• Derby Voice

      McMahon, Daithí; Jones, Rhiannon; University of Derby (2021-07-19)
      Derby Voice is a research project led by University of Derby academics Dr Rhiannon Jones and Dr Daithí McMahon that engaged 300 young people from areas of deprivation in Derby and at risk of exclusion from education to create a public art installation. The exhibition ran for four days (July 16-19, 2021) on the grounds of Derby Cathedral and attracted 80-110 visitors each day. The artistic and dialogic methodology used the Social Higher Education Depot (S.H.E.D) to create a co-designed site-specific installation in a prominent city centre location to offer a platform for artistic expression and act as an instigator for change to enable and empower young people in the city. The physical installation was designed by University of Derby students, in consultation with the research leads, and responded to the theme of youth voice. As well as featuring the work of several community development partners from the city, the researchers commissioned seven young Derby artists to create bespoke work through their medium (music, illustration, fine art, photography, videography, graphic design and urban art) with the objective of offering a springboard for their burgeoning artistic careers. Derby Voice provided young people with opportunities to share their contemplations and reflections on their city and their current concerns – Black Lives Matter (BLM), education reform, employment and personal and mental well-being - issues exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The research identified key barriers including the lack of cultural integration outside of school and the positive impact of financial and family support on young artists. The aim of this project was to enhance well-being, widen access to the arts and increase cultural opportunities for young people in Derby. The researchers also aimed to instigate a shift in thinking about formal education and redefine the way young people’s voices are understood and can influence policy and act as a call for social, cultural and political change. The research highlights the benefits of artistic installations as cultural and consultation spaces for stakeholders, the public and policy-makers to engage directly with urban youth, through creative place-making. The research actively contributed to the cultural offer in Derby and highlighted the benefits of socially-engaged art with the aspiration that it could instigate similar projects in the future.
    • Our Story: Forging Connections Through Oral History

      McMahon, Daithí; University of Derby (2021-04-24)
      Our Story: A History of Irish in Derby is an oral history project that collects and shares the personal memories and experiences of members of the Irish diaspora (N=14) that emigrated to the Derby (UK) in the 1950s and 60s. Emigration has long been a part of Irish history and identity, and this project offers examples of the social, cultural and economic contributions the Irish have made to the Derby city and region. It offers a reminder of the diverse and multicultural make up of modern British society, while celebrating the strong links that exist between Ireland and the United Kingdom. In addressing the theme this case study is an example of how oral histories and first-person testimonies can help forge connections between different generations of the Irish community and help form their Irish identities. It also aims to form connections between different communities in Derby to foster a more vibrant sense of community and improve awareness and understanding of the Irish immigrant and diaspora experience. The research demonstrates how original testimonies can help to facilitate comparisons between the Irish and other diasporas in the UK to develop better understandings of the make-up of the diverse Derby community. This work demonstrates how important it is to be sensitive to social, cultural and historical context when examining the experiences and articulations of diaspora experiences. To offer context a 4-minute film will be shown which offers a sample of the project and the personal stories for the audience.
    • Our Story: The Experiences of Mid-Century Irish Emigrants to the UK

      McMahon, Daithí; University of Derby (2021-06-04)
      The purpose of Our Story: A History of the Irish in Derby was to gather the personal testimonials of the Irish diaspora in the city of Derby, England with a view to better understand their emigration and integration experiences as well as their contributions to the UK midlands region economically, socially and culturally. Particular focus was put on the members of the Irish community who migrated in the 1950s-60s as one of the largest cohorts of modern Irish emigrants. The 26-minute film of edited interviews offers a reminder of the diverse and multicultural make-up of modern British society, while celebrating the strong links that exist between Ireland and its closest neighbour, the United Kingdom, to foster greater understand and acceptance of other nationalities. This is especially poignant during the period of uncertainty caused by Brexit. The recordings act as an archive and indelible record of their experiences so that future generations can understand and appreciate their Irish culture and heritage and use these to develop their own identities. This work demonstrates how important it is to be sensitive to social, cultural and historical context when examining the experiences and articulations of diaspora experiences. This paper will share some of the common themes that arose from the interview data which carry many elements of nostalgia as participants recount their migratory experiences. To offer context a 4-minute extract will be shown which offers a flavour of the project.
    • Telling Our Story: Sharing the Experiences of Irish Emigrants Through Film

