• Vitamin B12 insufficiency induces cholesterol biosynthesis by limiting s-adenosylmethionine and modulating the methylation of SREBF1 and LDLR genes

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Finer, S; Voyias, P.D; McCarthy, C.M; Vatish, M; Moore, J; Smart-Halajko, M; Bawazeer, N; Al-Daghri, N.M; McTernan, P.G; et al. (BMC, 27/02/2015)
      The dietary supply of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, betaine, methionine, and choline is essential for normal growth, development, and physiological functions through the life course. Both human and animal studies have shown that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with altered lipid profile and play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, however, as of yet, no direct mechanism has been investigated to confirm this.
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes.

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Jayashri, R; Sukumar, N; Venkataraman, H; Pradeepa, R; Gokulakrishnan, K; Anjana, R.M; McTernan, P.G; Tripathi, G; Patel, V; et al. (BMC, 26/09/2014)
      Metformin, a standard therapy in type 2 diabetes, reduces vitamin B12 levels. Studies linking low vitamin B12 levels and cardiovascular disease are equivocal and suggest improving B12 levels may help in primary prevention. The role of vitamin B12 deficiency on cardiovascular risk factors, especially in type 2 diabetes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in two different ethnic groups in UK and India. Type 2 diabetes patients from two secondary care diabetic centres (Europeans - UK and Indians - India) were studied. Serum vitamin B12, folate and biochemical parameters were measured. The prevalence rates of vitamin B12 deficiency (<191 ng/L) were 27% and 12% in Europeans and Indians, respectively and higher in metformin treated type 2 diabetes patients. In linear regression analysis, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors, vitamin B12 independently associated with triglycerides in both the populations and cholesterol/HDL ratio in Indians. Logistic regression showed type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin B12 deficiency were at significantly higher odds of having coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD) in Europeans with similar but non-significant trend in Indians, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is common in type 2 diabetes patients and is associated with adverse lipid parameters. Type 2 diabetes management guidelines should include the recommendation for regular testing for B12 levels, especially for those on metformin.
    • PWE-254 Is the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) around colorectal cancer really ‘normal’?

      Patel, A; Fang, Y; Moore, J; Williams, N; Tripathi, G; Arasaradnam, R; University of Westminster (BMJ, 22/06/2015)
      Field cancerisation refers to the process whereby cells acquire pro-tumourigenic mutations that predispose to malignant transformation but do not produce morphological change.1Previous colorectal cancer studies have assumed that the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) adjacent to a cancer is biologically unaltered. The aim of this study was to determine if the genetic expression profile of the MNM around a cancer or adenoma is different to that found in healthy controls. 15 patients undergoing colonoscopy were recruited over 12 months; 5 healthy controls, 5 with colorectal adenomas and 5 with adenocarcinoma. Two mucosal pinch biopsies were taken in the rectum, right colon and adjacent to polyp or cancer. mRNA was extracted and gene expression was assessed using standard whole genome micro-array analysis. Differentially expressed genes were identified using three methods of analysis: LIMMA (fold change ratio >1.5 and p value <0.05), Robust Regression (RR) (adjusted p value <0.05) and genes that ‘overlap’ when LIMMA (p value <0.001) and RR (adjusted p value <0.1) are used. Functional analysis was performed using DAVID2software to identify important biological processes that were dysregulated. A large number of genes were dysregulated in the MNM adjacent to cancer or adenoma compared with controls (Table 1). Interestingly, the greatest differences were seen between MNM adjacent to cancer and polyp in chromatin organisation, nucleosome processing, nuclear transport and histone assembly. The most significantly upregulated genes consisted of FUT2, CTSA, MUC2 and SDS and downregulated genes consisted of GREM1, SFRP, HIST1H, IL17B and TFF1.
    • Habitual physical activity is associated with circulating irisin in healthy controls but not in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2

