• Vitamin B12 insufficiency induces cholesterol biosynthesis by limiting s-adenosylmethionine and modulating the methylation of SREBF1 and LDLR genes

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Finer, S; Voyias, P.D; McCarthy, C.M; Vatish, M; Moore, J; Smart-Halajko, M; Bawazeer, N; Al-Daghri, N.M; McTernan, P.G; et al. (BMC, 27/02/2015)
      The dietary supply of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, betaine, methionine, and choline is essential for normal growth, development, and physiological functions through the life course. Both human and animal studies have shown that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with altered lipid profile and play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, however, as of yet, no direct mechanism has been investigated to confirm this.
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes.

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Jayashri, R; Sukumar, N; Venkataraman, H; Pradeepa, R; Gokulakrishnan, K; Anjana, R.M; McTernan, P.G; Tripathi, G; Patel, V; et al. (BMC, 26/09/2014)
      Metformin, a standard therapy in type 2 diabetes, reduces vitamin B12 levels. Studies linking low vitamin B12 levels and cardiovascular disease are equivocal and suggest improving B12 levels may help in primary prevention. The role of vitamin B12 deficiency on cardiovascular risk factors, especially in type 2 diabetes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in two different ethnic groups in UK and India. Type 2 diabetes patients from two secondary care diabetic centres (Europeans - UK and Indians - India) were studied. Serum vitamin B12, folate and biochemical parameters were measured. The prevalence rates of vitamin B12 deficiency (<191 ng/L) were 27% and 12% in Europeans and Indians, respectively and higher in metformin treated type 2 diabetes patients. In linear regression analysis, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors, vitamin B12 independently associated with triglycerides in both the populations and cholesterol/HDL ratio in Indians. Logistic regression showed type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin B12 deficiency were at significantly higher odds of having coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD) in Europeans with similar but non-significant trend in Indians, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is common in type 2 diabetes patients and is associated with adverse lipid parameters. Type 2 diabetes management guidelines should include the recommendation for regular testing for B12 levels, especially for those on metformin.
    • PWE-254 Is the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) around colorectal cancer really ‘normal’?

      Patel, A; Fang, Y; Moore, J; Williams, N; Tripathi, G; Arasaradnam, R; University of Westminster (BMJ, 22/06/2015)
      Field cancerisation refers to the process whereby cells acquire pro-tumourigenic mutations that predispose to malignant transformation but do not produce morphological change.1Previous colorectal cancer studies have assumed that the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) adjacent to a cancer is biologically unaltered. The aim of this study was to determine if the genetic expression profile of the MNM around a cancer or adenoma is different to that found in healthy controls. 15 patients undergoing colonoscopy were recruited over 12 months; 5 healthy controls, 5 with colorectal adenomas and 5 with adenocarcinoma. Two mucosal pinch biopsies were taken in the rectum, right colon and adjacent to polyp or cancer. mRNA was extracted and gene expression was assessed using standard whole genome micro-array analysis. Differentially expressed genes were identified using three methods of analysis: LIMMA (fold change ratio >1.5 and p value <0.05), Robust Regression (RR) (adjusted p value <0.05) and genes that ‘overlap’ when LIMMA (p value <0.001) and RR (adjusted p value <0.1) are used. Functional analysis was performed using DAVID2software to identify important biological processes that were dysregulated. A large number of genes were dysregulated in the MNM adjacent to cancer or adenoma compared with controls (Table 1). Interestingly, the greatest differences were seen between MNM adjacent to cancer and polyp in chromatin organisation, nucleosome processing, nuclear transport and histone assembly. The most significantly upregulated genes consisted of FUT2, CTSA, MUC2 and SDS and downregulated genes consisted of GREM1, SFRP, HIST1H, IL17B and TFF1.
    • Habitual physical activity is associated with circulating irisin in healthy controls but not in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2

