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  • Are spousal partner perceptions of continuity and discontinuity within the relationship linked to the symptoms of acquired brain injury?

    Yasmin, Natasha; Riley, Gerard; University of Birmingham; University of Derby (Tylor & Francis, 2021-03-18)
    Some partners experience their relationship with a person with brain injury as the continuation of a loving pre-injury relationship (continuity), but others feel that the pre-injury relationship has been lost and replaced with something very different (discontinuity). This study provided a quantitative test of claims arising from qualitative research that certain symptoms of the injury might contribute to the experience of discontinuity – specifically, lack of emotional warmth, reduced social interaction and aggression. Fifty-three partners providing care to someone with brain injury completed questionnaires assessing continuity/discontinuity and a range of symptoms (emotional warmth, conversational ability, aggression, depression, somatic complaints, cognition, communication, aggression, and phys- ical disability). Discontinuity was significantly correlated with all symptom variables except physical disability but, in a multiple regression, only the measures of emotional warmth, conversation, aggression, and depression made a significant unique contribution. Discontinuity has been linked with relationship dissatisfaction and dysfunction, greater bur- den and distress, and a less person-centred approach to the provision of care. Identifying which symp- toms contribute to discontinuity may enable partners to be more effectively supported in terms of how they make sense of and react to those symptoms, so that a greater sense of continuity may be retained.
  • An Evolving Approach to Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Muscle Function and Bone and Joint Health in the COVID-19 Era

    Myers, Jonathan; Ozemek, Cemal; Hall, Grenita; Severin, Richard; Laddu, Deepika; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Stoner, Lee; Conners, Ryan T.; Faghy, Mark A.; University of Illinois at Chicago, USA; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-05-04)
    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now an established vital sign. CRF, along with muscle function and bone and joint health is related to functional independence and a higher quality of life. Wasserman and colleagues proposed a gear model illustrating the integrated role of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle systems during aerobic exercise; in 2015, a revision to the original model was proposed. Our understanding of the effects and challenges associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rapidly evolving. Initial evidence indicates higher levels of CRF, and muscle function protect individuals infected with COVID-19 from a complicated medical course. Moreover, for those individuals infected with COVID-19, there are initial signs of a reduction in CRF following the initial phase of recovery. We are also gaining an understanding of long COVID syndrome, where individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of viral infection present with lasting symptoms, which include but are not limited to reduced CRF, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Clearly, these individuals will require rehabilitation to restore and/or improve CRF, muscle function, bone and joint health, functional capacity (ie, the ability to perform activities of daily living), and quality of life. The importance of assessing the synergistic function of systems essential to performing activities that require physical exertion is a health care imperative. This graphical narrative provides an update to the gear model initially proposed by Wasserman and updated to a gear and circuit in 2015. External CRF, muscle function, and bone and joint health influencers and an approach to clinical assessment are also introduced.
  • Theorising Organisational Resilience for Sport Management Research and Practice

    Bostock, James; Breese, Richard; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-05-20)
    Helping individuals and teams achieve their goals by being resilient is an established research field in sport. How sport organisations can be resilient in adversity is comparatively neglected, so the purpose is to provide firm foundations for conceptualising organisational resilience in sport management. “How can organisational resilience best be theorised for sport management research and practice?” From a critique of the resilience literature, a new Framework for Organisational Resilience Management (FfORM) is developed, based on the theory of organisational resource conversion and the separation of normative and descriptive levels. The FfORM is applied to sport management contexts, including the resilience of National Governing Bodies of Sport (NGBs) to reductions in UK Sport funding. Organisational resilience is conceptualised as a means to an end, to achieve externally generated goals, emphasising its dynamic, temporal nature. The FfORM illuminates the challenges for NGBs in developing organisational resilience because of trade-offs in the actions they take. As well as being an evaluation tool, the FfORM will be of utility to sport organisations addressing the unprecedented challenges arising from COVID-19. Development of theory on organisational resilience, for use in both sport and other contexts.
  • Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the antioxidant status of 1,2–dimethyl hydrazine-induced colon cancer rat model