      Al‐Daghri, N.M; Alokail, M.S; Rahman, S; Amer, O.E; Al‐Attas, O.S; Alfawaz, H; Tripathi, G; Sabico, S.; Chrousos, G.P; McTernan, P.G; et al. (Wiley, 22/05/2015)
      Irisin, a novel myokine, has been shown to increase following vigorous exercise, with studies suggesting that it mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise. Irisin might play a role in ‘browning’ of white adipocytes, thus increasing energy expenditure. The role of irisin in exercise and energy expenditure in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin and habitual physical activity in subjects with and without DMT2. In this cross‐sectional study, 164 Saudi adults: 81 non‐DMT2 controls [age: (mean ± SD) 51·6 ± 10·9; BMI: 29·6 ± 4·3 kg/m2] and 83 DMT2 subjects [age: 54·3 ± 10·3 year; BMI: 29·4 ± 4·7 kg/m2] were studied. Anthropometric and fasting serum biochemical data were collected. Circulating irisin was measured using an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Frequency intensity time (FIT) index was used to assess the level of habitual physical activity. We observed significantly higher levels of irisin in DMT2 subjects than in controls (P < 0·001). FIT index was positively associated (r = 0·20, P = 0·03) with circulating irisin in controls only. Additionally, irisin levels were significantly higher in tertile 3 (0·75 ± 0·07 μg/mL) than tertile 1 (0·49 ± 0·06 μg/mL) of the FIT index in healthy controls, whilst no such relation with physical activity was observed in DMT2 subjects. This cross‐sectional study has shown a weak association of irisin with physical activity levels in healthy controls but not in DMT2 subjects, suggesting the possibility of discordant regulation in the condition of DMT2.
    • Telmisartan reverses antiretroviral-induced adipocyte toxicity and insulin resistance in vitro

      Pushpakom, S.P; Adaikalakoteswari, A; Owen, A; Back, D.J; Tripathi, G; Kumar, S; McTernan, P; Pirmohamed, M; University of Warwick (Sage, 21/02/2018)
      Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose–response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects. Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Adipokine secretion and expression of insulin signalling mediators were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Telmisartan partially reversed the deleterious effects of antiretrovirals on adipocyte lipid accumulation, expression of adipogenic regulators (peroxisome proliferator receptor-gamma and lipin 1), adipokine secretion and expression of the insulin signalling mediator pAktSer473. The metabolic effects of telmisartan followed a non-monotonic response with the maximal effect observed at 5 µM in the primary human adipocyte model. Telmisartan has beneficial metabolic effects in adipocytes in vitro, but its potential to reduce antiretroviral-induced cardiometabolic disease in HIV-infected individuals needs to be evaluated in a well-designed adequately powered clinical trial.
    • Incidence, severity and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 in the UK CrossFit population

      Redwood-Mills, Athalie; Ralston, Grant; Wilson, Jennifer; Nottingham Trent; FiiT for Life Education Ltd, Derby; University of Derby (BioMed Central, 2021-09-06)
      Contemporary literature indicates that a higher body mass index (BMI) serves as a risk factor for metabolic disease and is also correlated with greater disease severity. Subsequently, it has been linked to increased COVID-19 severity. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether regular CrossFit™ participation was associated with lower BMI, decreased COVID-19 severity and susceptibility. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1806 CrossFit™ (CF) participants. Participants were asked about their age (yrs), sex (male vs. female), ethnic group, body height (cm) and weight (kg). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was computed and consistent with WHO (2018) criteria. Participants self-reported their training history, health and lifestyle history, nutritional customs, present training status and suspected levels of exposure to COVID-19. Once submitted the collected data were coded, cleaned and analysed. The final model comprised of 1806 CF individuals from an online survey response rate of 2086. The participants age ranged from 18 to 65+ yrs. Self-reported mean body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) reported that < 1% were underweight, 41% were healthy, 46% overweight, 10% class I obese, 2% class II obese, and < 1% class III obese. A Kruskal–Wallis H test compared gender and self-reported probability of being infected with COVID-19 with significant differences between subgroups (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 10.86, p = 0.03). Analysis of BMI and perceived severity of COVID-19 revealed a difference however not, significant (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 9.46, p = 0.051). Results on BMI and perceived probability of COVID-19 infection revealed no significant difference (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 2.68, p = 0.61). A separate analysis on BMI and perceived COVID-19 susceptibility revealed no significant difference (x2 (4, N = 1740) = 6.02, p = 0.20). The purpose of the study was to establish whether habitual CrossFit™ participation is associated with reduced BMI, and to further investigate whether habitual participation impacted perceptions of disease. Results of the study indicate that self-reported CrossFit™ participation during the first UK lockdown, measured in minutes of exercise was indicative of a lower BMI. This has been associated with greater host immunity to disease. A history of CrossFit™ participation was not shown to impact perceptions of disease. However, our sample population reported few changes to habitual exercise during lockdown which may be due to the ‘community’ and increased adherence associated with CrossFit™.
    • Investigating the effect of walking football on the mental and social wellbeing of men

