• Body-worn cameras: determining the democratic habitus of policing.

      Cayli, Baris; Hargreaves, Charlotte; Hodgson, Philip; University of Derby (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018-10-08)
      Purpose – This study advances our knowledge about the effectiveness of body-worn cameras (BWCs) through exploring the perceptions of English police officers in three principal areas: (i) positive perceptions, (ii) negative perceptions, and (iii) evidence-focused perceptions. In doing so, this study aims to shed new light on the democratising process in the habitus of policing. Design/methodology/approach – This study presents a novel dataset that evaluates the introduction of BWC to police officers in the East Midlands area of England. We conducted an extensive survey to explore the perceptions of 162 police officers about the BWCs. We examine our empirical data using Stata within the theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu concerning the concept of habitus. Findings – We have found that most police officers perceive that BWCs have a positive impact on policing practices and evidence collection. The positive perceptions and evidence-focused perceptions increase the importance of BWCs; however, there are also negative perceptions regarding effective policing, administrative functionality, and establishing a better relationship with the community. We argue that all three areas: (i) positive perceptions, (ii) negative perceptions and (iii) evidence-focused perceptions play a stimulating role to democratise the habitus of policing. On the other hand, BWCs do not guarantee the consolidation of democratic principles in the habitus of policing because of the authority of police to decide when, where, and how to use BWCs. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to the perceptions of 162 police officers in East Midlands before they actually started using it. A future study to analyse their real-life experiences after using the BWCs may help us to compare their perceptions before using it with real-life experiences after BWCs are used. In addition, a comparative approach between countries in future research will help to explain the role of technological applications in different social geographies and legal systems Originality/value – This study offers new insights about the perceptions of police on BWCs before they started using them. We introduce the democratic habitus of policing as an innovative concept and explore power dynamics in the habitus of policing through BWCs. Our findings provide a strong empirical contribution to determine the conditions of democratic habitus of policing. In doing so, this study develops our theoretical knowledge about the habitus concept in sociology by employing BWCs in policing activities.
    • Codes of Commitment to Crime and Resistance: Determining Social and Cultural Factors over the Behaviors of Italian Mafia Women

      Cayli, Baris; University of Stirling (2014-11-18)
      This article categorizes thirty-three women in four main Italian Mafia groups and explores social and cultural behaviors of these women. This study introduces the feminist theory of belief and action. The theoretical inquiry investigates the sometimes conflicting behaviors of women when they are subject to systematic oppression. I argue that there is a cultural polarization among the categorized sub-groups. Conservative radicals give their support to the Mafia while defectors and rebels resist the Mafia. After testing the theory, I assert that emancipation of women depends on the strength of their beliefs to perform actions against the Mafiosi culture.
    • Crime, bandits, and community: how public panic shaped the social control of territory in the Ottoman Empire

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-12-15)
      This study explores the role of crime, bandits, and public panic in in the nineteenth century Ottoman society by using archival documents and employing a comparative perspective. In addition to the social bandit concept of Eric Hobsbawm, there is an introduction of two new banditry forms in this study—opportunist bandits and imagined bandits. The comparison of different bandit forms clarifies that social bandits and opportunist bandits aggravated public panic and produced imagined bandits. Hence, public panic and the dissent of local people unveiled through rumors about the imagined bandits. The exploration of different forms of bandits in the Ottoman Empire is a response to the vexed issue concerning the challenges in the social control of territories in a multiethnic and multi-religious empire. This study provides new conceptual tools to rethink about the spatial dimensions in the emergence of bandits. This article shows that spatial factors in the social control of territory can be influenced by the reaction of local people from bottom-to-top and, in doing so, can determine the response of state authority. The present study, therefore, unveils the power relationship in the social control of territory whether it is manifested by physical force or public panic.
    • Peasants, bandits, and state intervention: The consolidation of authority in the Ottoman Balkans and Southern Italy

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Wiley, 2017-05-11)
      This paper explores the role of bandits and state intervention in the Ottoman Balkans and Southern Italy in the 19th century by using archival documents. I argue that the states may react similarly and radically when their authority is challenged in the periphery. The Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy developed the same forms of state intervention to fight against the bandits, even though these two states had fundamentally different political, cultural, and socio-legal structures. I present three different forms of state intervention: (i) victim-centred state intervention; (ii) security-centred state intervention; and (iii) authority-centred state intervention. These three forms consolidated the state's authority while making the two states both fragile and dependent on other social agencies in the long term. I further claim that consolidation of the state's authority manifests the paradox of state intervention and creates more vulnerabilities in traumatic geographies.
    • Performance matters more than masculinity: violence, gender dynamics and mafia women