      Al‐Daghri, N.M; Alokail, M.S; Rahman, S; Amer, O.E; Al‐Attas, O.S; Alfawaz, H; Tripathi, G; Sabico, S.; Chrousos, G.P; McTernan, P.G; et al. (Wiley, 22/05/2015)
      Irisin, a novel myokine, has been shown to increase following vigorous exercise, with studies suggesting that it mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise. Irisin might play a role in ‘browning’ of white adipocytes, thus increasing energy expenditure. The role of irisin in exercise and energy expenditure in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin and habitual physical activity in subjects with and without DMT2. In this cross‐sectional study, 164 Saudi adults: 81 non‐DMT2 controls [age: (mean ± SD) 51·6 ± 10·9; BMI: 29·6 ± 4·3 kg/m2] and 83 DMT2 subjects [age: 54·3 ± 10·3 year; BMI: 29·4 ± 4·7 kg/m2] were studied. Anthropometric and fasting serum biochemical data were collected. Circulating irisin was measured using an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Frequency intensity time (FIT) index was used to assess the level of habitual physical activity. We observed significantly higher levels of irisin in DMT2 subjects than in controls (P < 0·001). FIT index was positively associated (r = 0·20, P = 0·03) with circulating irisin in controls only. Additionally, irisin levels were significantly higher in tertile 3 (0·75 ± 0·07 μg/mL) than tertile 1 (0·49 ± 0·06 μg/mL) of the FIT index in healthy controls, whilst no such relation with physical activity was observed in DMT2 subjects. This cross‐sectional study has shown a weak association of irisin with physical activity levels in healthy controls but not in DMT2 subjects, suggesting the possibility of discordant regulation in the condition of DMT2.
    • Telmisartan reverses antiretroviral-induced adipocyte toxicity and insulin resistance in vitro

      Pushpakom, S.P; Adaikalakoteswari, A; Owen, A; Back, D.J; Tripathi, G; Kumar, S; McTernan, P; Pirmohamed, M; University of Warwick (Sage, 21/02/2018)
      Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose–response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects. Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Adipokine secretion and expression of insulin signalling mediators were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Telmisartan partially reversed the deleterious effects of antiretrovirals on adipocyte lipid accumulation, expression of adipogenic regulators (peroxisome proliferator receptor-gamma and lipin 1), adipokine secretion and expression of the insulin signalling mediator pAktSer473. The metabolic effects of telmisartan followed a non-monotonic response with the maximal effect observed at 5 µM in the primary human adipocyte model. Telmisartan has beneficial metabolic effects in adipocytes in vitro, but its potential to reduce antiretroviral-induced cardiometabolic disease in HIV-infected individuals needs to be evaluated in a well-designed adequately powered clinical trial.
    • “I must do this!”: A latent profile analysis approach to understanding the role of irrational beliefs and motivation regulation in mental and physical health

      Turner, M. J.; Miller, A.; Youngs, H.; Barber, N.; Brick, N. E; Chadha, N. J.; Chandler, C.; Coyle, M.; Didymus, F. F.; Evans, A. L.; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2022-02-27)
      In the research concerning rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) in sport and exercise, irrational beliefs are proposed as a risk factor for health. Concurrent to this, researchers have also indicated that autonomous and controlled motivation, as proposed in organismic integration theory could, together with irrational beliefs, determine individual health. However, research is yet to align irrational beliefs and motivation, and explore how this alignment relates to mental health. The present two study paper identifies individual subgroups, drawn from data concerning irrational beliefs, motivation, and health (psychological distress, and physical health), in a sample of exercisers (study 1) and student athletes (study 2). We examined the latent profile structure of irrational beliefs and motivation, and how these latent profiles relate to psychological distress (studies 1 and 2), and physical health (study 2). Results indicate a two class profile whereby class 1 is characterised by high irrational beliefs, low self-determined motivation, and poor health outcomes. Class 2 is characterised by low irrational beliefs, high self-determined motivation, and better health outcomes. The findings are discussed in relation to the theoretical implications for REBT and organismic integration theory, and the practical implications for key stakeholders in the health of exercise participants and athletes.
    • Bystander responses to cyberbullying: the role of perceived severity, publicity, anonymity, type of cyberbullying, and victim response

      Macaulay, Peter J.R; Betts, Lucy R.; Stiller, James; Kellezi, Blerina; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; University of Chichester (Elsevier, 2022-02-15)
      Cyberbullying often occurs in group-based situations; therefore, how young people respond when they witness cyberbullying is important in the process of combating the issue. This study examined how young people perceive the severity of cyberbullying incidents and how they respond as a bystander according to different factors associated with cyberbullying (i.e., publicity, anonymity, type, and victim response). The final sample was 990 (545 female, 403 male, 42 non-disclosed) students aged between 11 – 20 years (Mage = 13.16, SDage = 2.14) from two schools and one college in England. Participants responded to 24 hypothetical vignettes which were manipulated to measure publicity, anonymity, type of cyberbullying, and victim response. Participants responded to items assessing a. perceived severity, and b. bystander responses. The bystander responses examined were: ignore the incident, encourage the bully, seek adult help, seek friend help, provide emotional support to the victim, and challenge the bully. Perceived severity was higher in public scenarios, when the bully was anonymous, and when the victim was upset. Victim response was the most influential factor across all response strategies on how young people react to cyberbullying, followed by the publicity of the incident, the anonymity of the bully, and to a limited extent, the type of cyberbullying. The results suggest that bystanders do respond differently to cyberbullying according to the publicity, anonymity, type of cyberbullying, and victim response.
    • Interventions for hyperhidrosis

