• Assessing risk factors for homicide victimisation in the Netherlands.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University (2017-03-01)
      This study explains why certain violent events end lethally while others do not. Is it on account of certain personal characteristics of those involved in these events – in particular, do offenders and/or victims have a criminal propensity, possibly reflected in their criminal history records? Or does it relate to certain immediate situational factors occurring during these incidents, such as weapon use, alcohol use, the presence of third parties or actors’ behaviour? Or does a combination of both types of factors – i.e., criminal history and immediate situational factors – play a key role in differentiating lethal from non-lethal violent events? Although these questions are important for the understanding of serious violence in general, so far criminologists have not often addressed these questions simultaneously. This study – conducted in The Netherlands – has been designed to start filling this gap by focusing on the relationship between offenders’ and victims’ criminal history, immediate situational factors and lethal versus non-lethal outcomes of violent events. Based on data from criminal records and court files, findings show that immediate situational factors appear to be the most influential factor that contribute to the outcome of violent events, even more so than offenders’ and victims’ characteristics.
    • Comparing characteristics of homicides in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Nottingham Trent University (Wiley, 2017-03-17)
      There are many challenges when conducting European cross-national research on homicide. In particular, European cross-national knowledge on lethal violence has been hampered for a long time because European countries tend to differ in the data sources they used and in their definitions of homicide. To stimulate cross-national research efforts in Europe, this chapter compares the characteristics of homicides in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. More specifically, in a three-year research project, financed by the European Union, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden joined forces to build a first joint database on homicide in Europe, referred to as the European Homicide Monitor, EHM. This Monitor exclusively contains data from the three countries on 1,577 homicide cases, involving 1,666 victims and 1,917 offenders. On the basis of these data, first findings indicate evidence of cross-national differences between Finnish, Dutch and Swedish homicides, and especially in (a) the average homicide rate, (b) location of homicides, (c) offenders’ modus operandi, (d) the average age of homicide victims and offenders, and (e) the birth country of offenders and victims. Although this chapter shows that building a joint European Monitor is feasible, it also indicates that several methodological issues still exist when conducting cross-national research on homicide.
    • Dead or alive? The role of personal characteristics and immediate situational factors in the outcome of serious violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Leiden University (Leiden University, 2014-12)
      Why do certain incidents of serious violence end lethally whereas others do not? What role do personal characteristics of offenders and victims play and how do immediate situational factors influence outcomes? So far, these questions have not been subjected to much empirical scrutiny in criminological studies. This study, conducted in the Netherlands, seeks to answer these questions by explicitly comparing violent events that ended lethally with those that ended non-lethally. By taking into account offenders’ and victims' personal characteristics as well as immediate situational factors, it offers a more complete understanding of differences in outcome. It shows that immediate situational factors contribute more significantly to the outcome of violent incidents than generally thought. The study also presents an overview of murder and manslaughter in the Netherlands and puts these figures into international perspective. A separate chapter compares different types of violent events. The findings provide crucial criminological insights which may also guide effor ts to reduce and prevent violent events from ending lethally in the future.
    • Dead or alive? The role of personal characteristics and immediate situational factors in the outcome of serious violence. American Society of Criminology, New Orleans, 16-19 Nov.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Nottingham Trent University (2016-11-17)
      This study explains why certain violent events end lethally while others do not. Is it on account of certain personal characteristics of those involved in these events – in particular, do offenders and/or victims have a criminal propensity, possibly reflected in their criminal history records? Or does it relate to certain immediate situational factors occurring during these incidents, such as weapon use, alcohol use, the presence of third parties or actors’ behavior? Or does a combination of both types of factors – i.e., criminal history and immediate situational factors – play a key role in differentiating lethal from non-lethal violent events? Although these questions are important for the understanding of serious violence in general, so far criminologists have not often addressed these questions simultaneously. This study – conducted in The Netherlands – has been designed to start filling this gap by focusing on the relationship between offenders’ and victims’ criminal history, immediate situational factors and lethal versus non-lethal outcomes of violent events. Based on data from criminal records and court files, findings show that immediate situational factors appear to be the most influential factor that contribute to the outcome of violent events, even more so than offenders’ and victims’ characteristics.
    • ‘Deal with it yourself?!’ The link between third parties’ involvement and the severity of conflict situations.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; University of Derby (2017-11-17)
      This study focuses on serious violent cases that happened in the presence of third parties (i.e. bystanders). Third parties are generally considered important for the understanding of violence. However, so far little empirical attention has been given to the role of third parties in serious violent events, leaving a major gap in our understanding. To fill this gap, this quantitative study aims to shed light on how third parties’ involvement – i.e. inactivity, settlement and partisanship – shapes the severity of violent conflicts and whether there is a link between victims’-offenders’ characteristics (e.g. age, gender and relationship) and third parties’ involvement. To achieve this, the study compares Dutch cases of lethal and nonlethal incidents that occurred in the presence of third parties. Based on an in-depth systematic examination of Dutch court files, findings reveal important differences between lethal and nonlethal violence in terms of third parties’ involvement, and that victims’ and offenders’ characteristics play a crucial role herein.