    Venkataraman Deepak; Arputha Sundar, William; Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva D.; Hariharan, Nellaiah; Sundar, Krishnan; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-04-19)
    The aim of the current study is to ascertain the anticancer activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in the 1, 2 – dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer rat model and to determine the antioxidant status. Rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I served as control, group II served as cancer control (DMH alone administered), group III as standard drug control [Fluorouracil (5-FU) along with DMH} and group IV and V received EPS in two doses (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight along with DMH). EPS administration was found to reduce the number of polyps formed (Group IV - 8.25±1.258 & Group V - 8.50±1.732 vs Group II - 14.50±2.380) and to increase the levels of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and antioxidants like vitamin C (Vit. C), reduced glutathione (GSH) which was found to be reduced in colon cancer control rats. The status of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also evaluated. All the values which were affected by the supplementation of DMH were brought to near normal levels by the treatment with EPS. The well preserved histology of colon and the biochemical evaluation also show that EPS could be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.
  • Customised pressure profiles of made-to-measure sports compression garments

    Ashby, Jack; Lewis, Martin; Sanchis-Sanchis, Roberto; Sunderland, Caroline; Barrett, Laura A.; Morris, John G.; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Loughborough University (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-05-22)
    The purpose of this study was to make made-to-measure compression garments that elicit pressures within and below clinical standards. The study also examined whether pressures and gradients can be replicated within and between participants’ legs, and between separate compression garment conditions. Ten males volunteered to participate. Based on three-dimensional scans of the participants’ lower body, three different made-to-measure garments were manufactured: control, symmetrical and asymmetrical. Garment pressures were assessed from the malleolus to the gluteal fold using a pressure monitoring device. A root mean squared difference analysis was used to calculate the in vivo linear graduation parameters. Linear regression showed that peak pressure at the ankle in the left and right leg were: control garment, 13.5 ± 2.3 and 12.9 ± 2.6; asymmetrical garment, 12.7 ± 2.5 and 26.3 ± 3.4; symmetrical garment, 27.7 ± 2.2 and 27.5 ± 1.6 (all mmHg, mean ± standard deviation). Pressure reduction from the ankle to the gluteal fold in the left and right leg were: control, 8.9 ± 3.5 and 7.4 ± 3.0; asymmetrical, 7.8 ± 3.9 and 21.9 ± 3.2; symmetrical, 25.0 ± 4.1 and 22.3 ± 3.6 (all mmHg, mean ± standard deviation). Made-to-measure compression garments can be made to elicit pressures within and below clinical standards, and to elicit equivalent pressures and gradients in different participants.
  • Mental Distress, Stigma and Help-Seeking in the Evangelical Christian Church: Study Protocol

    Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-05-25)
    A large body of research supports the central importance of religious and spiritual belief systems for personal wellbeing. Many religious communities hold beliefs about the causes and suitable treatments for mental health conditions, which can influence how an individual experiences their mental health, as well as the likelihood of seeking professional or religious help for their psychological difficulties. Research suggests that this is especially the case for evangelical Christians, who are more likely to view mental illness as caused by demons, sin, diminished faith, or generational curses. Whilst recent qualitative evidence suggests that such beliefs can hold negative effects for evangelical Christians, there is little research exploring quantitative pathways. This study protocol paper presents a pilot study, which aims to explore how beliefs about the causes of mental illness, religious fundamentalism, help-seeking, stigma and mental health are related in evangelical Christian communities. Whilst there is some existing research exploring this area, most is drawn from a US context. The findings of the present study, therefore, will uniquely apply to a UK context. A quantitative design is proposed, which will involve statistical analyses such as correlation, regression, moderation and path analysis, to explore associations between these variables. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are discussed, with awareness of characteristics of our target sample.
  • Psychoeducation Intervention Effectiveness to Improve Social Skills in Young People with ADHD: A Meta-Analysis.

