• Can compassion-focused imagery be used as an attention bias modification treatment?

      Leboeuf, Isabelle; McEwan, Kirsten; Rusinek, Stéphane; Andreotti, Eva; Antoine, Pascal; Université Lille Nord de France; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-01-06)
      Compassion focused-imagery (CFI), one of the psychological interventions of compassion-focused therapy, is receiving increasing attention. It is a therapeutic tool that targets the process of self-criticism by prompting individuals to imagine themselves as compassionate or to imagine receiving compassion from an ideal compassionate other. This research examines the role of self-criticism in the attentional processing of emotional stimuli, namely, critical and compassionate facial expressions. It is hypothesized that the activation of positive social emotions through CFI plays a role in broadening attention in the processing of emotional stimuli. The McEwan Faces stimulus set, which includes critical, neutral and compassionate faces, was used to create an attentional bias task called the dot probe task. The processing of emotional faces was assessed before and after exposure to either CFI or neutral imagery, controlling for the process of sensory integration (n = 80). A between-subject analysis was used to test the hypothesis. Before the imagery task, participants tended to look away from critical faces, and their level of self-criticism played a role. Both types of imagery significantly reduced the bias away from critical faces when the stimuli were presented for 1200 ms. This effect was reversed in the neutral condition for participants with high levels of self-criticism but not in the CFI condition. Interestingly, self-criticism impacts the attentional treatment of critical faces and the effect of imagery entailing sensory integration on this treatment. CFI seems to preserve this effect for participants with high levels of self-criticism, possibly due to the activation of positive social emotions.
    • Can simulation impact on first year diagnostic radiography students' emotional preparedness to encounter open wounds on their first clinical placement: A pilot study

      Shiner, Naomi; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-05-11)
      This study reports on the use of moulage within a simulation to introduce first year diagnostic radiography students to open wounds in preparation for clinical practice. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was used. Visual Analogue Scales were used to capture state feelings at the point of seeing open wounds. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to draw themes from focus groups and an interview following clinical placement. The simulation reduced negative feelings whilst emotional preparedness, distraction and excitement increased. Five major themes were identified including emotional engagement, engagement with wound, building relationships, developing professional self and simulation impact. The use of moulage and a simulation provides an opportunity to explore initial reactions. Students actively reflect on this experience during clinical practice changing practice. The impact of open wounds can be long lasting and support from radiographers should allow these new experiences to be processed reducing the risk of burnout.
    • Challenges of teaching occupation: Introduction of an occupation focused teaching tool.

      Howarth, Joan T.; Morris, Karen; Cox, Diane L.; University of Derby; University of Cumbria; Department of Therapeutic Practice, University of Derby, United Kingdom; Department of Health, Psychology and Social Studies, University of Cumbria, Carlisle, United Kingdom; Research Office & Graduate School, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, United Kingdom (Taylor and Francis, 2017-11-12)
      Occupational science is of importance to multiple disciplines due to its potential to contribute to understandings of complex social issues. “Occupation”, as a key concept of occupational science, is recognised as being highly complex, making it challenging for students to develop a comprehensive understanding of the concept. Terminology of occupational science literature has been noted at times as using the terms occupation, purposeful activity and activity interchangeably, which further adds to the challenge of teaching the concept. This paper explores evolving definitions of occupation, challenges this evolution has created within education, and the potential use of occupation as a threshold concept. Consideration of a selection of pedagogic methods used in teaching the concept of occupation is briefly explored. The paper concludes with identification of a newly developed occupation-focused teaching tool as a proposed alternative approach to teaching the concept of occupation. The teaching tool was originally developed to teach occupation as a discrete concept, rather than the therapeutic use of occupation as taught in occupational therapy education. The tool is an analogy for occupation, and has utility in supporting the transformation of students’ understanding of the concept of occupation, commensurate to understandings of occupational science.
    • Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis in high secure services: An exploratory hermeneutic review of the international literature

