Recent Submissions

  • Sound Level Monitoring at Live Events, Part 1–Live Dynamic Range

    Hill, Adam J.; Mulder, Johannes; Burton, Jon; Kok, Marcel; Lawrence, Michael; University of Derby; The National University of Australia; dBcontrol; Rational Acoustics (Audio Engineering Society, 2021-11-08)
    Musical dynamics are often central within pieces of music and are therefore likely to be fundamental to the live event listening experience. While metrics exist in broadcasting and recording to quantify dynamics, such measures work on high-resolution data. Live event sound level monitoring data is typically low-resolution (logged at one second intervals or less), which necessitates bespoke musical dynamics quantification. Live dynamic range (LDR) is presented and validated here to serve this purpose, where measurement data is conditioned to remove song breaks and sound level regulation-imposed adjustments to extract the true musical dynamics from a live performance. Results show consistent objective performance of the algorithm, as tested on synthetic data as well as datasets from previous performances.
  • Mechanical Engineering Design, Learning from the Past to Design a Better Future

    Sole, Martin; Barber, Patrick; Turner, Ian; The University of Derby (Loughborough University, 2021-11-07)
    The economic importance of design, and design engineers to the success of a company has led to the exponential growth in the demand for qualified design engineers. To fill this demand, colleges and universities provide the best training available so that, after graduation these engineers will provide significant input from the first day of work. We live in a time known as industry 4.0 or the 4th Industrial Revolution, where computer power rules and takes on greater tasks, freeing up time for the design engineer to design more and more complex designs. Sometimes, it is good to stop, and take a breath to review our practices and remind ourselves of things we may have forgotten. It is true that we can design complex mechanisms and systems, in times past many of these would not be possible. But can we learn or be reminded of good practice by taking a journey through some of the design methods from the past. This paper will travel back to the 2nd century BC and look at cutting edge water pump design and the importance of a good literature review. It will highlight a serious gap in knowledge when comparing full-time and part-time students in our modern age. Airship design will be reviewed, the R100, R38 and R101 to remind us of the need to cross check design calculations. Looking at the beauty of Concorde design will remind us of the requirement in any design of good planning and regular meetings. This journey will finish by looking at the design process of the Boeing 777 commercial airliner, one of the first designs to use Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM). The use of Design Build Teams (DBT) with cross-disciplinary experts who can reside anywhere in the world will be considered. The reviewed historical examples may at first glance appear happen-stance but are in fact linked, and demonstrate a continuing growth in the ability, knowledge, complexity, and techniques of engineering design. This step back in time will remind teachers of some basic principles when teaching design to future design engineers. Designs have become more complex in this modern age, but it would be incorrect to say that complex design did not exist in times past. Before the internet, aircraft were built, global communication systems existed, men went to the moon.
  • Social network analysis: the use of graph distances to compare artificial and criminal networks

    Ficara, Annamaria; Curreri, Francesco; Cavallaro, Lucia; De Meo, Pasquale; Fiumara, Giacomo; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Liotta, Antonio; University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.; University of Messina, Messina, Italy.; University of Derby; et al. (OAE Publishing Inc., 2021-09-28)
    Aim: Italian criminal groups become more and more dangerous spreading their activities into new sectors. A criminal group is made up of networks of hundreds of family gangs which extended their influence across the world, raking in billions from drug trafficking, extortion and money laundering. We focus in particular on the analysis of the social structure of two Sicilian crime families and we used a Social Network Analysis approach to study the social phenomena. Starting from a real criminal network extracted from meetings emerging from the police physical surveillance during 2000s, we here aim to create artificial models that present similar properties. Methods: We use specific tools of social network analysis and graph theory such as network models (i.e., random, small-world and scale-free) and graph distances to quantify the similarity between an artificial network and a real one. To the best of our knowledge, spectral graph distances and the DeltaCon similarity have never been applied to criminal networks. Results: Our experiments identify the Barabási-Albert model as the one which better represents a criminal network. For this reason, we could expect that new members of a criminal organization will be more likely to establish connections with high degree nodes rather than low degree nodes. Conclusion: Artificial but realistic models can represent a useful tool for Law Enforcement Agencies to simulate and study the structure, evolution and faults of criminal networks.
  • Closed-Loop Nash Equilibrium in the Class of Piecewise Constant Strategies in a Linear State Feedback Form for Stochastic LQ Games

