines public and private sector responses to the diversification of a sub-Antarctic island community through tourism. In particular the research will examine the policy changes undertaken by local government in respect to the indigenous tourism offering on the Islands. Since a more public and efficient transportation opened the Chatham Islands up to visitors, public sector policy has reinforced bi-culturalism in the vernacular, idiosyncratic and contingent approach to tourism. The focus however remains on economic and environmental sustainability based upon the conservation of indigenous tracts of land and sea with marine reserves and scarce and sacred territorial ambitions reigned in by the Moriori and the later Maori invaders (King, and Morrison 1990). Concurrently the private sector response has been driven by new migrants with ideologically confrontational demands that have both irked long-term residents and cut across public policy.
    • Tourism to religious sites, case studies from Hungary and England: exploring paradoxical views on tourism, commodification and cost–benefits

      Wiltshier, Peter; Clarke, Alan; University of Derby (Inderscience Publishers, 2012-09-10)
      The application of systems theory to tourism development has a pedigree that has largely been derived from econometrics and macro–economic theory (Baggio et al., 2010; Franch et al., 2010; Choi and Sirakaya, 2006; Schianetz and Kavanagh, 2007, 2008; Dwyer et al., 2010). This paper identifies opportunities and some barriers to developing sites of religious worship for tourism to maximise income and engage appropriate resources allocation strategies. The authors have investigated tourism development that is sympathetic to sacred purposes at these sites over several years. Religious sites are now acknowledging that homogeneous supply responses may no longer be appropriate. Each special site demands a heterogeneous response of site guardians to changeable demand and careful evaluation of how to maximise income generated from very limited resources. This necessitates improved skills in guardians to build appropriate point of sale products and services that fit with consumption expectations and are congruent with sacred purpose.
    • Tourism, indigenous peoples and endogeneity in the Chatham Islands.

      Wiltshier, Peter; Cardow, Andrew; University of Derby; Massey University (Emerald, 2008)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight indigenous and endogenous components of community capacity development through a focus on enterprise with renewed vigour and fervency attributable to local power elites and local collaboration and cooperation. Design/methodology/approach – The twenty‐first century identifies good practices in many aspects of bottom‐up planning and implementation in neoliberal political economies. New Zealand is for many reasons, due to scale, skills and education, an example of endogenous development that is used globally for best practice studies. This paper specifically identifies and explores the local responses to the challenge of democracy and opportunities for diversification through tourism services provision on the Chatham Islands. Findings – The paper notes that community capacity and governance on the Chathams has been the subject of discussion in recent years and the focus has been directed to conflicts in governance and possibly inappropriate policy and practice coordination. Although the refocus on endogenous development, empowerment and devolution of responsibility has a long pedigree in the context of the neoliberal economy, insufficient attention has been paid to the skills, inclination, social and economic capital for indigenous enterprise, more so in an environment of isolation, relative deprivation and dependence. Originality/value – This paper highlights indigenous and endogenous components of community capacity development through a focus on enterprise with renewed vigour and fervency attributable to local power elites and local collaboration and cooperation. A useful model of indigenous tourism development and its endogenous antecedents is considered at the conclusion.
    • Virtual cultural tourism: six pillars of VCT using co-creation, value exchange and exchange value

      Wiltshier, Peter; Clarke, Alan; University of Derby, University of Pannonia (2016-02)
      This paper examines antecedents to the successful use of Virtual Cultural Tourism and the ways in which virtual realities can add value to Cultural Tourism offers. Success can be seen to derive from the deeper understanding of consumers’ preferences and motivations to engage with Virtual Cultural Tourism. It is also necessary to see these initiatives from the perspective of multiple stakeholders: the armchair traveller, the frequent flyer and the service provider at destinations. The latter include public sector providers such as park site managers, museum curators, interpretation and information services for tourism as well as the private sector developers.
    • Volunteers: their role in the management of the visitor and pilgrimage experience

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (2014)
      This research acknowledges the strong customer-relationship management achievements of a Cathedral located in Derby in the Midlands of England. In conjunction with the clergy and volunteers, the researcher identifies, through visitor data capture and analysis of a customer satisfaction survey and interviews with key stakeholders, that high levels of satisfied visitors and volunteers exist. Using a recognised expectations and perceptions approach driven by the service quality model (SERVQUAL) and elaborated by literature, the researcher offers recommendations to maintain customer and volunteer satisfaction (Bitner et al., 1997; Atilgan et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2000). These recommendations include a reliable reward system generated for volunteers, some compelling narratives for sacred and secular pilgrims, relevant displays and performance and appropriate resource allocation. The exceptional service and experience model is derived from an analysis of data from visitor surveys conducted by the Cathedral’s volunteer greeters and guides over the course of a year. In addition to delivering outcomes on the importance attached to expected and perceived service quality attributes, the report concludes by suggesting factors to help maintain a low-cost strategy for sites of pilgrimage and worship that inform future management. As a result of the volunteers and visitor strategy, this Cathedral benefits from delivering a low cost visitor-friendly invitation, welcome and experience and is able to use core human resources to support the mission and share faith and identity in a continuously refreshed manner. Recommendations for marketing the Cathedral, for managing and inspiring volunteers and for recruitment of volunteers and customer-relationship management are offered. Key