    • Explaining and sustaining the decline in stranger and acquaintance violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Tilley, Nick; Nottingham Trent University (2016-06-29)
    • The influence of criminal history on the likelihood of committing lethal versus nonlethal violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Liem, Marieke; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Leiden University; Harvard University; Leiden University, Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Leiden, The Netherlands; Harvard Kennedy School; Harvard University; Cambridge, MA; Leiden University, Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Leiden, The Netherlands; Leiden University, Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Leiden, The Netherlands (Sage, 2012-11-08)
      This study focuses on the criminal history of serious violent offenders. Our aim is to determine: (a) to what extent the criminal history of lethally violent offenders differs from nonlethally violent offenders and (b) to what extent one’s criminal history influences the likelihood that violence ends lethally. We use criminal record data of offenders convicted of lethal violence (i.e., homicide offenders, N = 2,049) and offenders convicted of nonlethal violence (i.e., attempted homicide offenders, N = 3,387). The results suggest that nonlethally violent offenders have a more severe criminal history and that offender’s criminal history can be influential in predicting lethal versus nonlethal outcomes.
    • On the association between routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintance violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Tilley, Nick; Farrell, Graham; Nottingham Trent University; Loughborough University; University College London; Simon Fraser University (2015-11-18)
      Crime rates have fallen dramatically over the past two decades. This phenomenon is typically referred to as the crime drop. What still remains puzzling, however, is why most crimes – including violent crimes – have fallen in recent years. The current gap in knowledge impedes violence reduction opportunities not just in the UK but across the world. To understand better why violence has fallen in the past decades, the current study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council Secondary Data Analysis Initiative Phase 2, investigates the relationship between changes in routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintances in the past two decades. In particular, insights from the routine activity theories will be used (Cohen & Felson, 1979) to explain the decline in both types of violence. To examine violence trends, the study uses rich data stemming from the Crime Survey for England & Wales (CSEW). Findings show that an important relationship exists between changes in routine activities and the fall in violence.
    • The relationship between a person’s criminal history, immediate situational factors, and lethal versus non-lethal events.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University; Loughborough University, UK; Leiden University, The Netherlands; Leiden University, The Netherlands (Sage, 2015-07-20)
      When investigating serious violence, studies tend to look primarily at offenders and their background. This study investigates the influence of offenders’ and victims’ criminal history and immediate situational factors on the likelihood that violent events will end lethally. For this purpose, we compare lethal with non-lethal events, and combine Dutch criminal records with data from court files of those involved in lethal (i.e., homicide, n = 126) versus non-lethal events (i.e., attempted homicide, n = 141). Results reveal that both criminal history and immediate situational factors clearly matter for the outcome of violent events; however, immediate situational factors have the strongest effect on violent outcomes.
    • Risk and protective factors of stranger and acquaintance violence victimisation in England and Wales.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Farrell, Graham; Tilley, Nick; Thompson, Rebecca; Garius, Laura; Nottingham Trent University (2016-06-14)
      Violence has been fallen dramatically over the past decades. However, it is still unclear why there is an overall decline in violence in and outside the UK. The current gap in knowledge impedes violence reduction opportunities not just in the UK but across the world. To better help understand why violence has fallen over time, the current study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council Secondary Data Analysis Initiative Phase 2, examines which individual-level risk and protective factors significantly increase or decrease the risk of stranger and acquaintance violence victimisation in England and Wales. In doing so, special attention is given to the role of routine activies. This study uses rich data stemming from the Crime Survey for England & Wales (CSEW). Findings show that routine activities and lifestyles predict in important ways stranger and acquaintance violence victimisation frequency. The study underlines the importance of comparing predictors of stranger and acquaintance violence as it brings to light similarities and differences in risk and protective factors for stranger and acquaintance violence victimisation. This study also stresses the importance of examining routine activities and lifestyle when examining stranger and acquaintance violence.
    • Risk and protective factors of stranger and acquaintance violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Tilley, Nick; Farrell, Graham; Nottingham Trent University (2016-02-24)
      Crime rates have fallen dramatically over the past two decades. This phenomenon is typically referred to as the crime drop. What still remains puzzling, however, is why most crimes – including violent crimes – have fallen in recent years. The current gap in knowledge impedes violence reduction opportunities not just in the UK but across the world. To understand better why violence has fallen in the past decades, the current study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council Secondary Data Analysis Initiative Phase 2, investigates the relationship between changes in routine activities and the decline in stranger and acquaintances in the past two decades. In particular, insights from the routine activity theories will be used (Cohen & Felson, 1979) to explain the decline in both types of violence. To examine violence trends, the study uses rich data stemming from the Crime Survey for England & Wales (CSEW). Findings show that an important relationship exists between changes in routine activities and the fall in violence.