      McMahon, Daithí; University of Derby (2021-05-06)
      The purpose of Our Story: A History of the Irish in Derby was to gather the personal testimonials of the Irish diaspora in the city of Derby, England with a view to better understand their emigration and integration experiences as well as their contributions to the UK midlands region economically, socially and culturally. Particular focus was put on the members of the Irish community who migrated in the 1950s-60s as one of the largest cohorts of modern Irish emigrants. The 26-minute film of edited interviews offers a reminder of the diverse and multicultural make-up of modern British society, while celebrating the strong links that exist between Ireland and its closest neighbour, the United Kingdom, to foster greater understand and acceptance of other nationalities. This is especially poignant during the period of uncertainty caused by Brexit. The recordings act as an archive and indelible record of their experiences so that future generations can understand and appreciate their Irish culture and heritage and use these to develop their own identities. This work demonstrates how important it is to be sensitive to social, cultural and historical context when examining the experiences and articulations of diaspora experiences. This paper will share some of the common themes that arose from the interview data which carry many elements of nostalgia as participants recount their migratory experiences. To offer context a 4-minute extract will be shown which offers a flavour of the project. It is hoped this project may help inspire further oral history projects involving not only Irish but other cultural communities in the UK. Link to Our Story film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OTIOdA3nh5Q
    • Our Story: Preserving and Disseminating the Experiences of the Irish Diaspora in Derby

      McMahon, Daithí; University of Derby (2021-07-10)
      This paper proposes to discuss the project Our Story: A History of Irish in Derby (2020) as a case study for examination of the production process of editing over 8 hours of content from 14 contributors into an accessible 26-minute video for online public dissemination. Our Story is an oral history project that collects and shares the personal memories and experiences of the Irish diaspora who emigrated to Derby city in the 1950s and 60s. Emigration has long been a part of Irish history and identity, and this project acts as a recognition of the social, cultural and economic contributions the Irish have made to the Derby city and region. It also offers a reminder of the diverse and multicultural make up of modern British society, while celebrating the strong links that exist between Ireland and the United Kingdom. This paper discusses the value of capturing the personal experiences of the ageing members of our population before their memories fade. The recordings therefore act as an archive and indelible record of their experiences so that future generations can understand and appreciate their experiences and contributions and use these to develop their own identities. The production and editing decisions were difficult but necessary as the producers worked towards creating an engaging work with a coherent narrative from multiple voices that would be viewed by a wide audience. This work demonstrates how important it is to be sensitive to social, cultural and historical context when examining the experiences and articulations of diaspora experiences. To offer context a 4-minute audio visual piece will be shown which offers a sample of the project and the stories for the audience.
    • Holding Their Own: How Line of Duty offers the BBC a competitive edge in an increasingly crowded mediascape

      McMahon, Daithí; University of Derby (2021-10-01)
      The British Broadcasting Corporation’s (BBC) hit television series Line of Duty (2012-present) is the envy of every UK broadcaster and international streaming service alike, attracting enormous audiences and near universal critical acclaim. A number of factors have contributed to the success of BBC television dramas and have helped the organisation garner large audiences and thus remain relevant to a modern audience bombarded by numerous viewing platforms, countless titles and ever-present distractions and competition from social media and podcasting. Whereas commercial television networks are motivated to commodify audiences up to, and sometimes beyond saturation, PSBs can take a more artistically focused approach that serves to benefit the programme and audience first which leads to a better product. Another key factor is the social aspect afforded by synchronous TV viewing by the audience and the ‘second screening’ that goes with this live practice (Doughty, 2012; Proulx, 2012). This allows audiences to interact online before, during and after live broadcasts thus connect viewers and create online virtual communities (Rheingold, 2000). This communal experience can have a social bonding (Putnam, 2000) effect and help build a loyal following week after week – a lost tradition in an age of series dumps and binge watching. The author argues that in the modern highly competitive mediascape the BBC must take note of the factors that have contributed to their past and recent successes and work to replicate these in their future programming strategies. The BBC must also go one step further however, and attract the younger generations of viewers who represent the future Television License Fee payers. Through textual analysis of successful television programmes including Lost (2000-2006), The Office (2005-2006), Bodyguard (2018) and Line of Duty (2012-present), among others, this paper draws on examples of historical successes to chart a path for the future of BBC Television drama programming.
    • A Trusted Voice: The Threat to Irish Local Radio News Journalism