      Taylor, Dominic; Pringle, Andy; Leeds Beckett University; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-19)
      A weekly walking football intervention was delivered for men identified by mental health services with a mental health condition. Following familiarisation, an interviewer-led questionnaire captured demographic data. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with (I) male attendees using an adapted version of Hargreaves and Pringle1 and (II) the walking football programme lead. Interviews explored facilitators for engagement, benefits and key implementation considerations. Nine men attended of which seven participated in this research. Participants were white British, aged 25-44 years and living within 10 miles of the venue. Interviews identified the effect on social and mental health benefits including social support, connectedness and responsibility to fellow attendees of presenting each week. Distraction, achievement and confidence from playing football, as well as the development of skills were also identified as benefits. The intensity in which walking football was played helped facilitate inclusivity along with a stable local venue that helped accommodate different ability levels.
    • What Comes First, the Behavior or the Condition? In the COVID-19 Era, It May Go Both Ways

      Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Faghy, Mark A; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-08-12)
      Which came first, the chicken or the egg? This causality dilemma was first proposed by the Greek biographer Plutarch in the 1st century CE. While the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and chronic disease is not always a certainty, and genetic predisposition can independently lead to premature chronic disease, the likelihood of developing one or more chronic conditions is significantly higher in those who: (1) lead sedentary lifestyles; (2) consume unhealthy diets; (3) smoke; or (4) have excess body mass. Recently, the Royal College of General Practitioners issued an apology for the title of an online event that suggested the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a lifestyle disease. We feel that this was the correct course of action as leading an unhealthy lifestyle is certainly not the cause for an individual contracting COVID-19 (ie, effect). However, a body of evidence has demonstrated that unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and characteristics as well as being diagnosed with one or more chronic diseases does significantly increase the risk for a complicated medical course in individuals infected with COVID-19. Moreover, the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and characteristics and COVID-19 may eventually prove to go both ways, as the pandemic may lead to a higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and characteristics over the long term that eventually leads to a higher prevalence of chronic disease. As such, health living medicine must be widely practiced and prescribed to all individuals globally.
    • Associations of Sedentary Time with Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

      Alansare, Abdullah Bandar; Bates, Lauren C; Stoner, Lee; Kline, Christopher E; Nagle, Elizabeth; Jennings, J Richard; Hanson, Erik D; Faghy, Mark A; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-12)
      To evaluate if sedentary time (ST) is associated with heart rate (HR) and variability (HRV) in adults we systematically searched PubMed and Google Scholar through June 2020. Inclusion criteria were observational design, humans, adults, English language, ST as the exposure, resting HR/HRV as the outcome, and (meta-analysis only) availability of the quantitative association with variability. After qualitative synthesis, meta-analysis used inverse variance heterogeneity models to estimate pooled associations. Thirteen and eight articles met the criteria for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. All studies were cross-sectional and few used gold standard ST or HRV assessment methodology. The qualitative synthesis suggested no associations between ST and HR/HRV. The meta-analysis found a significant association between ST and HR (β = 0.24 bpm per hour ST; CI: 0.10, 0.37) that was stronger in males (β = 0.36 bpm per hour ST; CI: 0.19, 0.53). Pooled associations between ST and HRV indices were non-significant (p > 0.05). Substantial heterogeneity was detected. The limited available evidence suggests an unfavorable but not clinically meaningful association between ST and HR, but no association with HRV. Future longitudinal studies assessing ST with thigh-based monitoring and HRV with electrocardiogram are needed
    • Current and Future Implications of COVID-19 among Youth Wheelchair Users: 24-Hour Activity Behavior.