    Powell, Lauren Amy; Parker, Jack; Weighall, Anna; Harpin, Valerie; University of Derby (Sage, 2021-03-05)
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be associated with limited understanding of the condition and poor social skills. Some evidence favors a psychoeducational approach, but little is known about the effectiveness of psychoeducation. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing psychoeducational interventions that aim to improve social skills of young people with ADHD. Ten studies, including 943 participants, reported across 13 papers met the inclusion criteria. Although effect sizes were small, findings suggest the included interventions significantly improved social skills in young people with ADHD. Results show promise for psychoeducational behavioral interventions . However, the recommendations that can be developed from existing evidence are somewhat limited by the low quality of studies. Further rigorous trials are needed. In addition, future research should consider the long-term outcomes for these interventions, they should be iteratively co-designed and research should consider the context they intend to be delivered in.
  • Contending with Spiritual Reductionism: Demons, Shame, and Dividualising Experiences Among Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

    Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-05-15)
    The belief that mental distress is caused by demons, sin, or generational curses is commonplace among many evangelical Christian communities. These beliefs may have positive or negative effects for individuals and groups. Phenomenological descriptions of these experiences and the subjective meanings associated with them, however, remain somewhat neglected in the literature. The current study employed semi-structured interviews with eight evangelical Christians in order to idiographically explore their experiences of mental distress in relation to their faith and wider communities. Through an interpretative phenomenological analysis, two superordinate themes were constructed: negative spiritualisation and negotiating the dialectic between faith and the lived experience of mental distress. Participants variously experienced a climate of negative spiritualisation, whereby their mental distress was demonised and dismissed, and they were further discouraged from seeking help in secular institutions and environments. Participants often considered such dismissals of their mental distress as unhelpful and stigmatising and experienced heightened feelings of shame and suffering as a result. Such discouragement also contributed to the process of othering and relational disconnection. Alongside a rejection of church teachings, which exclusively spiritualised psychological distress, participants negotiated a nuanced personal synthesis of faith, theology, and distress, which assumed a localised and idiographic significance. This synthesis included advocating for the uptake of aetiological accounts, which contextualised mental distress in terms of the whole person and resisted de-politicised, dichotomised, and individualistic narratives. Results are discussed in relation to a broad range of literature in the field, while further research suggestions are provided.
  • LGBQ adults’ experiences of a CBT wellbeing group for anxiety and depression in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Service: a qualitative service evaluation

    Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Rimes, Katharine A.; Hambrook, David G.; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2021-01-05)
    Sexual minorities, including those identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer (LGBQ) are at heightened risk of experiencing mental health problems. Nationally, treatment outcomes within England’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services are worse for sexual minority patients than for heterosexuals. An IAPT service in London developed a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group specifically for sexual minority patients to provide a safe, affirmative intervention to learn skills for overcoming depression, anxiety and stress. A qualitative online survey was emailed to all 59 service users who had completed the eight-session intervention, to explore their experiences inductively. Survey data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Themes were identified in participants’ responses in order to establish which aspects of the group intervention were deemed to be helpful and unhelpful, and to explore suggestions for group improvement. Eighteen people completed the survey (response rate 30.5%). Respondents reported that they found the CBT frame of the group useful, with the LGBQ focus experienced as particularly beneficial, often enhancing engagement with CBT concepts and tools. In addition to generic elements of group therapy that some found difficult, others reported that intragroup diversity, such as generational differences, could lead to a reduced sense of connection. Several suggestions for group improvement were made, including incorporating more diverse perspectives and examples in session content and focusing more on issues relating to intersectionality. These results provide preliminary evidence that a culturally adapted CBT group intervention developed specifically for sexual minorities is acceptable and perceived as offering something unique and helpful.
  • Educators Perspectives on the Value of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England.