      McMahon, Daithí; University of Derby (Future of Journalism Conference 2021 Cardiff University, 2021-09-22)
      For an anxious public living through the triple threat of biological, environmental, and economic crises, the need for rigorously gathered and trusted news and information has arguably never been more important. The proliferation of fake or unreliable news disseminated by social media, among other sources, puts into sharper focus the need for an independent, robust and publicly funded voice to cut through the nonsense and clutter. Radio remains the most trusted source of news and information in the Republic of Ireland (Reuters Institute 2018) and with 81% of all adults tuning in to radio daily (Ipsos MRBI 2021) news and current affairs output from the Irish Radio Industry is a particularly valuable public service. Much of this is as a result of the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland’s licencing conditions, however, this overlooks the fact that local radio’s unique selling point, and that which draws audiences to them and away from the public service broadcaster RTÉ, is their knowledge and coverage of local news, current affairs, weather and sport. Furthermore, the commercial sector is much more adept and responsive to change in response to adversity and new challenges and can be the leader of transformation in the industry (McMahon 2019). As a result, local radio holds its own against the sizeable and well-resourced RTÉ and on average local stations enjoy around 50% market share (Ipsos MRBI 2021). However, the Irish Radio Industry has been experiencing a sustained period of economic hardship since the great recession in 2008 crippled the Irish economy. Add to this the competition for audience attention and advertising spend posed by the digital behemoths Facebook and Google and the picture is somewhat grim and pessimistic for this medium that is relied upon so much by the public for trustworthy news. RTÉ has not been immune to these pressures and it too is in a dire financial situation at present with cuts and asset sales ongoing to balance the books. Local radio news departments are the largest and most expensive cost centres for local radio stations due to the aforementioned quality of coverage offered and are therefore under threat. Less resources will inevitably lead to a reduction in the depth and breadth of news coverage. The primary threat to Irish radio’s news and journalism comes in the form of the agglomeration of radio stations by powerful multinationals into fewer entities. Under this form of structure stations typically cover larger areas but with a more homogeneous output and, crucially a centralised (McDonald & Starkey 2016) and generic news service which is cheap and limited in its scope. This rationalisation of radio has been the trend in the United Kingdom over the past decade (Hendy 2000; Waterson 2020) and the recent takeover of Communicorp, Ireland’s largest commercial radio group, by Bauer Media suggests a similar trend is on its way to Ireland. Using the Irish Radio Industry as its focus this paper draws from interviews with Irish industry professionals and considers what action the industry might take in the coming years and what government measures might help protect radio as a trusted and valued voice.
    • Our Story on Screen: Understanding Immigration Through the Experiences of Others

      McMahon, Daithí; University of Derby (2021-06-22)
      Our Story: A History of the Irish in Derby gathers the personal testimonies of the Irish diaspora in the city of Derby, England, who migrated in the 1950s-60s as one of the largest cohorts of modern Irish emigrants. The content has been collated into a 26-minute film that offers a compendium of stories, anecdotes and personal adventures which aims to offer the audience a better understanding of the experiences of emigrants in the hope they will develop a better appreciation of the migrant’s perspective on the often-thorny issue of immigration. By better understanding how emigration worked in the past the author argues that society can better understand how it works today. The personal perspectives of the contributors act as a reminder of the diverse and multicultural make-up of modern British society, while celebrating the strong links that exist between Ireland and its closest neighbour. This is especially poignant during the current uncertainty caused by Brexit which threatens to revive old divisions between cultures and communities. This practice-based research output aims to inform the public of how rich and diverse British society is and how by being open to learning about other cultures and the immense contribution they make socially, politically, economically and culturally, that perhaps a more equal and accepting society can be cultivated. This work demonstrates how important it is to be sensitive to social, cultural and historical context when examining the experiences and articulations of diaspora experiences. This creative practice-based research is an oral history project at its core and was crewed by undergraduate media production students thus offering applied pedagogic benefits and a publicly disseminated media output. This project was produced for inclusion in REF21 and the survey methodology and key findings and themes that have arisen will also be discussed. The author proposes a 10-minute presentation including a 3-minute promo video of interview samples for context.
    • Découverte de l’artiste’ (discovering the artist): Finding Marion Adnams through her work with a focus on ‘Infante égarée