      Slater, Jonathon; Townend, Michael; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2016-05-02)
      Background: Mainstream psychological interventions may need adaptation in High Secure (HS) healthcare contexts to enable better recovery, safeguard the public and offer economic value. One specific psychological intervention, cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp), has an already proven efficacy in aiding recovery in non-forensic populations, yet its impact in HS settings has received considerably less research attention. Aims: This exploratory review catalogues CBTp approaches used in HS hospitals and appraises impact through the inclusion of both fugitive literature and peer reviewed research. Method: A pragmatic approach was utilized through an iterative literature search strategy and hermeneutic source analysis of the identified studies. Results: Fourteen studies were identified from HS contexts from within the UK and internationally. These included group, individual therapy and CBTp linked milieus. Conclusions: CBTp is an active component of treatment in HS contexts. Some modes of delivery seem to have greater levels of efficacy with more typical HS patients. The literature indicates key differences between HS and non-HS applied CBTp. Continued application and evaluation of CBTp in HS conditions is warranted.
    • Community clinicians’ views about patient adherence to osteoporosis medication

      Cook, Marie; University of Derby (RCNi, 2018-07-23)
      Anecdotal and research evidence suggests that poor adherence and persistence with oral bisphosphonates can result in patients being at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Several interventions have been researched for their effectiveness with adherence and persistence, but the most effective method of supporting patients with oral bisphosphonate medications is clinician reviews, generally identified as doctors and nurses. This service evaluation aimed to explore the knowledge and views of multidisciplinary community-based clinicians about adherence and persistence with oral bisphosphonates. The results indicated a positive attitude to a multidisciplinary approach supporting patients to take their medication as prescribed, with recommendations for future research.
    • Community-based Arts and health in Britain

      Hogan, Susan; University of Derby (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 01-08-2017)
    • Creative critical representation of the choreographer’s creation process

      Collard-Stokes, Gemma; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-11-30)
      This review examines Jonathan Burrows: Towards a Minor Dance, a monography by Daniela Perazzo Domm published within the Palgrave Macmillan’s New World Choreographies series. Perazzo Domm’s first monograph introduces British choreographer Jonathan Burrows, whose work is considered an important contribution to contemporary performance practices’ effort to rethink what constitutes choreography. The review focuses of the books main themes of socio-political creativity and collaboration at the intersection(s) of artist, body and composition. The review observes this through the endeavour to question relational aspects between the writer and the choreographer’s creative process.
    • Crime victims: theory, policy and practice

      Spalek, Basia; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005-12)
      From white-collar to environmental crime, and hate crime to sexual violence, the study of victims and of the processes of victimisation is indispensable to understanding the full scale of the effects of crime in society. In this book, Basia Spalek offers a theoretically detailed and empirically rich account of how victimology has developed into a field that transcends academic disciplines and brings together researchers, practitioners, activists and community members. This second edition of Crime Victims continues to be a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the historical, social, political and cultural issues and trends in approaches to victims and victimisation. It introduces victimological theory, explores the impacts of crime on victims, and the challenges involved in developing victim support services. In addition, acknowledging the increasing recognition of trauma as central to understanding victimisation, it includes a therapeutic toolkit for victims, offenders and practitioners working in and with the criminal justice system. With Cutting Edge Research and Case Study sections added at the end of each chapter to highlight victimology as a vibrant and continuously developing field, Crime Victims is an essential resource to a broad audience, ranging from students of victimology, criminology and sociology to practitioners and professionals.
    • Crisis management for people with dementia at home: Mixed‐methods case study research to identify critical factors for successful home treatment