    Dobell, Alexandra; Pringle, Andy; Faghy, Mark A; Roscoe, Clare M P; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-04-26)
    There is a lack of information available for physical education (PE) provision in the early years foundation stage (EYFS), prompting concern about what is currently delivered in schools and the values behind the approaches taken. Using semi-structured interviews, this study investigated educators’ perspectives on the value of PE and physical activity (PA) for EYFS children across England in relation to opportunities for, barriers to, and benefits of PA and PE. This study collected important stakeholder views and can help shape the impact and implementation of fundamental movement skills (FMS) and PA interventions at the EYFS.
  • “Upskirting,” Homosociality, and Craftmanship: A Thematic Analysis of Perpetrator and Viewer Interactions

    Hall, Matthew; Hearn, Jeff; Lewis, Ruth; Arden University; British University in Egypt; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield; Örebro University; Hanken School of Economics; Northumbria University (Sage, 2021-05-05)
    “Upskirting” is the action or practice of surreptitiously taking photographs or videos up a female’s skirt or dress. In the United Kingdom, it is an offense. However, internationally, laws are uneven. Understanding how perpetrators account for their actions becomes an important question. Here, we present the findings of our thematic analysis of posts on the “upskirting” website, The Candid Zone. Our analysis shows that posters and respondents frame this activity as artistic and technical, providing each other with advice and guidance on where and how to get the “best” shots. We conceptualize this form of abuse as homosociality and craftsmanship.
  • Pre-competition body mass loss characteristics of Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors in the United Kingdom

    White, Tyler; Kirk, Christopher; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2021-01-05)
    Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling-based combat sport in which competitors engage in pre-competition acute ‘weight’ loss (AWL) and rapid ‘weight’ loss (RWL) to achieve the body mass (BM) required for their desired division. AWL/RWL practices of UK BJJ competitors have not previously been reported. Our aim in this study was to determine the prevalence, magnitude and stakeholder influences of AWL and RWL amongst BJJ participants in the United Kingdom (UK). A secondary aim was to explore whether there is any influence of time spent in the sport or competition frequency on AWL/RWL practices. In this study we used the rapid weight loss questionnaire (RWLQ) adapted for BJJ to determine the prevalence and magnitude of AWL/RWL in UK BJJ, the prevalence of methods used and the key stakeholder influences on these practices. As a secondary investigation we aimed to determine whether there was any effect of age starting BJJ on AWL/RWL. Of 115 completed responses, 59% stated they performed AWL/RWL before competition. Mean BM loss for this competition was 1.9 ± 3.8 kg (2.3 ± 4.6%), with 34% of participants starting BM loss 3–7 days prior and 16% starting 0–2 days prior. Methods used tend to be achieving calorie deficit via exercise and diet rather than hypohydration, with little advice from formally qualified personnel. Participants who perform AWL/RWL started training (BF10 = 199, d = .72) and competing (BF10 = 107, d = .68) in BJJ younger than those who do not perform AWL/RWL. AWL/RWL is prevalent in UK BJJ, but not at the magnitude of other combat sports or countries. Though negative effects of extreme hypohydration are unlikely, there may be a higher chance of eating disorders in BJJ, particularly due to the young age of AWL/RWL commencement.
  • Are Torque-Driven Simulation Models of Human Movement Limited by an Assumption of Monoarticularity?

    Lewis, Martin; Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; University of Derby; Loughborough University (MDPI, 2021-04-24)
    Subject-specific torque-driven computer simulation models employing single-joint torque generators have successfully simulated various sports movements with a key assumption that the maximal torque exerted at a joint is a function of the kinematics of that joint alone. This study investigates the effect on model accuracy of single-joint or two-joint torque generator representations within whole-body simulations of squat jumping and countermovement jumping. Two eight-segment forward dynamics subject-specific rigid body models with torque generators at five joints are constructed—the first model includes lower limb torques, calculated solely from single-joint torque generators, and the second model includes two-joint torque generators. Both models are used to produce matched simulations to a squat jump and a countermovement jump by varying activation timings to the torque generators in each model. The two-joint torque generator model of squat and countermovement jumps matched measured jump performances more closely (6% and 10% different, respectively) than the single-joint simulation model (10% and 24% different, respectively). Our results show that the two-joint model performed better for squat jumping and the upward phase of the countermovement jump by more closely matching faster joint velocities and achieving comparable amounts of lower limb joint extension. The submaximal descent phase of the countermovement jump was matched with similar accuracy by the two models (9% difference). In conclusion, a two-joint torque generator representation is likely to be more appropriate for simulating dynamic tasks requiring large joint torques and near-maximal joint velocities.
  • The effect of the number of interviewers on children’s testimonies