    Drăgan, Vasile; Ivanov, Ivan Ganchev; Popa, Ioan-Lucian; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania; The Academy of the Romanian Scientists, Bucharest, Romania; Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Bulgaria; University of Alba Iulia, Romania; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-10-26)
    In this paper, we examine a sampled-data Nash equilibrium strategy for a stochastic linear quadratic (LQ) differential game, in which admissible strategies are assumed to be constant on the interval between consecutive measurements. Our solution first involves transforming the problem into a linear stochastic system with finite jumps. This allows us to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions assuring the existence of a sampled-data Nash equilibrium strategy, extending earlier results to a general context with more than two players. Furthermore, we provide a numerical algorithm for calculating the feedback matrices of the Nash equilibrium strategies. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by two numerical examples. As both situations highlight a stabilization effect, this confirms the efficiency of our approach.
  • A mixed-integer linear programming formulation for the modular layout of three-dimensional connected systems

    O’Neill, Sam; Wrigley, Paul; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-10-02)
    Given the considerable complexity of process plants, there has been a great deal of research focused on aiding the design of plant layout through mathematical optimisation, i.e. optimising the positioning of the equipment in the plant for space and cost efficiency. Recently, the use of modular approaches within the construction industry, whereby work is performed off-site before being assembled on-site, has become a popular and powerful way of reducing build schedules and costs. Modular approaches have many other real applications where items must be packed to minimise the connections between them (e.g. piping, wiring, modular office and factory layouts) and consider the modular layout of the system. In this paper, we provide a formulation of the problem that, in addition to the standard layout problem, considers a modular block layout to allow modular construction and transportation of the plant. The problem is represented as a directed network, with the aim to pack the items into predefined containers and minimise the rectilinear distance between the connected items. We propose mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) models for the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional problems and solve them using the state-of-the-art mathematical programming solver, Gurobi. Because of the combinatorial nature of the problem, solutions involving a large number of items may not converge and a suboptimal solution must be considered. However, our results suggest that even in the case of optimising a large number of items, the suboptimal solutions found after a reasonable number of iterations where deemed, by a domain expert, to be a good enough starting point to continue the design process, especially in the early concept phase.
  • Experimental investigation on the quasi-static crush performance of resin-infused thermoplastic 3D fibre-reinforced composites

    Shah, S. Z. H; Megat-Yusoff, P.S.M; Choudhry, R.S; Sajid, Zubair; Din, I.U; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia; University of Derby; National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Sector H-12, Islamabad, Pakistan (Elsevier, 2021-09-01)
    This paper presents the quasi-static crush performance of newer resin-infused thermoplastic 3D fibre reinforced composites (FRC) under axial load. The main objective is to make an assessment of the energy absorption capability of novel 3D composites for improved energy absorbing applications. Flat specimens of resin-infused thermoplastic (TP) and thermoset (TS) 3D composites with three trigger angles, i.e., 15°, 30° and 45° were tested under quasi-static crush loads. The thermoplastic 3D-FRC at 45° trigger angle demonstrated 31% higher specific energy absorption (SEA), and 17% higher average crushing stress. This improved performance is attributed to higher fragmentation failure mechanisms, which absorbed more energy. These results elucidate that the resin-infused thermoplastic composites are suitable for higher energy absorption and lightweight design for automotive and sports applications.
  • Multiscale damage modelling of 3D woven composites under static and impact loads