    • The role of personal characteristics and immediate situational factors in the outcome of serious violence Divisional Research Seminar, Nottingham Trent University, Invited presentation, Nottingham

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Leiden University (2015-12-16)
      Why do certain incidents of serious violence end lethally whereas others do not? What role do personal characteristics of offenders and victims play and how do immediate situational factors influence outcomes? So far, these questions have not been subjected to much empirical scrutiny in criminological studies. This study, conducted in the Netherlands, seeks to answer these questions by explicitly comparing violent events that ended lethally with those that ended non-lethally. By taking into account offenders’ and victims’ personal characteristics as well as immediate situational factors, it offers a more complete understanding of differences in outcome.
    • Trends in violence victimisation: Incidence rates, prevalence and crime concentration of stranger and acquaintance violence.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tilley, Nick; Tseloni, Andromachi; Nottingham Trent University (2016-07-08)
      Violence has fallen in Britain over the last two decades. To understand better why violence has fallen over time, this present paper investigates Britain’s long-term trends in different types of violence crime victimisation, including stranger and acquaintance violence. This study uses data stemming from the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW), which is considered one of the most reliable data source to examine crime trends. It draws on weighted data from 1992-2013/14 and examines prevalence, incidence and crime concentration trends, for victims of six specific age groups (16–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–plus) and separately for males and females. The findings shed important light on differences in the trends of stranger and acquaintance violence during the recent two decades. They also reveal which violence victimised subgroups are potentially the main drivers of the decline in violence. The study emphasizes the importance of making a distinction between different violence crime types when examining violence trends. The present paper is part of a larger project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), Secondary Data Analysis Initiative (SDAI) Phase 2 and continues previous ESRC, SDAI Phase 1 funded work on burglary and ESRC funded work on the international crime drop. Details of the current project as well as previous work on crime trends can be found at: www.ntu.ac.uk/apps/research/groups/4/home.aspx/project/178996/overview/violence_trends_
    • Trends in violence victimization in the England and Wales.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Farrell, Graham; Tilley, Nick; Thompson, Rebecca; Garius, Laura; Nottingham Trent University (2016-11)
      According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, violence rates fell by more than half between 1995 and 2013/14. What still remains puzzling, however, is why violent crimes have fallen dramatically since 1995. The current gap in knowledge impedes violence reduction opportunities not just in the UK but across the world. To better help understand why violence has fallen over time, the current study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council Secondary Data Analysis Initiative Phase 2, examines the trends in stranger and acquaintance violence victimization in England and Wales. In doing so, it also considers the trends by gender and age. This study uses rich data stemming from the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW). Findings show important differences in the trends of stranger and acquaintance violence during the recent two decades. The study emphasizes the importance of making a distinction between stranger and acquaintance violence when examining violence trends.
    • Violence trends and other criminology research.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Nottingham Trent University (2016-05-11)
    • Violence trends project: Homicide and other criminology research.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Tseloni, Andromachi; Nottingham Trent University (2014-05-17)
      This presentation will showcase research relevant to policing undertaken by academics at Nottingham Trent University, Social Sciences. Based on rigorous statistical analyses of large national data, evidence of the work included herein can assist police public protection and reassurance operations and crime reduction via targeting: • Individuals or households in different circumstances experiencing or at high risk of: o acquaintance violence and / or stranger violence (Prof Andromachi Tseloni and Dr Soenita Ganpat); o night -time economy violence (Dr Laura Garius); o lethal violence / homicide (Dr Soenita Ganpat); o anti-social behaviour (Dr Rebecca Thompson, Professor Andromachi Tseloni and Bethany Ward); o domestic burglary via offering advice or practical assistance for security upgrades depending on their circumstances (Prof Andromachi Tseloni, Dr Rebecca Thompson, Dr James Hunter and Bethany Ward); • Young people and children in abusive families with effective measures to interrupt inter-generational transmission of violence (Dr Chris Crowther-Dowey); • Sites and circumstances of high risk of metal theft (Dr Matt Ashby); • Using CCTV in crime investigations, crime analysis methods and transport crime (Dr Matt Ashby); • Types of retail sector businesses and local areas profiles of high risk of shop theft, including measures to discourage offenders and interrupt their Modus Operandi (Dr James Hunter and Dr Laura Garius); and • Muslim women at high risk of experiencing hate crime (Dr Irene Zempi). In addition an analysis of the new, hybrid system of professionalisation and regulation of the police in England and Wales will also be presented (Prof Simon Holdaway). Resources on all the above studies and a directory of relevant on-going research will be made available
    • Violence unfolding. An exploration of the interaction sequence in lethal and non-lethal violent events.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University (Medwin Publishers, 2017-08-04)
      Violent events typically entail an interaction between an offender, a victim and a context. Many of these events involve different stages which can be decisive, and some eventually end fatally. To better understand the mechanisms leading to a lethal or non-lethal outcome of violent encounters, this explorative study investigates the interaction sequence during these serious violent events. Based on detailed analysis of 160 Dutch court files, this study uses an innovative methodology examining the unfolding of events that ultimately resulted in a lethal or a non-lethal outcome. Findings show differences in the interaction sequence, and especially when the role of third parties and subtypes of conflict (i.e. male-to-male violence and male-to-female intimate partner violence) are considered.