    Ferra, Fenia; Blades, Mark; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby; University of Sheffield; De Montfort University (Informa UK Limited, 2021-04-02)
    Many investigative interviews with children who report that they have been victims of crime are carried out by one interviewer. Some interviews, however, may involve more than one interviewer. There has been little research examining the impact upon children’s reports when more than one interviewer (or adult) is present. Over the course of two experimental studies, involving 375 children in total, the effects that the number of adults (present in such interviews) had on children’s recall were investigated. It was found that the number of the adults present during an interview had an effect on the quality and quantity of the information children provided. When children were interviewed by a single interviewer, with no-one else present, the children provided lengthier and more accurate accounts, in comparison to when children were interviewed by an interviewer in the presence of either one or two additional adults. These findings have implications for the conduct of forensic interviews, especially in those countries where several adults are present in forensic interviews.
  • A Critical Discussion of the Clinical Management of Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Chatzinikolaou, Marios Dimitrios; Apeiranthitou., Vasiliki; University of Derby; University College London (ECronicon Open Access, 2021-01-30)
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are both classified as neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting primarily young children and adolescents, stemming from biological/genetic and environmental origins that negatively influence neurobiological structures and leading to gastrointestinal discomforts. More precisely, toxins produced by pathogenic microorganisms’ overgrowth, unnecessary employment of antibiotics, abnormalities in the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes and gut’s mucosal lining disruptions result in alterations in children’s neurological functioning. Central nervous system alterations adversely affect brain maturation, social interactions, and cognitive abilities. In this respect, dietary supplementations such as omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or vitamins can be effectuated, potentially increasing the effectiveness of pharmacological medications. However, research findings divulge an unspecified consensus concerning optimal supplementation duration, exact dosages, consistent utilization of outcome measures, adherence to supplements, and their longterm behavioral and health effects. In addition, dietary supplements do not always enable for corrections of children’s micronutrient deficiencies, contributing to excessive intake. Thus, it can be speculated that they cannot be provided solitarily since they depict developmental insensitivities in addressing all nutritional needs of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder individuals. Accordingly, each individual’s developmental needs and entire dietary patterns should be carefully considered for the elimination of comorbid health conditions. In conjunction with the development and validation of universally accepted dietary plan, this shall allow for the construction of a holistic and multidisciplinary approach to dietary treatment schemes that can fully benefit these populations and are especially adapted to their needs. Future research should further explore gluten/casein-free and other restrictive diets, along with the clarification of effective randomized controlled trials.
  • Creating a compassionate world: addressing the conflicts between sharing and caring versus controlling and holding evolved strategies

    Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-02-10)
    For thousands of years, various spiritual traditions and social activists have appealed to humans to adopt compassionate ways of living to address the suffering of life. Yet, along with our potential for compassion and self-sacrifice, the last few thousand years of wars, slavery, tortures, and holocausts have shown humans can be extraordinarily selfish, callous, vicious, and cruel. While there has been considerable engagement with these issues, particularly in the area of moral psychology and ethics, this paper explores an evolutionary analysis relating to evolved resource-regulation strategies that can be called “care and share” versus “control and hold.” Control and hold are typical of primates that operate through intimidatory social hierarchies. Care and share are less common in non-human primates, but evolved radically in humans during our hunter-gatherer stage when our ancestors lived in relatively interdependent, small, mobile groups. In these groups, individualistic, self-focus, and self-promoting control and hold strategies (trying to secure and accumulate more than others) were shunned and shamed. These caring and sharing hunter-gatherer lifestyles also created the social contexts for the evolution of new forms of childcare and complex human competencies for language, reasoning, planning, empathy, and self-awareness. As a result of our new ‘intelligence’, our ancestors developed agriculture that reduced mobility, increased group size, resource availability and storage, and resource competition. These re-introduced competing for, rather than sharing of, resources and advantaged those who now pursue (often aggressively) control and hold strategies. Many of our most typical forms of oppressive and anti-compassionate behavior are the result of these strategies. Rather than (just) thinking about individuals competing with one another, we can also consider these different resource regulation strategies as competing within populations shaping psychophysiological patterns; both wealth and poverty change the brain. One of the challenges to creating a more compassionate society is to find ways to create the social and economic conditions that regulate control and hold strategies and promote care and share. No easy task.
  • A mixed-methods evaluation of care (cancer and rehabilitation exercise): a physical activity and health intervention, delivered in a community football trust