      Conners, Ryan T; Bates, Lauren C; Lassalle, Patricia Pagan; Zieff, Gabriel; Whitehead, Paul N; Stevens, Sandra; Killen, Lauren; Cochrum, Robert; Rodebaugh, Kathryn L; Stoner, Lee; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-11)
      Preventative measures taken worldwide to decrease the transmission of COVID-19 have had a tremendous impact on youth. Following social restrictions, youth with and without physical disabilities are engaging in less physical activity, more increased sedentary behavior, and poor sleep habits. Specifically, youth wheelchair users (YWU) are likely disproportionately affected by COVID- 19 and have a higher risk of contraction due to underlying comorbidities. While we cannot control all of the negative long-term implications of COVID-19 for YWU, participation in positive 24-h activity behaviors can decrease chronic disease risk and the likelihood of long-term complications resulting from infection. This commentary is to extend the discourse on the importance of 24-h activity behaviors by focusing on YWU. Specifically, we discuss the importance of chronic disease prevention, provide a brief overview of 24-h activity behaviors, and outline some of the lessons that can be learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • A Call to Clarify the Intensity and Classification of Standing Behavior

      Kowalsky, Robert J; Stoner, Lee; Faghy, Mark A; Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Human Science Research Centre (MDPI, 2021-08-10)
      Public health guidelines for physical activity now include recommendations to break up prolonged sitting with light-intensity activities. Concurrently, interventions to increase standing have emerged, especially within the workplace in the form of sit–stand or standing workstations. Moreover, in short-duration studies, breaking up prolonged sitting with standing has been associated improved cardiometabolic outcomes. Publicly available estimates of the intensity of standing range from 1.5 to 2.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), neatly classifying standing as a light-intensity activity (>1.5 to <3.0 METs). Further delineation between ‘active’ and ‘passive’ standing has been proposed, with corresponding METs of >2.0 METs and ≤2.0 METs, respectively. However, this study reviews data suggesting that some standing (e.g., while performing deskwork) is substantially below the minimum light intensity activity threshold of 1.5 METs. These data bring into question whether standing should be universally classified as a light-intensity behavior. The objectives of this study are to (i) highlight discrepancies in classifying standing behavior in the human movement spectrum continuum, and (ii) to propose a realignment of the ‘active’ vs. ‘passive’ standing threshold to match the light intensity threshold to help provide a clearer research framework and subsequent public health messaging for the expected health benefits from standing.
    • The Effects of a Nutrition Education Intervention on Sports Nutrition Knowledge during a Competitive Season in Highly Trained Adolescent Swimmers.

      Foo, Wee Lun; Faghy, Mark A; Sparks, Andy; Newbury, Josh W; Gough, Lewis A; Birmingham City University; University of Derby; University of Illinois at Chicago; Edge Hill University (MDPI, 2021-08-06)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a seven-week nutrition education intervention on the sports nutrition knowledge (SNK) of highly trained UK adolescent swimmers. Fifteen national and international adolescent swimmers (males = 5; females = 10, 15.5 ± 1.1 years, 170.2 ± 7.5 cm, 60.3 ± 5.7 kg) participated in the study during seven consecutive weeks of the competitive swimming season. The participants received 30 min of nutrition education once per week in a classroom-based setting after they had completed their regular swim training. An undergraduate sports nutrition student delivered all nutrition education sessions and SNK questionnaires were administered to the participants pre- and post-intervention. The mean total SNK score improved by 8.3% (SD = 8.4%, 95% CI = 4.1-12.6; p = 0.006; ES = 1.0) following the nutrition education sessions. On an individual basis, ten swimmers significantly improved their total SNK score, whereas four swimmers did not improve, and one swimmer performed significantly worse after the intervention. Moreover, the swimmers' knowledge of hydration improved by 22.2% (SD = 20.6%, 95% CI = 11.8-32.6, p = 0.004, ES = 1.1) over the seven-week timeframe, which was the only nutrition topic to have a significantly increased knowledge score. The current study therefore suggests that a nutrition education intervention can positively influence the SNK of highly trained adolescent swimmers.
    • The experience of loneliness: The role of fears of compassion and social safeness

      Best, Talitha; Herring, Lee; Clarke, Chantelle; Kirby, James; Gilbert, Paul; University of Queensland; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-07-31)
      There are multiple factors associated with an increasing rate of loneliness. One common thread may be social disconnection and a reduced ability to feel safe in social settings for fear of giving to and receiving help from others. This study used an online survey to explore loneliness and its relationship with related psychological constructs of social connectedness, social safeness, subjective happiness, and fears of compassion in 177 adults (Female = 126), aged 18–70 years. The results showed that those with high loneliness reported significantly higher fears of expressing compassion for others and self, and receiving compassion from others, as well as lower reported social safeness, subjective happiness and social connection compared to those with reported low loneliness. Those with moderate levels of loneliness were not significantly different from the high loneliness group on fears of compassion towards others or measures of positive affect. The findings show that social safeness, and fears of receiving compassion from others or self are highly related to those with high levels of loneliness.
    • “A gentle balance of pushing, pulling and sitting with”: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of psychological therapists’ experiences of working with goals in adult pluralistic private practice