    Shah, S. Z. H; Megat-Yusoff, P.S.M; Karuppanan, S; Choudhry, R.S; Sajid, Z; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-09-24)
    A multiscale progressive damage modelling methodology for 3-dimensional (3D) woven composites is presented. The proposed methodology is generic and can be implemented in most finite element software to create a digital twin for simulation of damage response. It uses 3D solid element (reduced integration) representation of the part for global analysis, while the local damage response, as well as matrix nonlinearity is modelled using a mesoscale constitutive unit-cell model of 3D woven composite consisting of idealised regions of polymer matrix and impregnated yarns. The idealised unit-cell model is defined based on realistic input from X-ray tomography of the 3D woven composite part and the micro-level constituent properties of the matrix and fibres. The damage model has been validated using quasi-static tensile/compression tests as well as dynamic drop-weight impact tests for both thermoset (epoxy) and thermoplastic (Elium) 3D woven composites. These simulations successfully demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the model for both 3D-textile composites.
  • Mixed Time-Delayed Nonlinear Multi-agent Dynamic Systems for Asymptotic Stability and Non-fragile Synchronization Criteria

    Arockia, Stephen; Raja, R; Alzabut, J; Zhu, Quanxin; Niezabitowski, M; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Alagappa University, Karaikudi, India; Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, 12435, Saudi Arabia; OSTİM Technical University, Ankara, 06374, Turkey; Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, Gliwice, 44-100, Poland; et al. (Springer, 2021-09-13)
    In this manuscript, we are concerned with mixed (discrete and distributed) time-delayed both stability and non-fragile synchronization of nonlinear multi-agent systems (MASs). We shall find stability criteria for the unknown parameter value of nonlinear multi-agent systems using the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functions, Lemma, the analytical techniques, the Kronecker product, and the general specifications for asymptotic stability of selected MASs are obtained. Moreover, criteria for the synchronization of leader–follower unknown parameter value of nonlinear MASs with non-fragile controllers are discussed. At last, we provide two numerical calculations along with the computational simulations to check the validity of the theoretical findings reported in this manuscript.
  • Education and Certification in Sound Pressure Level Measurement, Monitoring and Management at Entertainment Events

    Mulder, Johannes; Hill, Adam; Burton, Jon; Kok, Marcel; Lawrence, Michael; Shabalina, Elena; University of Derby; National University of Australia; dBcontrol; Rational Acoustics; et al. (Audio Engineering Society, 2021-07-22)
    A recent AES Technical Document on sound exposure and noise pollution due to outdoor music events proposes the creation of a live event sound level management initiative. In parallel, the World Health Organization, by way of the Make Listening Safe initiative, is preparing a regulatory framework for control of recreational sound exposure in entertainment venues. This paper considers how these developments could inform a certification scheme for live sound engineers and other key stakeholders. Such a scheme would detail current best practice and would allow venues, events, manufacturers and performers to voluntarily gain certification. This would help to boost public visibility of what an event or venue has done to promote the health and wellbeing of all key stakeholders.
  • Influence of Yawed Wind Flow on the Blade Forces/Bending Moments and Blade Elastic Torsion for an Axial-Flow Wind Turbine

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H. B.; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2021-09-16)
    Effects of yawed incoming flow on wind turbine blades forces and root bending moments (RBMs) are not fully understood. To advance our current understanding, numerical studies of a small-scale three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine at TSR = 6.7 with yaw angles of zero and 45° have been carried out to examine the variations of blade and rotor loading due to the yawed incoming flow. An approach combining Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with Actuator Line Modelling (ALM) has been employed in the present study. The predicted phase-averaged blade forces reveal that the blade tangential force, in-plane RBM and power coefficient are much more sensitive to the upstream streamwise velocity variations and are much more strongly affected than the blade axial force, out-of-plane RBM and thrust coefficient. It also shows that for yawed incoming flows the blade axial force to the blade tangential force ratio fluctuates significantly during one rotor revolution, resulting in large variations of the blade elastic torsion and that the total blade force (magnitude and direction) undergoes a non-linear change in the circumferential and radial directions, which will likely lead to the reduction in the turbine operational life significantly, especially for long lightweight blades of large size wind turbines.
  • Multilevel Inverter for Hybrid Fuel Cell/PV Energy Conversion System