      Forde, Teresa; University of Derby (2018)
      This video installation expresses the process of research Marion Adnams' paintings and the paper model of Infante égarée in particular. A version of paper model from the original painting has been constructed and animated in order to understand the structure of the original paper doll and to emulate the movement that is implicit in its structure. The animation was then superimposed onto the original painting. Adnams described the figure as lost and wandering in the forest and this sense of dislocation is captured within the twisting movement of the figure and haunting soundtrack. The title of the painting is also restored to Adnams’ preferred French title. The video is part of the Marion Adnams Project and illustrates an interest in practice as a form of research. The video installation formed part of the ‘Marion Adnams: A Singular Woman’ retrospective at Derby Museums and Gallery (Dec 2017-March 2018).
    • Afterword: Reading mad men in the era of Trump

      Forde, Teresa; McNally, Karen; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-12-12)
      This edited collection examines the enduringly popular television series as Mad Men still captivates audiences and scholars in its nuanced depiction of a complex decade. This is the first book to offer an analysis of Mad Men in its entirety, exploring the cyclical and episodic structure of the long form series and investigating issues of representation, power and social change. The collection establishes the show’s legacy in televisual terms, and brings it up to date through an examination of its cultural importance in the Trump era. Aimed at scholars and interested general readers, the book illustrates the ways in which Mad Men has become a cultural marker for reflecting upon contemporary television and politics.
    • Olivia Dunham and the new frontier in fringe

      Forde, Teresa; University of Derby (McFarland, 2019-07-12)
      From the Star Wars expanded universe to Westworld, the science fiction western has captivated audiences for more than fifty years. These twelve new essays concentrate on the female characters in the contemporary science fiction western, addressing themes of power, agency, intersectionality and the body. Discussing popular works such as Fringe, Guardians of the Galaxy and Mass Effect, the essayists shed new light on the gender dynamics of these beloved franchises, emphasizing inclusion and diversity with their critical perspectives.
    • Otherlings

      Bartram, Angela; McCloskey, Paula; Baker, Steve; Davies, Huw; Basi, Philip Ranjit; Fisher, Craig; Vardy, Sam; Rushton, Stephanie; Mallinson, Mally; Parker, Christine; et al. (University of Derby, 18/10/2019)
      Otherlings is an exhibition featuring work from Ang Bartram, Steve Baker, Huw Davies and Philip Ranjit Basi, Craig Fisher, Paula McCloskey and Sam Vardy, Stephanie Rushton and Mally Mallinson, and Christine Parker. The overarching theme of the artworks within the exhibition suggests something beyond the parameters of dominancy and its cultural representation. The work in many ways offers explicit or implicit ways to connect us to other perspectives, and experiences through different and often unseen and discussed encounters. It thus opens up new paradigms for debate, for how we might live with care and compassion and function with others, as part of a world shared by many.
    • A holistic approach to the decolonisation of modules in sustainable interior design

      Di Monte-Milner, Giovanna; University of Johannesburg (Design Education Forum of Southern Africa, 2017-09)
      This paper stems from the need to develop and deliver a new module in sustainable interior design (BASD6B2) at a 2nd year level within a new Degree programme at the University of Johannesburg, in 2017. This module’s development however relies on a reflection on another sustainable interior design module (BASD6B1) in the curriculum, offered at a 1st year level. The paper also secondly arises from the national call for the transformation and decolonisation of education programmes in South African tertiary institutions. This new BASD6B2 module thus needs to demonstrate a deeper connection with African roots, rather than make use of over-emphasised Eurocentric ideals. Like the global Ubuntu education approach, decolonisation requires an advancement of indigenous knowledge, expertise, teaching and learning. Thirdly, there is also a need for interior design education, worldwide, to align itself with changing notions of sustainability, which requires educators to embrace a new, emerging ecological paradigm. In this paradigm, regenerative thinking seeks to push sustainable design from merely sustaining the health of a system, towards more holistic, systems thinking, reconnecting us to place and the rituals of place (Reed 2007, p. 677). A reflection on both the sustainable interior design modules’ designs reveals several gaps. Firstly, there is no specific requirement that the emerging ecological paradigm, and the notion of regenerative thinking, be taught within the module. Secondly, one of the module outcomes requires that students be taught about sustainability through the use of a rating tool, the Green Star SA (GSSA) Interiors Rating Tool, which, while valuable, is too mechanistic and does not support holistic thinking. Thirdly, another gap is that the Green Building Council of South Africa’s (GBCSA) Green Star SA – Interiors v1 Technical Manual includes little to no reference of African studies, methods and skills in the technical manual. This issue is revealed in my ongoing PhD study, which uses a constructivist grounded theory approach. Fourthly, the tool is based on an Australian tool which is, in turn, based on an American tool, and it thus deploys western constructs. The aim of this paper is thus to develop a teaching strategy that can complement the design of both modules, with a focus however on the new module BASD6B2, in order to teach students about sustainability more holistically, while celebrating and advancing African building methods and skills. The main findings reveal that the sustainable interior design modules (based on the given outcomes) do not support a holistic and decolonised approach to teaching and learning. A holistic teaching strategy is thus necessary to promote an African identity. The paper concludes that this pro-active teaching strategy can augment the sustainable interior design modules. Firstly both modules can include a holistic introductory lesson. A second tactic in the strategy could be to include diverse curriculum content and regenerative design concepts into the BASD6B2 module. This strategy generally aims to advance students’ mindsets about sustainable design, while encouraging them to be co-creators of local knowledge, while designing sustainably, for an African identity.
    • An effective pedagogical practise for integrating HIV and AIDS into tertiary education: an interior design case study