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Antonino, Raffaello; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis/ Informa UK, 2021-07-27)
      Evidence suggests that working with goals, or goal-based practice (GBP) which is fundamental to several contemporary psychotherapies, can enhance the content, process and outcome of psychotherapeutic work. At present, no qualitative research has explored how psychological therapists experience GBP with their clients. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was selected to explore how eight psychological therapists working in adult pluralistic private practice experienced GBP. Three superordinate themes were constructed during the analysis process. “A pathway through the jungle” highlighted how GBP was variously experienced as aiding the therapeutic partnership by monitoring progress, providing focus and increasing positive affect. “Invalidating the therapeutic journey,” where GBP was felt to potentially detract from the client’s frame of reference, to jeopardise the therapeutic containment of sessions and increase the client’s feeling of failure. Finally, “Maintaining the client-led story,” which resembled an antidote to what was experienced as non-humanistic GBP. This involved practitioners preserving time to reflect on their own goals and agendas for their clients and the ways their own psychological processes might be influencing the use of GBP within the therapeutic relationship. Of particular pertinence was therapists’ acknowledgement that GBP may function to shield therapists from feelings of failure or frustration, and may be used consciously or otherwise. We argue that approaches to GBP that attempt to determine helpful or unhelpful aspects of GBP in isolation are likely to overlook therapeutic processes which are vital to ensuring that GBP is collaborative and meaningful for the client. Results are discussed regarding wider literature and suggestions for further research are made.
    • Physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with spinal cord injury: Mitigation strategies during COVID-19 on behalf of ACSM-EIM and HL-PIVOT

      Bates, Lauren; Conners, Ryan; Zieff, Gabriel; Adams, Nathan, T.; Edgar, Kyle, M.; Stevens, Sandra; Faghy, Mark; Arena, Ross; Vermeesch, Amber; Rodney, Joseph, P.; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-07-24)
      People with spinal cord injury (SCI) face unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, including greater risk of poor COVID-19-related outcomes, increased social isolation, and restricted access to important services. Furthermore, COVID-19 related restrictions have decreased already low levels of physical activity (PA) in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this commentary is to: 1) address the impact of COVID-19 on PA and sedentary behavior (SB) in people with SCI; 2) provide potential SB reduction strategies to guide future research; and 3) provide recommendations to increase PA and reduce SB on behalf of the American College of Sports Medicine Exercise is Medicine (ACSM-EIM) and Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) using a social-ecological model targeting the individual-, social environment-, physical environment-, and policy-level determinants of behavior in people with SCI.
    • The perception of biopsychosocial impacts of COVID-19 during lockdown restrictionsover time in the UK –a mixed methods study

      Grimwood, Samuel; Stuart, Kaz; Browning, Ruth; Winn-Reed, Thea; Bidmead, Elaine; University of Derby; University of Cumbria (Journal of Ideas in Health, 2021-07-20)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the health of individuals physically, mentally, and socially. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of this impact across the pandemic from a biopsychosocial stance. A survey created by the research team was employed between November 2020 and February 2021 across social media, relevant organizations, and networks. The survey incorporated 5-time points across the different stages of the pandemic, covering biological, psychological, and social. There were 5 items for each survey (Very Positive affect to Very Negative affect), and analysis was undertaken using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon Tests, as well as correlations between the three domains, were implemented. This study included 164 participants (77.0% female and 35.0% male) across 24 out of 38 counties in the UK. The impact of COVID-19 on biological domain was significant across the five data points χ2(4) = 63.99, p < 0.001, psychological χ2(4) = 118.939, p <0.001 and socially χ2(4) = 186.43, p <0.001. Between the 5 data points, 4 out of 5 had a negative impact, however between the first stage of lockdown and the easing of restrictions, findings for biological (Z=-2.35, p <0.05), psychological (Z=-6.61, p < 0.001), and socially (Z = -8.61, p <0.001) were positive. Negative correlations between the three domains across the pandemic are apparent, but in later stages, the biological domain had a positive correlation r = 0.52, p < 0.001. The data shows a negative impact from the self-reported perception of wellbeing from a biopsychosocial stance over time, as well as perceiving the three domains to interact negatively. To address these biopsychosocial issues, the research implies a place-based integrated recovery effort is needed, addressing biological, psychological, and social issues simultaneously. Further research should investigate biopsychosocial health among a more generalizable population.
    • Fear leads to suffering: Fears of compassion predict restriction of the moral boundary