    Fekik, Arezki; Hamida, Mohamed Lamine; Denoun, Hakim; Azar, Ahmad Taher; Kamal, Nashwa Ahmad; Amar, Bousbaine; Benamrouche, Nacereddine; University, Bouira, Algeria; Mouloud Mammeri University, Algeria; Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; et al. (IGI Global, 2022)
    Power converters assume a significant part in fuel cell power generation systems and solar power conversion systems which are an alternative to fossil fuel production systems. There is therefore a demand for high quality power conditioning used in PEMFC systems and photovoltaic panels. This chapter proposes a hybrid electric power (FC/PV) production strategy with the use of converter topology as the power interface and also introduces a three-level inverter topology for different operating levels. The converter increases the input voltage to the rated voltage and turns into a DC bus; the multi-level inverter converts the voltage to AC and supplies AC loads. This chapter develops a hybrid electric power generation strategy, which can produce output with positive and zero sequences. Integrating the three-stage inverter into the hybrid renewable energy (FC/PV) production system allows for near sinusoidal current with low THD. The topology of hybrid energy production using the multi-level converter is tested on Matlab.
  • A Novel Security Methodology for Smart Grids: A Case Study of Microcomputer-Based Encryption for PMU Devices

    Varan, Metin; Akgul, Akif; Kurugollu, Fatih; Sansli, Ahmet; Smith, Kim; University of Applied Sciences, Serdivan 54050, Sakarya, Turkey; Hitit University, Corum 19030, Turkey; University of Derby (Hindawi Limited, 2021-09-18)
    Coordination of a power system with the phasor measurement devices (PMUs) in real time on the load and generation sides is carried out within the context of smart grid studies. Power systems equipped with information systems in a smart grid pace with external security threats. Developing a smart grid which can resist against cyber threats is considered indispensable for the uninterrupted operation. In this study, a two-way secure communication methodology underpinned by a chaos-based encryption algorithm for PMU devices is proposed. (e proposed system uses the IEEE-14 busbar system on which the optimum PMU placement has been installed. (e proposed hyperchaotic system-based encryption method is applied as a new security methodology among PMU devices. (e success of results is evaluated by the completeness of data exchange, durations, the complexity of encryption-decryption processes, and strength of cryptography using a microcomputer-based implementation. (e results show that the proposed microcomputer-based encryption algorithms can be directly embedded as encryption hardware units into PMU and PDC devices which have very fast signal processing capabilities taking into considerations the acceptable delay time for power system protection and measuring applications and quality metering applications which is 2 ms and 10 ms, respectively. While proposed algorithms can be used in TCP or UDP over IP-based IEEE C37.118, IEC 61850, and IEC 61850-90-5 communication frameworks, they can also be embedded into electronic cards, smartcards, or smart tokens which are utilized for authentication among smart grid components.
  • Criminal networks analysis in missing data scenarios through graph distances