      Hopkinson, Jane; King, Amanda; Young, Lucy; McEwan, Kirsten; Elliot, Fiona; Hydon, Kate; Muthukrishnan, Sabarigirivasan; Tope, Rosie; Veitch, Anne; Howells, Cristie; et al. (Wiley, 2020-08-27)
      Best practice in dementia care is support in the home. Yet, crisis is common and can often result in hospital admission with adverse consequences. The objective of this mixed‐methods case study research was to identify the critical factors for resolving crisis for a person with dementia living at home. The research was an in‐depth investigation of what happens during crisis for people with dementia and how it is managed by a Home Treatment Crisis Team to resolution and outcome at 6 weeks and 6 months. The methods were; observation of crisis management for 15 patients with dementia (max three observations per patient, total 41), interviews with patients with dementia (n = 5), carers (n = 13) and professionals (n = 14, range one to six interviews per person, total 29), focus group (nine professionals), and extraction of demographics and medical history from medical records. Analysis focused on the identification of factors important for crisis resolution and avoidance of hospital admission. Critical factors for the Home Treatment Crisis Team to enable successful crisis resolution were: immediate action to reduce risk of harm, expertise in dementia care and carer education, communication skills to establish trust and promote benefits of home treatment, shared decision‐making, medication management, addressing the needs of carers independently of the person with dementia and, local availability of respite and other community services. The Home Treatment Crisis Team integrated the seven factors to deploy a biopsychosocial systems approach with embedded respect for personhood. This approach enabled crisis resolution for a person with dementia by creating a system of services, treatments, resources and relationships, ‘Safe Dementia Space’, in the community with avoidance of hospital admission in more than 80% of referrals. The identified critical factors for crisis resolution are important considerations in the design and delivery of home treatment services for people with dementia.
    • A critical evaluation of student radiographers' experience of the transition from the classroom to their first clinical placement.

      Hyde, Emma; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2014-12-29)
      Students studying for qualifications which enable them to apply for registration as health care professionals are expected to undertake a large amount of clinical placement to support their learning. The BSc Hons Diagnostic Radiography at one post-1992 UK University is no exception. It was identified in a previous study by this researcher that a relatively large number of first year student radiographers were unsure, or nervous, about some aspects of the transition to their first clinical placement. It was felt that further investigation into the student experience of the transition to the first clinical placement was warranted.
    • Cultivating learner aspirations and self-belief

      Jinks, Gavin; Harber, Denise; University of Derby (2020-07-13)
      The research team believes that to be a successful learner, the individual has to commit to the desired outcome in two ways: s/he has to want it, so it has to be relevant and important to her/him, and s/he has to believe that s/he can be successful. The team believe that both aspirations and self-belief are affected by personal influences, cultural/community influences and structural and societal influences. The team wishes to find reasons why significant numbers of school students don’t succeed in school, why many university students "drop out" of courses or don’t achieve the standard of which they are capable, and why adults fail to engage with the community activities. The team acknowledges that the influences on prospective learners of their families, their social and cultural groups, their local communities, and wider society in general are significant, but seek to establish whether low aspirations and poor self-belief are fixed or can be changed if leaders of learning and teachers create a culture of success in their settings, and develop a growth mindset in learners. This session explores the characteristics required for a positive learning culture, and the behaviours "teachers" might utilise in order to develop aspirations and self-belief in leaners.
    • Cultivating self-belief

      Jinks, Gavin; Harber, Denise; University of Derby (International conference on education and new developments, 2019-06)
      The two presenters have very different backgrounds. Gavin Jinks is a senior lecturer in social work. Denise Harber has been a teacher, head-teacher and school adviser. Both have concluded that the ability to create self-belief in a student group, be they primary school pupils or students in higher education, is fundamental to their achievements. Gavin has been the project leader for an award winning student mentoring project on the BA Applied Social Work at the University of Derby. Denise Harber was an adviser on a team that designated a primary school in the south of England as a 'cause for concern'. She then took on the role of Head-teacher and led the school to be designated as good in a subsequent Ofsted inspection. Underpinning both of these pieces of work was a commitment to develop the self-belief of the students. This was seen as being a fundamental building block in bringing about real change in the achievements of both the students and the pupils concerned. This workshop will explore how Gavin and Denise went about these pieces of work. They will explore the transferability of these ideas to other educational settings and situations, particularly settings with traditionally low academic engagement. They will also be encouraging participants to consider how it might be possible for them to cultivate a culture of self-belief in their own students/pupils.
    • Delivering informed measures of patient centred care in medical imaging: What is the international perspective?