    Rutherford, Zoe; Zwolinsky, Stephen; Kime, Nicky; Pringle, Andy; University of Queensland; Yorkshire and Harrogate Cancer Alliance; Bradford Institute for Health Research; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-03-23)
    With increasing cancer survivorship has come an increased necessity to support people living with cancer (PLWC) to have a good quality of life including being physically active. Using mixed methods, the current study aimed to use the RE-AIM evaluation framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) to determine how the football community trust delivered CARE (Cancer and Rehabilitation Exercise) intervention was able to increase participants’ physical activity in order to improve their quality of life and regain physiological and psychological function. Quantitative outcome data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months using the Cancer Physical Activity Standard Evaluation Framework questionnaire. Semi-structured focus groups (n = 5) captured participants’ (n = 40) lived experience of the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of CARE. Questionnaire data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVAs and qualitative data were thematically analysed. Following diagnosis, CARE was successful in providing participants with a unique and accessible opportunity to become or restart physically activity, by providing a local, socially supportive, and inclusive environment. This resulted in significant increases in physical activity (F(1.58, 23) = 5.98, p = 0.009), quality of life (QoL) (F(2,36) = 13.12, p = 0.000) and significant reductions in fatigue (F(1.57,31) = 11.19, p = 0.000) over 6 months. Participants also reported becoming more active, recovering physical function, regaining independence, and enhanced psychological well-being as a result of attending CARE. Key design features of CARE were also identified across RE-AIM. CARE, a football community trust delivered physical activity intervention was successful in significantly improving participants’ QoL and in regaining the physical and psychological functioning of people living with cancer. Results suggest that maintaining engagement in CARE for 6 months and beyond can support people to maintain these changes. Engaging in robust evaluations such as this can help organizations to successfully secure future funding for their programs.
  • Foresee the glory and train better: Narcissism, goal-setting and athlete training

    Zhang, Shuge; Roberts, Ross; Woodman, Tim; Pitkethly, Amanda; English, Cedric; Nightingale, David; University of Derby; Bangor University; Edinburgh Napier University (American Psychological Association, 2021-03)
    Grandiose narcissism may be debilitative to athlete training because the opportunity for self-enhancement that motivates narcissists to strive is normally absent in training environments. However, this view ignores the divergent influences of the self-inflated (reflecting over-confidence) and dominant (reflecting willingness for dominance) facets of grandiose narcissism. We expected that self-inflated narcissism would undermine athlete training, but only when dominant narcissism was low. This is because dominant narcissism may serve as the catalyst that drives those with self-inflated narcissism to train well. We further considered goal-setting as a practical means of alleviating the negative influence of self-inflated narcissism in training. Goal-setting provides athletes with an exciting vision of the future and thus can be an important self-enhancement strategy to engage narcissistic athletes in training. In the present study, 321 athletes completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40) and the goal-setting subscale in the Test of Performance Strategies-3 (TOPS-3). Coaches of these athletes assessed training behaviors using the Quality of Training Inventory (QTI). Self-inflated narcissism predicted higher levels of (coach-rated) distractibility and poorer quality of preparation only when both dominant narcissism and goal-setting were low (and not when either was high). The findings suggest that dominant narcissism and goal-setting protect against the adverse influences of self-inflated narcissism on athlete training. The work underscores the importance of considering grandiose narcissism as a multidimensional construct and supports goal-setting as a useful self-enhancement strategy.
  • Unethical practices within medical research and publication – An exploratory study.