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-06-03)
      Narrating the stories of Italian mafia women and classifying their performance, this study shows that mafiosi masculinity creates a violent social atmosphere for women. The performance practised by women may give rise to a higher social status or credibility for the women or may make them vulnerable against violence and risks posed by mafia activity. Women's performances against violent mafia activity can bring definitive failure to the solid structure of the mafia family. Yet, conversely, the performance of women under the influence of mafiosi masculinity can also render the mafia more resilient against threat.
    • The ravages of social catastrophe: striving for the quest of 'Another World'

      Cayli, Baris; University of Stirling (2015-01-28)
      The social order of the current system has brought an increase in the public dissents and turned to a 'normalized sociological pathology' of the postmodern world. The unyielding public resistance examples in different cultural geographies, which are fragmented, limited and yet significant and expanding struggles, convey the message that the global order of the Powerful has entered the age of stagnation. This article aims to shed new light on the relationship between the social protests and global order that has given rise to new identities of local and global injustice. I argue that social protests in the last years display discernible patterns of a change in cultural perceptions of the activists in different public spaces. On the one hand, this signals the emergence of a new public order in the 21st century. On the other hand, the ravages of social catastrophe shape the very dynamics of the same public culture. ‘Enduring and resisting public cultures’ is introduced in this article as a benchmark to identify ethnographic struggles of the activists for the quest of a new public space, which represents ‘Another World’.
    • Renewing Criminalized and Hegemonic Cultural Landscapes

      Cayli, Baris; University of Stirling (2014)
      The Mafia's long historical pedigree in Mezzogiorno, Southern Italy, has empowered the Mafioso as a notorious, uncontested, and hegemonic figure. The counter-cultural resistance against the mafiosi culture began to be institutionalized in the early 1990s. Today, Libera Terra is the largest civil society organization in the country that uses the lands confiscated from the Mafia as a space of cultural repertoire to realize its ideals. Deploying labor force through volunteer participation, producing biological fruits and vegetables, and providing information to the students on the fields are the principal cultural practices of this struggle. The confiscated lands make the Italian experience of anti-Mafia resistance a unique example by connecting the land with the ideals of cultural change. The sociocultural resistance of Libera Terra conveys a political message through these practices and utters that the Mafia is not invincible. This study draws the complex panorama of the Mafia and anti-Mafia movement that uses the ‘confiscated lands’ as cultural and public spaces for resistance and socio-cultural change. In doing so, this article sheds new light on the relationship between rural criminology and crime prevention policies in Southern Italy by demonstrating how community development practice of Libera Terra changes the meaning of landscape through iconographic symbolism and ethnographic performance.
    • Social unrest in the UK and Turkey: Rethinking police violence against dissident communities.

      Cayli, Baris; Hodgson, Philip; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby (Brill, 2018-04-09)
      The present study explores police violence during the riots in London and Gezi Park protests in Istanbul. This study puts forth that the rise of social injustice in the UK and the erosion of plural democracy in Turkey clarify the paradox of state intervention because the two states prioritized rapid repression of uprising without consolidating public trust and social justice in the society. This comparative study reveals that the liberal and non-religious elements of the capitalist ruling system in the UK contain similar fractions of state repression when compared to the authoritarian and religious elements of the capitalist ruling system in Turkey. The authors conclude that police violence endures the social control of dissident communities while it maintains the sustainability of different capitalist ruling systems in the periods of social unrest.
    • Victims and protest in a social space: Revisiting the sociology of emotions

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-01-31)
      This article explores how activism and protest shaped cultural renewal through a march organised against the Italian mafia. Drawing on ethnographic insights, employing a reflexive method, taking research notes, using photos and recording the social protest, I introduce 'static agency' and 'dynamic agency' concepts to analyse the perplexing relationship modes among the activists and wider society. I argue that sociocultural codes are the pillars of static and dynamic agency through which the progressive actors strive for a change in the social space of activism. I claim that the fight against the public trouble -the mafia- has the capacity to sustain itself as a persistent cultural movement among the activists through emotional solidarity. However, this does not guarantee the defeat of public trouble in traumatic social geographies where the public culture dominates social behaviours and social memory. Yet the progressive social movements can attain cultural transformation through persistence in their struggle.
    • When a journalist defies more than the mafia: The legacy of Giuseppe Fava and Italian Antimafia Culture

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (University of Toronto Press, 2017-02)
    • The zones of fragility: outlaws and the forms of violence in the Ottoman Empire

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2016-09-21)
      This study explores the relationship between violence and power through examining the archival documents about the outlaws in the Ottoman Empire from 1852 to 1876. I argue that the outlaws and the use of violence in the public sphere defied the power of the Ottoman Empire. Thereof, the present study agrees with the main thesis of Hannah Arendt about the destructive influence of violence on power. However, I take Hannah Arendt's argument on violence one step further by claiming that the form of violence -whether political or non-political- loses its significance when both public safety and state sovereignty are under great threats at the same time in the zones of fragility.