• Conflict narratives, action frames, and engagement in reconciliation efforts among community activists in Northern Ireland.

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Derby (American Psychological Association (APA), 2020-02)
      Reconciliation involves a sustained change in how groups perceive and interact with one another, at all levels of society. However, in many conflict-affected societies, only a small minority of individuals work actively toward this goal and it is not clearly understood how motivations to engage in reconciliation efforts can become more widespread. This study investigates the conflict narratives and action frames of activists in a conflict-affected society, and explores how these relate to different degrees of engagement in reconciliation efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 community activists in Northern Ireland in 2014; 14 were strongly engaged in reconciliation efforts and 13 had limited or no engagement in reconciliation efforts. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that reconciliation activists articulated conflict narratives and action frames that differed markedly from those articulated by community activists who have little or no engagement in reconciliation efforts. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of interpretative processes, such as narratives and framing, in alternatively supporting or reducing individuals’ motivations to work toward social reconciliation in a conflict-affected society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
    • The costs of choice in the New Zealand history curriculum

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Briefing Papers, 2018-11-13)
    • Defining the Platform of Positive Peace

      Standish, Katerina; Devere, Heather; Suazo, Adan; Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021-07-23)
      After a brief introduction of typical notions of peace, this chapter ventures to trace the idea of positive peace in recent scholarship to establish how the term is utilized in the PACS world. It then endeavors to introduce each editorial domain within this handbook including a synopsis of each form of intervention theoretically followed immediately by a summary of the chapters that inhabit the PALGRAVE Handbook of Positive Peace.
    • Do we really offer refuge? Using Galtung's concept of structural violence to interrogate refugee resettlement support in Aotearoa New Zealand

      Rafferty, Rachel; Burgin, Anna; Anderson, Vivienne; University of Derby; University of Otago (Sites: New Series, Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand, 2020-12-12)
      Decades after the first refugee convention was signed, the global community is still failing to meet its commitment to protect refugees from harm. In this article, we draw on Galtung’s concept of structural violence to highlight how harm can be caused not only by physical violence but also by social structures in resettlement contexts, including economic systems, legal frameworks and government institutions. We examine how recognising the exposure of resettled refugees to structural violence in their host countries can help us interrogate the quality of the ‘refuge’ offered and point to significant gaps in national resettlement systems. We consider Aotearoa New Zealand as a case where there is an extensive refugee resettlement support system, but argue that it fails to adequately acknowledge and address the exposure of refugees to forms of structural violence caused by factors such as institutionalised monoculturalism and economic inequality. We conclude by calling for an expanded understanding of ‘refuge’ that would reorient resettlement systems towards identifying and addressing structural violence while supporting refugees to overcome the harmful impacts of both physical and structural violence in their lives.
    • Engaging with the violent past to motivate and direct conflict resolution practice in Northern Ireland

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Wiley, 2017-09-11)
      Collective memories can form a barrier to conflict resolution in societies affected by violent conflict. Although engaging with conflict history is an important aspect of conflict resolution practice, it is not fully understood how to achieve this in these complex and emotive environments. This article presents the case of local grassroots conflict resolution practitioners in Northern Ireland who have developed an alternative narrative about the violent past that they draw on to motivate and direct their practice. It provides insights into how conflict resolution practitioners in intractable conflicts can engage with the violent past in ways that support increased understanding between identity groups.
    • International support for peace processes: New Zealand case study

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2017-02-28)
      Launched by Ms Frances Adamson, Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade on 7 June 2017, State Support for Peace Processes: A Multi-Country Review was produced as part of the Australian International Conflict Resolution Project at the University of Melbourne and commissioned by the Development Policy Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The report explores how Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America have approached supporting peace processes. It aims to identify concrete steps for Australia to consider in enhancing its approach to supporting peace and stability, including improving its capacity to support peace processes through whole of government approaches. The report was prepared by researchers at the University of Melbourne led by Prof John Langmore, Dr Tania Miletic, Dr Aran Martin and Mr Nathan Shea, and includes chapters from experts around the world who have advised on the work of their countries.
    • “It affects me as a man’: Recognising and responding to former refugee men’s experiences of Resettlement

      Rafferty, Rachel; Ali, Nijmeh; Galloway, Megan; Kleinshmidt, Heidi; Lwin, Khin Khin; Rezaun, Mercy; University of Otago (University of Otago, 2019)
      Former refugees bring many valuable skills and attributes to the communities in which they settle. Providing tailored support to refugees in the early stages of settlement increases the opportunities for them to contribute their skills and knowledge to our communities. This support needs to take into account the fact that former refugees can experience resettlement differently, according to their gender or age (Innocenti, n.d.). However, the particular experiences of men regarding forced migration and resettlement are not often researched (Affleck, Selvadurai, & Sikora, 2018). Dunedin is a small city in the South Island of New Zealand that became a designated resettlement location for former refugees from Syria and Palestine late in 2015. By 2018, staff in some organisations that provide services to assist former refugee families to settle in Dunedin (hereafter “service providers”) had noted that former refugee men tended to be less engaged in community life in the city, compared to their wives and children. This small-scale, exploratory study was conducted by a team of consultants from the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, at the University of Otago. The purpose was to understand how former refugee men have experienced settling into Dunedin, and to make suggestions for ways they could be supported to participate more fully in society. Three focus groups were conducted with 16 former refugee men, and in-depth interviews were also conducted with 14 individuals working across eight service provider organisations1. This report also refers to research studies relating to the resettlement of refugee men in other contexts, where this helps to contextualise our findings, and to make informed suggestions. However, it should be noted that our findings do not indicate how many of the other former refugee men in the city share the concerns raised in in the focus groups.
    • Mobile agency and relational webs in women’s narratives of international study