      Di Monte-Milner, Giovanna; Gill, A; University of Johannesburg (South African Journal of Higher Education, 2017)
      This article discusses a pedagogical practise used to introduce HIV and AIDS content into an existing Interior Design curriculum from a creative praxis perspective. Curriculum-integration is a key strategy of the Higher Education HIV/AIDS Programme (HEAIDS), which was established to develop and support HIV-mitigation programmes at South Africa’s public Higher Education Institutions. Students within the Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture at the University of Johannesburg engaged in a spatial intervention project that was structured around project-based learning strategies and constructivist teaching values. Students’ proposals were analysed against their ability to promote HIV and AIDS prevention and create appropriate meaning amongst the target group. The paper suggests that the methodology proved effective because it did not require radical curriculum transformation; aligned with existing programme outcomes; and demonstrated potential to contribute to the ‘new literacy of AIDS’ required to counter ‘AIDS fatigue’.
    • Addressing the needs of the other 90% - the role of cycling in developing the sustainable agenda in Johannesburg

      Di Monte-Milner, Giovanna; Breytenbach, Amanda; University of Johannesburg (The Greenside Design Centre, University of Johannesburg (CUMULUS), 2014)
      Cycling is an energy efficient nonpolluting form of transport and is considered as one of the most sustainable means of transport. In South Africa cycling has been poorly recognized and supported by government and citizens as a sustainable mode of transport. However, drastic changes are proposed for the transport systems in the City of Johannesburg (also Joburg) and citizens are showing a growing interest in cycling for both recreation and commuting purposes. This paper investigates the changing cycling culture in Johannesburg and the extent to which cycling is recognized by government and included in the development of a sustainability agenda that addresses the socio-economic needs of Johannesburg citizens. National cycling projects, cycling associations and cycling events such as the monthly Johannesburg Critical Bike Mass Ride events are briefly described and used as reference points to illustrate the growing interest expressed by non-profit organizations and citizens to accommodate cyclists on public roads. This investigation aims to make a contribution to the sustainable design project through reflecting on a drastic proposed change for Johannesburg city transport which will impact on various design disciplines that can provide specialist knowledge in the development of a sustainable transport system. This paper therefore acknowledge the complex dynamic system in which society operates and argue that through paying attention to the needs of citizens, designers can become co-creators within the system
    • Dogs and the elderly: significant cohabitation and companionship towards the end of life

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (29/04/2019)
      We seek comfort from other beings and this often finds a solution in our relationships with dogs. Walter Benjamin said “no single dog is physically or temperamentally like another,” which in part attests to our interspecies domestic closeness based on reliance and need. Nowhere is this seen more than in their companionship with the elderly. The positivity for health of a life with dogs is relevant to the elderly, those may feel isolated and vulnerable without another with whom to share life. Here, dogs become a vital companion, alleviating depression and isolation and giving a sense of usefulness. Although sharing one’s life with a dog gives purpose and comfort, it also brings anxieties regarding care and separation should that relationship change or cease. For the elderly, this concerns being worried of their dog’s fate should they enter managed housing or care facilities, or if separated by illness or death. The ‘burden’ they would leave sees the elderly intentionally deny homing another dog should theirs die. This denial renders the dog a last memorial to the significance of the companionship that informed life. This presentation discusses my art project ‘Dogs and the Elderly’ that focuses on the significance and benefit of interspecies companionship towards the end of life. This project with the Alzheimer’s Society demonstrates how interspecies cohabitation is valuable for emotional health and wellbeing. Participants offer heart-warming and heart- breaking accounts of a lonelier and dog-free life when their current companion becomes their last. The fear of not being able to ensure safe continuing care produces a self-imposed loneliness, one where it seems better to know they will not commit a dog to an unknown future than to benefit from their friendship now. The dog becomes the living remains of a relationship that can no longer be accommodated.
    • Dogs and the elderly