      Dunford, Louise; Clifton, Andrew V; Stephenson, John; Radley, Kathy; McDonald, Louise; Fretwell, Laurice; Cheung, Seau Tak; Hague, Lynne; Boyle, Robert J; De Montfort University, Leicester; et al. (Wiley, 2022-02-14)
      This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions for hyperhidrosis.
    • Causal systems mapping to promote healthy living for pandemic preparedness: a call to action for global public health.

      Pronk, Nicolaas P; Faghy, Mark; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; University of Derby (BMC, 2022-02-07)
      COVID-19 has severely impacted population health and well-being globally. Acknowledging that COVID-19 will not be the world's last pandemic, improving healthy living factors (i.e., physical activity, healthful nutrition, healthy weight), which are important in mitigating negative outcomes of future infectious disease pandemics, should be prioritized. Although well-documented, promoting healthy living factors remains challenged by a lack of scalability and sustainability due, in part, to a mismatch between intervention focus on individual behavior change as opposed to recognizing complex and multifactorial causes that prevent people from living healthy lifestyles and maintaining them long-term (such as political will, economic benefits, urban planning, etc.). To recognize this complexity in promoting healthy living, we propose the application of systems science methods for the creation of a comprehensive causal systems map of healthy living factors in the context of COVID-19 to inform future pandemic preparedness. Generating such a map would benefit researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in multi-sector collaborative efforts to improve public health preparedness in the context of future pandemics in a scalable, sustainable, and equitable manner. This effort should be facilitated by a trusted and widely respected governing body with global reach.
    • Defining the importance of stress reduction in managing cardiovascular disease - the role of exercise.

      Popovic, Dejana; Bjelobrk, Marija; Tesic, Milorad; Seman, Stefan; Jayasinghe, Sisitha; Hills, Andrew P; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Stoner, Lee; Ozemek, Cemal; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-02-04)
      Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have long been the focus of preventive strategies. The impact of family stress, depression, anxiety, hostility, pessimism, job strain, social isolation, lack of purpose in life and social support, are well recognized risks for CVD development, however they are under-appreciated in clinical practice guidelines. The purpose of this article is to review the impact of acute and chronic stress on CVD risk, elaborate repositioning in guidelines, with emphasis to approaches for stress reduction. Regular exercise, both aerobic and resistance, leads to better adaptiveness to other types of stress, however, it remains unknown whether the total amount of stress one can receive before negative health effects is unlimited. Evidently, marked reductions in stress related disorders are shown following formal cardiac rehabilitation programs. Attendance of cardiac rehabilitation is highly recommended for the stress-related mortality risk reduction. Innovative approaches to offset the broad challenges that CVD pose, augmented by sustained exposure to stress, are desperately needed, but hindered by a lack of successful population-level interventions that promote lasting change.
    • Motor Competence Among Children in the United Kingdom and Ireland: An Expert Statement on Behalf of the International Motor Development Research Consortium

      Duncan, Michael J.; Foweather, Lawrence; Bardid, Farid; Barnett, Anna L.; Rudd, James; O’Brien, Wesley; Foulkes, Jonathan D.; Roscoe, Clare; Issartel, Johann; Stratton, Gareth; et al. (Human Kinetics, 2022-01-25)
      The United Kingdom and Ireland have a well-established research base in motor competence (MC) research, ranging from reporting and monitoring levels of MC, developing assessment tools for MC, providing innovative curriculum and intervention design to support learning and development, as well as providing advocacy for particular groups, such as those with motor impairments. This expert statement, on behalf of the International Motor Development Research Consortium, draws together what is currently known about levels of MC in the United Kingdom and Ireland as well as current approaches to intervention in both countries. Subsequently presented are recommendations for researchers and practitioners to advance the field of MC for the benefit of children and youth in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and worldwide.
    • “It's easy to dismiss it as simply a spiritual problem.” Experiences of mental distress within evangelical Christian communities: A qualitative survey