      Anderson, Vivienne; Cone, Tiffany; Rafferty, Rachel; Inoue, Naoko; University of Otago; Asian University for Women; University of Derby; Daito Bunka University (Springer, 2021-04-14)
      Internationalisation and forced migration are rarely thought about as related phenomena in higher education (HE) literature. Internationalisation is associated with movement, choice and brand recognition, and used in international rankings methodologies as a proxy for quality. Forced migration is associated with movement, but also with lack of choice, containment, or ‘stuckness’. Some scholars have called for a rethinking of ‘the international’ through attention to students as mobile agents, and international study situated within broader mobile lives. Our study responded to these calls through exploring the educational biographies of 37 international and refugee-background women students based in two universities: 21 in New Zealand, and 16 in Bangladesh. Ten of the women were from refugee or refugee-like backgrounds, while the remainder, were international students. The women’s accounts revealed the complex ways in which circumstances shaped their educational journeys similarly and differently. One woman represented mobility in relation to autonomy and choice; but most emphasised relational webs as shaping their access to and experiences of international study, and post-study aspirations. In this paper, we draw on selected narratives to illustrate the range of ways in which family and/or community members appeared in women’s accounts of their education journeys: as a source of (1) sustenance and support; (2) inspiration and motivation; and (3) obligation, and sometimes, regulation. We conclude by suggesting that attention to the affective and embodied entanglements that shape students’ international study journeys might inform new ways of thinking about both ‘the international’ and higher education more broadly.
    • Narratives Of Navigation: Refugee-Background Women’s Higher Education Journeys In Bangladesh And New Zealand

      Anderson, Vivienne; Cone, Tiffany; Inoue, Naoko; Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago; Asian University for Women; Daito Bunka University; University of Derby (Sites: New Series, Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand, 2020-12-30)
      Navigating higher education (HE) is a complex exercise for many students, including those from refugee backgrounds. Internationally, only a very small percentage of refugee-background students access HE. In a 2018 study, we explored 37 women students’ narrative accounts of international study in Bangladesh and New Zealand. Our participants included 10 women from refugee backgrounds. Theoretically, our research was a response to calls from critical scholars to consider the different circumstances that shape students’ international study, and the ethical and pedagogical implications of these for ‘host’ institutions. In this article, we explore the refugee-background women’s accounts of accessing, navigating, and thinking beyond HE, and their thoughts on factors that support refugee-background students’ success in HE. We argue for the need to: reject ‘grand narratives’ in relation to refugee-background students; acknowledge students’ ‘necessary skillfulness’ while supporting their capacity to navigate HE; and recognise refugee-background students’ commitments and influence beyond HE institutions.
    • Navigating identities and emotions in the field: a local researcher’s strategies in Northern Ireland

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Cesran International, 2017-04)
      Divided societies like Northern Ireland present methodological challenges for researchers due to the roles that mutually-opposing group identities play in shaping social interactions. These challenges, which are heightened for local researchers due to their status as insiders to the conflict, can be overcome to some degree through the careful development of methodological strategies based on a reflexive approach. This article presents the case of a qualitative interviewing project undertaken by a local researcher that involved different identity groups in post-violence Northern Ireland. It examines the methodological challenges encountered because of the identitied and emotional nature of the research, and it shares successful strategies both for building rapport with a wide variety of participants and for eliciting responses during the discussion of sensitive topics. A reflexive approach is shown as important in enabling local researchers in divided societies to conduct rigorous and trustworthy research.
    • Rights, resources and relationships: A ‘three Rs’ framework for enhancing the resilience of refugee background youth

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Routledge, 2019-11-08)
      This chapter argues that national education systems can reduce structural violence towards refugee background youths by acting to enhance the youths’ educational resilience. It aims to define educational resilience as the ability to overcome the significant challenges to learning and achieve positive educational outcomes. The chapter suggests for how the rights, resources, and relationships (three R) framework can be translated into educational policy and practice, and considers the case of refugee background youth within the education system of Aotearoa New Zealand, a society where decades of educational policy have been shaped by neoliberal ideology. Ecological models of resilience draw on Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological model of human development, where the child is viewed as a social being who grows up nested within a unique ecology of social systems. The chapter outlines a number of ways that schools and education systems can translate three Rs concepts into practices that will enhance the educational resilience of refugee background students.
    • Understanding the cultural dimension of intractable conflict: What are the implications for peace education practice?

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (2014-01)
      Societies marked by a sharp ethnic or religious cleavage are vulnerable to outbreaks of mass violence. Understanding the cultural dimension to such conflicts carries important implications for improving peace education practice in divided societies. Typical peace education practices have been criticized for being overly-naïve in ignoring the cultural environment or not doing enough to address the surrounding ‘culture of conflict’. Insights on the cultural dimension of intergroup conflict can help educators to design peace education practices that actively address the role that cultural factors play in perpetuating conflict in their societies. This paper will examine the cultural dimension to intractable conflicts and draw conclusions as to how peace education practice in divided societies can better be shaped to address this phenomenon.