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (09/04/2019)
      We seek comfort from other beings, which in the absence of other humans often finds a solution in relationships with dogs. The positivity for health is particularly relevant to the elderly, who may be especially isolated and emotionally vulnerable. Although sharing one’s life with a dog gives purpose and comfort, it also brings anxieties regarding care and separation should that relationship change or cease. For the elderly, this concerns being worried for the dog’s fate should they be separated by entering housing or care facilities, or by illness or death. This seminar discusses the dilemma of leaving a ‘burden’ through the art project ‘Dogs and the Elderly,’ which analyses the importance of the interspecies relationships for physical and emotional health and wellbeing.
    • Perspectives on musical time in the development of performance systems for live electronic music.

      Vandemast-Bell, Paul; Ferguson, John; University of Derby; Griffith University (Routledge, 12/07/2019)
    • The revival of the ancient technique of printing with mordants and dyeing in bi-colourants to achieve contemporary poly-chromic designs

      Wells, Kate; Churn, Kate; University of Derby (NOVA University of Lisbon Campus Caparica / Caparica Portugal, 25/10/2018)
      This paper explores the creation of a range of sustainable patterned fabrics by employing various Bio-colorants (natural dyes) in combination with a range of mordants that have a lesser impact upon the environment to create a poly-chromatic design within single dyeing process. Practice based research was undertaken into dyeing and printing with Madder, Logwood, Weld and Woad or Indigo in combination with a selection of mordants Alum, Copper Acetate, Iron Acetate and Tannins onto a range of fabric bases which includes the new regenerated fibres alongside traditional natural ones as a sustainable option (1, 2). Mordants that have been used from ancient times produce a pattern during the dyeing process. By looking at these historical (3, 4) and traditional applications (5) from across the globe, it was hoped that a more sustainable method of patterning either through printed (screen and block), stencilled or hand-painted techniques could be designed. According to Robinson (6): Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79), writing of the ancient Egyptians, stated that, ‘Garments are painted in Egypt in a wonderful manner, the white clothes being first coated, not with colours but with drugs which absorb the colours. Although the dyeing liquid is one colour, the garment is dyed several colours according to the different properties of the drugs which have been applied to the different parts: nor can this be washed out’ It is thought that this passage was describing madder dye alongside as the various mordants – alum, iron salts and copper salts as they were known at that time (7). Since this ancient time, the application of natural dyes evolved over the centuries into an advanced form of dyeing as this was only form of permanently colouring fabrics until the advent of synthetic dyes by Perkins in 1856. The ‘Art of Dyeing’ became a highly secretive and protected practice with the formation of Dyers Guilds from the 14th c. The technique of the application of different mordants to create more than one colour evolved within the Far East employed initially to produce the ‘Indienne mania’ (Chintz) madder dyed calicos of the 17th c. and 18th c. and later with the development of ‘Turkey Red’ prints, the secrete of which remained undisclosed until the late 18th c. (7). (1) Garcia. 2012, Natural Dye Workshop: Colors Of Provence Using Sustainable Methods, London: Studio Galli. (2) Dean, J, & Casselman, K. 1999, Wild Colour, London: Mitchell Beazley. (3) Bird. 1875. The Dyers Handbook. USA. (4) Hummel, J.J. 1885. The Dyeing of Textile Fabrics. London: Cassell & Company Ltd (5) Bilgrami, N. 1990. Singh jo Ajrak. Pakistan: Department of Culture and Tourism Government of Sindh. (6) Robinson, S. 1969. A History of Dyed Textiles, London: W & J Makckay & Co Ltd. (7) Chenciner, R. 2001. Madder Red: A History of Luxury and Trade. Richmond: Cuzon Press. (8) Storey, J. 1992 The Thames and Hudson Manual of Textile Printing. London: Thames and Hudson.