    Sivasubramaniam, shivadas; Consetino, M; Ribeiro, L; Marino, F; University of Derby; University of Insubria, Via Ravasi, 2, 21100, Varese, VA, Italy (Springer Nature, 2021-04-01)
    The data produced by the scientific community impacts on academia, clinicians, and the general public; therefore, the scientific community and other regulatory bodies have been focussing on ethical codes of conduct. Despite the measures taken by several research councils, unethical research, publishing and/or reviewing behaviours still take place. This exploratory study considers some of the current unethical practices and the reasons behind them and explores the ways to discourage these within research and other professional disciplinary bodies. These interviews/discussions with PhD students, technicians, and academics/principal investigators (PIs) (N=110) were conducted mostly in European higher education institutions including UK, Italy, Ireland, Portugal, Czech Republic and Netherlands. Through collegiate discussions, sharing experiences and by examining previously published/reported information, authors have identified several less reported behaviours. Some of these practices are mainly influenced either by the undue institutional expectations of research esteem or by changes in the journal review process. These malpractices can be divided in two categories relating to (a) methodological malpractices including data management, and (b) those that contravene publishing ethics. The former is mostly related to “committed bias”, by which the author selectively uses the data to suit their own hypothesis, methodological malpractice relates to selection of out-dated protocols that are not suited to the intended work. Although these are usually unintentional, incidences of intentional manipulations have been reported to authors of this study. For example, carrying out investigations without positive (or negative) controls; but including these from a previous study. Other methodological malpractices include unfair repetitions to gain statistical significance, or retrospective ethical approvals. In contrast, the publication related malpractices such as authorship malpractices, ethical clearance irregularities have also been reported. The findings also suggest a globalised approach with clear punitive measures for offenders is needed to tackle this problem.
  • Investigating the delivery of health improvement interventions through professional football club community trusts-strengths and challenges

    Pringle, Andy; Lozano, Lorena; Zwolinsky, Stephen; University of Derby; West Yorkshire and Harrogate Cancer Alliance; Leeds Beckett University (Elsiever, 2021-03-19)
    This study audits health improvement provision delivered in/by English professional Football Club Community Trusts and reports the strengths and challenges around the implementation of interventions. Multi-methods design: Data were collected through (i) a review of trust websites (n ​= ​72), (ii) an online survey (n ​= ​34/47.2%) and (iii) semi-structured interviews (n ​= ​11/32.3%) with a sub-sample of trust managers. The review of websites confirms all trusts provided physical activity-led interventions. The online survey showed most managers were male (n ​= ​23/67.7%) and white British (n ​= ​30/88.2%). Two thirds held management roles, (n ​= ​23/67.6%) and represented Championship (n ​= ​12/35.2%), League 1 (n ​= ​13/38.2%) and League 2 clubs (n ​= ​9/26.5%). Trusts provided physical activity and most provided diet (n ​= ​31/91.2%) as well as smoking (n ​= ​20/58.8%) and alcohol (n ​= ​19/55.9%) interventions. Weight management, (n ​= ​25/73.5%), mental health interventions (n ​= ​28/82.4%) were offered. Trusts provided male-specific (n ​= ​20/58.8%), with fewer providing female-specific interventions (n ​= ​15/44.1%). Most trusts (n ​= ​30/88.2%) evaluated interventions. 80.8% (n ​= ​21/26) used public health guidance for programme design, 69.2% (n ​= ​18/26) delivery, 57.7% (n ​= ​15/26) needs assessment and 50% (n ​= ​13/26) evaluation. Interviews and qualitative reports identified strengths including, using football, the ‘club brand’, ‘meeting health needs’ and ‘working as a strategic collaboration with partners’. Challenges included ‘short-term funding staffing, mainstreaming, and evaluating interventions’. Football Community Trusts deliver interventions, but challenges were encountered when implementing these programmes.

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