      Crimston, Charlie R.; Blessing, Sarah; Gilbert, Paul; Kirby, James N.; The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; University of Derby, UK (Wiley, 2021-07-19)
      Empirical investigations into the psychological drivers of more or less expansive moral thinking are lacking from the psychological literature. One potential driver that warrants deeper investigation is compassion – a prosocial motivation to both identity and alleviate suffering. The current research examined the extent to which compassion, and fears of compassion, act as a driver and inhibitor, respectively, of a morally expansive mindset. We tested these associations across three studies (N = 749) and found robust support for our predictions. Specifically, stronger compassion to others, and greater fears of extending compassion to others, were linked to enhanced and reduced moral expansiveness, respectively. Moreover, over and above empathy and mindfulness, fears of compassion and compassion uniquely predicted moral expansiveness. Finally, compassion was found to consistently mediate the relationship between fears of compassion to others and moral expansiveness. Our findings further our understanding of the psychological factors that may drive and restrict morally expansive mindsets and hold implications for the broader domains of moral decision-making and prosocial motivation as well as the application of practices that are designed to facilitate a compassionate mindset (e.g., Compassionate Mind Training).
    • Mapping Stories of Cause and Cure Using Story Stem Completion: Mental Distress in the Evangelical Christian Community. A Study Protocol

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-07-11)
      Recent qualitative evidence suggests Christian communities can hold specific religious and cultural beliefs regarding mental illness, which can influence how psychological illness is experienced, perceived and managed on both an idiographic and community level. There are, however, no studies which explore the implicit wider social discourses and narratives Christians may draw upon when making sense of mental illness. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a novel pilot study, which aims to collect qualitative data using story completion. Study design: Story completion is an innovative qualitative method which presents participants with a fictional story stem, or cue, and asks participants to continue the story in their own words. This study will explore evangelical Christians perceptions, representations and views of depression (story stem 1) and self-harm (story stem 2), as well as, the wider social, religious and cultural narratives they utilise. Analysis: A critical realist informed thematic analysis will be carried out on the data. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are examined, with specific cognisance towards characteristics of the target sample.
    • COVID-19 infection and cardiometabolic complications: short- and long-term treatment and management considerations

      Stoner, Lee; Faghy, Mark; Conners, Ryan; University of Derby (IMR Press, 2021-06-30)
    • Multi-Component Physical Activity Interventions in the UK Must Consider Determinants of Activity to Increase Effectiveness.

      Faghy, Mark; Armstrong-Booth, Kirsty E; Staples, Vicki; Duncan, Micheal J; Roscoe, Clare M P; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI, 2021-06-23)
      Interventions to increase physical activity in children have adopted broad approaches and achieved varying success. There is a need to adopt approaches underpinned with a theoretical basis. Accordingly, the aim here was to implement and evaluate a 12-week intervention designed using the concepts of the COM-B model to determine the effect this has on physical activity levels. One hundred and forty-seven school-age children (mean age 8.9 ± 1.3 years) took part in a 12-week program delivered in a school setting. Topics included physical activity, healthy eating, sleep quality and reducing screen time/sedentary activities when not in school. A sample of participants wore a wrist-worn accelerometer for seven days pre-and post-intervention (N = 11). The physical activity frequency was unchanged (2.9 ± 1.0 AU) when compared with post-intervention values (3.1 ± 0.8 AU, mean increase 6.8 ± 3.7%, p > 0.05). Changes were observed in the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables (pre-intervention 44.6% vs. post-intervention 60.2%, p < 0.05). Sedentary time, light activity, moderate activity and vigorous activity were unchanged post-intervention (p > 0.05). There is a need to adopt a broader approach that incorporates a theoretical basis and considers the complex ways by which physical activity behaviours are influenced.