    Ficara, Annamaria; Cavallaro, Lucia; Curreri, Francesco; Fiumara, Giacomo; De Meo, Pasquale; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Song, Wei; Liotta, Antonio; University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; University of Messina, Messina, Italy (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021-08-11)
    Data collected in criminal investigations may suffer from issues like: (i) incompleteness, due to the covert nature of criminal organizations; (ii) incorrectness, caused by either unintentional data collection errors or intentional deception by criminals; (iii) inconsistency, when the same information is collected into law enforcement databases multiple times, or in different formats. In this paper we analyze nine real criminal networks of different nature (i.e., Mafia networks, criminal street gangs and terrorist organizations) in order to quantify the impact of incomplete data, and to determine which network type is most affected by it. The networks are firstly pruned using two specific methods: (i) random edge removal, simulating the scenario in which the Law Enforcement Agencies fail to intercept some calls, or to spot sporadic meetings among suspects; (ii) node removal, modeling the situation in which some suspects cannot be intercepted or investigated. Finally we compute spectral distances (i.e., Adjacency, Laplacian and normalized Laplacian Spectral Distances) and matrix distances (i.e., Root Euclidean Distance) between the complete and pruned networks, which we compare using statistical analysis. Our investigation identifies two main features: first, the overall understanding of the criminal networks remains high even with incomplete data on criminal interactions (i.e., when 10% of edges are removed); second, removing even a small fraction of suspects not investigated (i.e., 2% of nodes are removed) may lead to significant misinterpretation of the overall network.
  • A systematic literature review of machine learning applications for community-acquired pneumonia

    Lozano-Rojas, Daniel; Free, Robert C.; McEwan, Alistair A.; Woltmann, Gerrit; University of Leicester; University of Derby; University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (Springer, 2021-08-15)
    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory disease with a high mortality rate. CAP management follows clinical and radiological diagnosis, severity evaluation and standardised treatment protocols. Although established in practice, protocols are labour intensive, time-critical and can be error prone, as their effectiveness depends on clinical expertise. Thus, an approach for capturing clinical expertise in a more analytical way is desirable both in terms of cost, expediency, and patient outcome. This paper presents a systematic literature review of Machine Learning (ML) applied to CAP. A search of three scholarly international databases revealed 23 relevant peer reviewed studies, that were categorised and evaluated relative to clinical output. Results show interest in the application of ML to CAP, particularly in image processing for diagnosis, and an opportunity for further investigation in the application of ML; both for patient outcome prediction and treatment allocation. We conclude our review by identifying potential areas for future research in applying ML to improve CAP management. This research was co-funded by the NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre and the University of Leicester.
  • A hardware implementation of 6dof quadcopter matlab/simulink controller algorithm to an autopilot

    Amar, Bousbaine; Fareha, a; Joseph, A. K.; University of Derby (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021-01)
    This paper presents a hardware implementation of Control algorithm for 6DOF Quadcopter developed on MATLAB/SIMULINK to an autopilot Microcontroller (PIXHAWK) using MATLAB/SIMULINK Embedded Coder. After the validation of the SIMULINK model controller results through the software simulation, the designed controller is converted into C\C++ and uploaded into the Pixhawk autopilot by creating SIMULINK application in the autopilot firmware. This paper presents a rapid and real test solution for quadcopter control system using Pixhawk autopilot which will provide further real adjustment for the control parameters. This feature is used in this research is to deploy the SIMULINK codes into the Pixhawk autopilot board through the Embedded Coder Tool.
  • Simulink model for a hydrogen PEM fuel cell for automotive applications

    Bousbaine, a; Wilson, d; Andrade, j; University of Derby (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021-01)
    Fuel cells have a relatively high energy density and use hydrogen as a renewable energy source. Fuel cells are one of the future promising renewable and sustainable power sources that can be used as a clean power source for various applications such as transportation. In conjunction with large supercapacitors, fuel cells can generate high power density with a fast dynamic response, which is ideal for automotive applications. In order to design a highly efficient fuel cell system for automotive applications, an optimised model for a multi-level DC-DC converter, fuel cell and supercapapcitor is required. The analytical model for the fuel cell has been developed in order to model the interface of the fuel cell, supercapacitor and drive train to the interleaved DC-DC converter. This paper deals with the development of a detailed fuel cell model using Matlab/ Simulink where the parameters for a Ballard Mk-V fuel cell stack are used. The simulation results have been presented and discussed and the validity of the developed model is ascertained.
  • Internet of Planets (IoP): A New Era of the Internet