      Hyde, Emma; Hardy, Maryann; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-06-25)
      Focus on patient experience and patient centred approaches within healthcare has substantially increased since the Picker Institute (a not for profit organisation) was established in the 1980’s (Picker Institute, 2021). Picker’s founding principles have been adapted from their original form, to keep pace with changes in health and social care, but remain the cornerstone of research and guidance on person-centred approaches. Organisations such as the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, and the Canadian Patient Safety Institute, have developed their own guiding principles for patient centred care, reflecting the nature of the health care systems in their respective countries. In the UK professional, statutory and regulatory bodies governing health care professionals, such as the Health & Care Professions Council (HCPC) and College of Radiographers, have also incorporated patient centred approaches and care into their Standards of Proficiency for registrants (HCPC, 2013; CoR, 2018). As guidance and regulation linked to patient care and patient experience has become more widespread, interest in research into patient centred care and approaches has developed. Publications sharing the findings of research projects carried out to investigate patient experience during medical imaging examinations and radiation therapy have also increased. In our research we have sought to define informed measures of patient centred care for medical imaging technologists, and to date have reported the findings from our UK based participant’s (Hyde & Hardy, 2020; Hyde & Hardy, 2021a; Hyde & Hardy, 2021b; Hyde & Hardy 2021c). In this commentary we would like to open up debate about the similarities and differences between UK and international views about patient centred care in medical imaging, and invite expressions of interest from potential collaborators.
    • Delivering patient centred care (Part 2): a qualitative study of the perceptions of service users and deliverers.

      Hyde, Emma; Hardy, Maryann; University of Derby; University of Bradford (Elsevier, 2020-10-07)
      There is growing awareness of the importance of patient centred care (PCC) in health care. Within Radiography in the UK, elements of PCC are embedded within professional body publications and guidance documents, but there is limited research evidence exploring whether perceptions of PCC are equivalent between those delivering (radiographers) and those experiencing (patient) care. This study aimed to address this gap by determining compatibility in perceptions of PCC between those using and those delivering radiography services in order to develop measurable indicators of PCC. This project was funded by the College of Radiographers Industry Partnership Scheme. Ethical approval was granted by the University of Derby College of Health & Social Care Ethics committee. This paper reports Stage 2 of the project, which was a series of focus groups and telephone interviews to enable deeper discussion and exploration of PCC. Situational vignettes were used to promote discussion and debate and encourage suggestions for PCC approaches. Audit tools to assess engagement with PCC were developed at individual and organisational level. Four focus groups and six telephone interviews were carried out in total. Focus groups were held in a variety of locations to promote attendance. Telephone interviews were used to capture participants who could not attend a focus group in person. Disparity between perceptions of service users and those delivering radiography services on what constitutes high quality PCC was evident. Perceived levels of care and the effectiveness of communication appeared to be the key influences on whether PCC was delivered. It is evident from the results of Stage 1 and Stage 2 that we have some way to go before we have parity in how care within diagnostic radiography is perceived, experienced and delivered. Audit tools and an educational toolkit are offered as ways to support increased PCC within diagnostic radiography practice. Several service improvements and audit tools are offered to support the increased delivery of PCC.
    • Developing a whole-school mental health and wellbeing intervention through pragmatic formative process evaluation: A case-study of innovative local practice within the School Health Research Network