      Lloyd, Dr. Christopher E. M.; Hutchinson, Jonathan; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2022-01-18)
      Evidence suggests that faith communities can support psychological wellbeing but can also potentially diminish wellbeing through stigma, imposed spiritualization, and marginalization. In particular, for evangelical Christianity, whose theological praxis typically accentuates literalist spiritual onto-etiologies, including the belief that mental distress can be treated solely through spiritual intervention (prayer, fasting, and deliverance), there may be negative implications for Christians with mental distress. The current qualitative survey examined the responses of 293 self-identified evangelical Christians, concerning their experiences of mental distress in relation to their church community. An inductive thematic analysis revealed five themes: 1) Tensions between Faith and Suffering; 2) Cautions about a Reductive Spiritualization; 3) Feeling Othered and Disconnected; 4) Faith as Alleviating Distress; and 5) Inviting an Integrationist Position. Findings reveal stigma and the totalizing spiritualization of mental distress can be experienced as both dismissive and invalidating and can problematize secular help-seeking. This lends support to previous research which has suggested that evangelical Christian communities tend to link mental distress to spiritual deficiencies, which can hold potentially negative consequences for their wellbeing. Nevertheless, a degree of complexity and nuance emerged whereby spiritual explanations and interventions were also experienced as sometimes helpful in alleviating suffering. Overall, findings suggest evangelical communities are increasingly adopting integrationist understandings of mental distress, whereby spiritual narratives are assimilated alongside the biopsychosocial. We argue that church communities and psychotherapeutic practitioners should support movement from a position of dichotomizing psychological suffering (e.g., spiritual vs. biopsychosocial) towards a spiritually syntonic frame, which contextualizes distress in terms of the whole person. Considerations for psychotherapeutic practice and further research are made.
    • Science of Psychology as a Tool for Islamic Revival

      Mushfequr Rahman, Mohammad; University of Derby (Science Publishing Group, 2022-01-15)
      As psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior then it follows that psychology should be able to understand, manipulate, predict and treat human thought and behavior. The purpose of this paper is to explain how first of these three could be used to revive Islam among Muslims in Muslim majority countries. The discussion has been analytical in nature while applying psychological principles and theories from a wide range of psychological studies to understand and design Islamic revival. The paper focuses on five core psychological and psychosocial areas: early childhood development, adulthood, social relationship, marriage and unity. These are crucial foundations for any people, society and it's worldview and even more so for Muslims and Islamic revival. The readers must not in anyway, get the idea that this paper proposes Islam vs West conflict, rather the paper establishes the uniqueness and independence of the Islamic society through the Islamic religion while revealing Islam as a broader system. The paper truly establishes human diversity on independent values and laws through Islam as an example. The paper reveals that psychology is a workable science and not just theory and as such Muslim psychologists should continue to study and use psychology to evolve and mature the Islamic self-concept, Islamic conscience and Islamic society.
    • One-year changes in the prevalence and positive psychological correlates of depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic among medical science students in northeast of Iran

      Mirhosseini, Seyedmohammad; Grimwood, Samuel; Dadgari, Ali; Hasan Basirinezhad, Mohammad; Montazeri, Rasoul; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; University of Derby; Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran; Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran (Wiley, 2022-01-12)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a significant psychological burden on many across society especially students studying medical sciences. This study intended to investigate the one-year changes in the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic among medical science students. A cross-sectional study in Shahroud, Iran administering a convenience sampling method (January to February 2021). Online self-reported questionnaires included Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Paloutzian-Ellison Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire, Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale and the University Student Depression Inventory. Data analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Independent t-test and Multiple Regression Analysis). A total of 306 medical science students were investigated in this study. The mean scores 1 year after the outbreak of COVID-19 were for depression (81.25 ± 26.04), spiritual well-being (80.98 ± 18.06), self-esteem (26.89 ± 2.20), and life satisfaction (19.68 ± 6.81). The results indicated that depression mean score was significantly higher in post outbreak assessment (71.92 ± 22.94 vs 81.25 ± 26.04) (P < .001). Fifty percentage of changes in depression can be predicted by studied variables. A high score of depression was directly associated with a higher level of self-esteem. Moreover, increased interest in the field, scores of spiritual well-being, and life satisfaction were inversely and significantly associated with depression. Iran's education system has been significantly affected, with the addition to the COVID-19 pandemic imposing a psychological burden such as depression, exacerbating this within medical science students compared to a year ago. Spiritual well-being and life satisfaction as positive psychology constructs were recognized as protective factors against depression during the pandemic. Spiritual and social support should be integrated in psychological interventions within university settings for medical science students.
    • Acute hazard assessment of silver nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation, oral and intravenous injection exposures.

      Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Mroczko, Agnieszka; Brown, David; Stone, Vicki; University of Derby; National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh (Taylor & Francis, 2022-01-11)
      With ever-increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a necessity to evaluate the probability of consequential adverse effects in individuals exposed to these particles. It is now understood that a proportion of NPs can translocate from primary sites of exposure to a range of secondary organs, with the liver, kidneys and spleen being some of the most important. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive toxicological profiling (inflammation, changes in serum biochemistry, oxidative stress, acute phase response and histopathology) of Ag NP induced adverse effects in the three organs of interest following acute exposure of the materials at identical doses via intravenous (IV), intratracheal (IT) instillation and oral administration. The data clearly demonstrated that bioaccumulation and toxicity of the particles were most significant following the IV route of exposure, followed by IT. However, oral exposure to the NPs did not result in any changes that could be interpreted as toxicity in any of the organs of interest within the confines of this investigation. The finding of this study clearly indicates the importance of the route of exposure in secondary organ hazard assessment for NPs. Finally, we identify Connexin 32 (Cx32) as a novel biomarker of NP-mediated hepatic damage which is quantifiable both (in vitro) and in vivo following exposure of physiologically relevant doses.
    • Definitions of Self-Esteem across CBT and REBT Literature

      Paget, Jodie; Branch, Rhena; Townend, Michael; University of East Anglia; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2022-01-06)
      This chapter discusses how self-esteem is currently defined across common CBT and REBT literature. It aims to establish if there is a clear consensus as to what constitutes low, healthy, and high self-esteem, and implications this may have on clinical practice. Definitions of self-esteem within the DSM-5 and ICD-10 are reviewed, as well as cognitive and affective models of self-esteem. Definitions of self-esteem differ widely both across CBT and REBT as well as within CBT and REBT. Definitions are inconsistent within the DSM-5 and ICD-10. Conflation of beliefs, emotions, and constructs of self-esteem occur across research and within CBT and REBT, but is less frequent in REBT. Inconsistencies are more prevalent within CBT literature, which may be problematic, as points of intervention may therefore differ depending on theoretical understanding and definition of constructs of self-esteem.
    • Onset of Weight Gain and Health Concerns for Men: Findings from the TAP Programme

      Cortnage, Mark; Pringle, Andy; Anglia Ruskin University; University of Derby (MDPI, 2022-01-05)
      With shown reticence by men to engage with dietary interventions for weight loss, inves tigations that provide detail on men’s perceptions for the causes of weight gain and subsequent concerns over health and image are important. Such discoveries have potential to make a valuable contribution to male gendered programme design aimed at tackling weight gain and promoting good health. Connecting to men to health using their hobbies and interests, this study deployed semi structured interviews of eight male participants (age > 35 years) enrolled on The Alpha Programme (TAP). TAP is a 12-week football and weight management intervention delivered in local community venues. Results captured men’s lived experiences and feelings of being overweight, their attempts at dietary modification, health and causes of weight gain. Results signify externalized attribution for weight gain, entrenched habitual intake practices, despondency related to weight stigmatization, self-objectification and low self-worth. Moreover, this study outlines the processes for capturing this information using a male friendly approach and setting. Outcomes have potential for shaping bespoke men’s weight management and health improvement interventions in the future.
    • Creating a Sport and Exercise Medicine Masters syllabus for doctors: a Delphi Study