    Kang, Byungseok; Malute, Francis; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Hong, Choongseon; University of Derby; Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021-06-24)
    Internet of Planets (IoP) is a concept that enables solar planets to communicate with each other using the Internet. While there is a plethora of research on IoP, the delay tolerant network (DTN) has emerged as the most advanced technology in recent years. DTN is an asynchronous networking technology that has been deployed for the networking environment in which steady communication paths are not available, and therefore, it stores receiving data in a data storage and forward them only when the communication links are established. DTN can be applied to sensor networks and the mobile ad-hoc network, as well as space communication that supports data transmissions among satellites. In DTN networking environments, it is crucial to secure a scheme that has relatively low routing overhead and high reliability to achieve efficiency. Thus, this article proposes a time (delay) information based DTN routing scheme, which is able to predict routing paths for achieving efficient data transmissions among the nodes that have comparatively periodic moving patterns. The results of the proposed DTN routing algorithm using NS-3 simulation tools indicate satisfied levels of routing performance in comparison with the existing DTN algorithm.
  • COVID-19 pandemic decision support system for a population defense strategy and vaccination effectiveness

    Varotsos, Costas A; Krapivin, Vladimir F; Xue, Yong; Soldatov, Vladimir; Voronova, Tatiana; National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Kotelnikov’s Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Fryazino Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vvedensky 1, Fryazino, Moscow Region 141190, Russian Federation; University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, PR China; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-06-05)
    The year 2020 ended with a significant COVID-19 pandemic, which traumatized almost many countries where the lockdowns were restored, and numerous emotional social protests erupted. According to the World Health Organization, the global epidemiological situation in the first months of 2021 deteriorated. In this paper, the decision-making supporting system (DMSS) is proposed to be an epidemiological prediction tool. COVID-19 trends in several countries and regions, take into account the big data clouds for important geophysical and socio-ecological characteristics and the expected potentials of the medical service, including vaccination and restrictions on population migration both within the country and international traffic. These parameters for numerical simulations are estimated from officially delivered data that allows the verification of theoretical results. The numerical simulations of the transition and the results of COVID-19 are mainly based on the deterministic approach and the algorithm for processing statistical data based on the instability indicator. DMSS has been shown to help predict the effects of COVID-19 depending on the protection strategies against COVID-19 including vaccination. Numerical simulations have shown that DMSS provides results using accompanying information in the appropriate scenario.
  • Regulating Product Sustainability

    Takhar, Raj; Takhar, Sukhraj; University of Derby (The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2021-06-10)
    Interview, written review and feedback on UK government proposals on the future of regulating product for sustainability.
  • A collaborative approach for national cybersecurity incident management

    Oriola, Oluwafemi; Adeyemo, Adesesan Barnabas; Papadaki, Maria; Kotzé, Eduan; university of Plymouth; University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa (Emerald, 2021-06-28)
    Collaborative-based national cybersecurity incident management benefits from the huge size of incident information, large-scale information security devices and aggregation of security skills. However, no existing collaborative approach has been able to cater for multiple regulators, divergent incident views and incident reputation trust issues that national cybersecurity incident management presents. This paper aims to propose a collaborative approach to handle these issues cost-effectively. A collaborative-based national cybersecurity incident management architecture based on ITU-T X.1056 security incident management framework is proposed. It is composed of the cooperative regulatory unit with cooperative and third-party management strategies and an execution unit, with incident handling and response strategies. Novel collaborative incident prioritization and mitigation planning models that are fit for incident handling in national cybersecurity incident management are proposed. Use case depicting how the collaborative-based national cybersecurity incident management would function within a typical information and communication technology ecosystem is illustrated. The proposed collaborative approach is evaluated based on the performances of an experimental cyber-incident management system against two multistage attack scenarios. The results show that the proposed approach is more reliable compared to the existing ones based on descriptive statistics. The approach produces better incident impact scores and rankings than standard tools. The approach reduces the total response costs by 8.33% and false positive rate by 97.20% for the first attack scenario, while it reduces the total response costs by 26.67% and false positive rate by 78.83% for the second attack scenario.

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