      Gobat, Nina; Littlecot, Hannah; Williams, Andy; McEwan, Kirsten; Stanton, Helen; Robling, Michael; Rollnick, Stephen; Murphy, Simon; Evans, Rhiannon; University of Oxford; et al. (BMC, 2021-01-18)
      The evidence-base for whole school approaches aimed at improving student mental health and wellbeing remains limited. This may be due to a focus on developing and evaluating de-novo, research led interventions, while neglecting the potential of local, contextually-relevant innovation that has demonstrated acceptability and feasibility. This study reports a novel approach to modelling and refining the theory of a whole-school restorative approach, alongside plans to scale up through a national educational infrastructure in order to support robust scientific evaluation. A pragmatic formative process evaluation was conducted of a routinized whole-school restorative approach aimed at improving student mental health and wellbeing in Wales. The study reports seven phases of the pragmatic formative process evaluation that may be undertaken in the development and evaluation of interventions already in routine practice: 1) identification of innovative local practice; 2) scoping review of evidence-base to identify existing intervention programme theory; outcomes; and contextual characteristics that influence programme theory and implementation; 3) establishment of a Transdisciplinary Action Research (TDAR) group; 4) co-production of an initial intervention logic model with stakeholders; 5) confirmation of logic model with stakeholders; 6) planning for intervention refinement; and 7) planning for feasibility and outcome evaluation. The phases of this model may be iterative and not necessarily sequential. Formative, pragmatic process evaluations support researchers, policy-makers and practitioners in developing a robust scientific evidence-base for acceptable and feasible local innovation that does not have a clear evidence base. The case of a whole-school restorative approach provides a case example of how such an evaluation may be undertaken.
    • Does recovery in mental health need professionals?

      Carter, Sarah; University of Derby (Sage, 2017-08-01)
      The aim of this work is to explore the role of the occupational therapist within recovery-orientated mental health services and how it fits with the notion of giving the service user control. The concept of recovery is now stated within much health and social care policy, legislation and guidelines across the UK, and it is an approach that is widely implemented by occupational therapists in mental health services. However, the recovery paradigm poses complex and multifaceted challenges to mental health professionals and there is growing concern over the ability to overcome the inherent barriers present in today's health and social care structure and culture (Slade et al., 2014). This literature review explores these barriers in relation to the professional concept and power theory using a critical realist approach (Edgley et al., 2016). The findings reveal there is an issue of power that undermines recovery implementation by occupational therapists within mental health services. The review concludes that the recovery paradigm needs to shift its focus off service provision and onto influencing societal change by using the power already available to it in the form of community. This calls for action from occupational therapists to unite with service users and other professionals to come together in community to fight for their right to occupational recovery at a societal level rather than focusing on service level implementation.
    • Drama Education and Dramatherapy - Exploring the Space Between Disciplines

      Holmwood, Clive; University of Warwick (Routledge, 2016-04)
      Dramatherapy is a relatively new field which has its routes within special education and is increasingly used in schools and educational establishments as a way of supporting young people’s emotional needs. This book examines the space between drama education and dramatherapy, examining the historical roots of drama education and dramatherapy, discussing how they are intrinsically linked, and exploring the social, political, therapeutic and artistic influences that have influenced these two professions over the last century.
    • Dramatherapy & theatre : current interdisciplinary discourses

      Holmwood, Clive; Sue Jennings (Routledge, 2016-04)
      This chapter seeks to update current thinking around the interdisciplinary connections between dramatherapy and theatre, by re-examining some of the great theatrical innovators and looking at current literature that connects theatrical approaches to dramatherapy.
    • Dramatherapy Tai Chi & Embodiment

      Holmwood, Clive; University of Derby (Quotus Publishing, 2015-12)
      This paper will consider potential theoretical, philosophical and pragmatic connections between Dramatherapy (Jones: 1996) and Tai Chi (Pang Jeng & Inn: 1985); I will specifically consider these connections from the Western perspective of embodiment (Shaw: 2003, Jones: 1996). Dramatherapy is a creative drama based psychological therapy. Tai Chi is an ancient form of martial art. Both approaches use movement and from a Western perspective that ‘embodiment’ could be central to both disciplines. I am interested in how embodiment through movement is a potential connection between these two seemingly very different disciplines, and how these may offer shared knowledge. I will acknowledge that the two disciplines come from very different backgrounds and philosophies and recognise that it is impossible not to generalise in a short article such as this. The aim is to compare and contrast these two disciplines based on my empirical experience of them. As a European trained Dramatherapist I approach this paper from a Western perspective, acknowledging the differing opinions and viewpoints between Eastern and Western philosophies and practice. The aim is to begin to consider some synthesis between a Western creative based therapy and an Eastern form of martial art; acknowledging that both use movement at their core.