      Vishnubala, Dane; Iqbal, Adil; Mario, Katie; Salman, David; Pringle, Andy; Bazira, Peter; Finn, Gab; Hull York Medical School; University of Leeds; Royal Stoke University Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, UK; et al. (BMJ, 2022)
      Sport and Exercise Medicine (SEM) Masters curricula vary. This Delphi study aimed to create a consensus curriculum for doctors undertaking SEM Masters courses. A modified Delphi survey was utilised. An expert panel was established of individuals deemed to have adequate knowledge of the field. The research group developed the initial draft of the curriculum by collating and reviewing previously published United Kingdom-based postgraduate SEM-related curricula. There were 2 phases. In phase 1 the expert group either accepted, rejected or modified each learning objective (LO). During phase 2 the expert group were asked to accept or reject each LO that did not get accepted outright previously. The research group analysed the levels of agreements and the comments given by the expert panel after each phase. The expert panel consisted of 45 individuals, with 35 completing phase 2 (78% retention rate). Of the 136 LOs initially collated: 71 (52%) were accepted outright, 60 (44%) were altered in some way and re-included in phase 2, and 5 (4%) were removed after phase 1. The research group added 2 (1%) new LOs upon reflection over comments made by the expert panel. The final curriculum contained 133 LOs, divided into 11 sub-themes. The findings will better inform educators when developing SEM Masters curricula and inform students what they should look for when considering an SEM Masters. This consensus curriculum is an important step in standardizing postgraduate SEM education.
    • A 150-mile ultra-endurance cycling event for people with type 1 diabetes: A qualitative analysis of knowledge, preparation and management strategies

      King, Andrew; Pringle, Andy; Pickering, Katie; Kime, Nicky; Australian Catholic University; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University; Bradford Institute of Health (Wiley, 2022)
      The purpose of this study is to characterise the decision-making and self-management strategies of individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) participating in a 150-mile ultra-endurance cycling event and inform Healthcare Professionals working in T1D. Participation in ultra-endurance exercise is becoming increasingly popular in the T1D community and self-management in this context needs further investigation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants with T1D who took part in the ‘Coast to Coast in a Day’ cycling sportive. Event-specific and T1D self-management strategies in the context of endurance exercise were assessed using the Thematic Network Approach to analysis. Participants reported that they took part in the event "as a cyclist rather than a Type 1 diabetic". A range of self-management strategies to manage glycaemic control were identified, but all were grounded in experience of a "trial-and-error" approach to determine "successful practice". Engagement with Healthcare Professionals in preparation for the event was limited due to a perceived lack of endurance exercise knowledge. Participants reflected that T1D can be controlled in ultra-endurance events through careful and practised self-management of energy intake and insulin strategies. Individuals with T1D are capable of taking part and excelling in ultra-endurance events, but current Healthcare Professional advice does not match patient ambition and practice, which is grounded in an identity that is first and foremost as a ‘cyclist and person’. Limitations in participants’ "trial-and-error" practices require further understanding from Healthcare Professionals to provide advice around existing knowledge, preparation and self-management strategies for ultra-endurance exercise.
    • No Independent or Synergistic Effects of Carbohydrate-Caffeine Mouth Rinse on Repeated Sprint Performance During Simulated Soccer Match Play in Male Recreational Soccer Players

      Gough, Lewis A.; Faghy, Mark; Clarke, Neil; Kelly, Adam L.; Cole, Matthew; Lun Foo, Wee; Birmingham City University; University of Derby; Coventry University (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-18)
      The study examined the synergistic and independent effects of carbohydrate-caffeine mouth rinse on repeated sprint performance during simulated soccer match play. Nine male soccer players (21 ± 3 years, 1.75 ± 0.05 m, 68.0 ± 9.0 kg) completed four trials with either 6 mg·kg−1 caffeine + 10% maltodextrin (CHO+CAFMR), 6 mg·kg−1 caffeine (CAFMR), 10% maltodextrin (CHOMR), water (PLA) in a block randomised, double-blinded, counterbalanced and crossover manner separated by minimum 96 h. All solutions were taste-matched and a carbohydrate-rich meal (2 g·kg−1body mass) was provided a minimum 2 h before each trial. Each trial consisted of a 90-min soccer specific aerobic field test (SAFT90) and two bouts of repeated sprint ability tests (RSAT; 6 x 6 s sprints with 24 s recovery) completed at 0 min and 75th min of SAFT90. A 25 ml solution of either CHO+CAFMR, CAFMR, CHOMR or PLA was rinsed immediately before the second RSAT (75 min). Mean power output, peak power output (PPO) or fatigue index (FI) was not impacted by any treatment during the 75th min RAST (p > 0.05). These results suggest that carbohydrate and/or caffeine mouth rinses do not have an ergogenic effect during simulated soccer exercise after a high carbohydrate meal.