• Self-confidence and performance: A little self-doubt helps.

      Woodman, Tim; Akehurst, Sally; Hardy, Lew; Beattie, Stuart; Aberystwyth University; Bangor University (Elsevier, 2010-06-04)
      Objectives: To test the hypothesis that a decrease in confidence on a well-learned task will increase effort and performance. Design: A 2 (group: control, experimental) 2 (trial: practice, competition) mixed-model with repeated measures on the second factor. Method: Expert skippers’ (n ¼ 28) self-confidence was reduced via a combination of task (i.e., change of rope) and competitive demands. Performance was the number of skips in a 1-min period. On-task effort was measured via the verbal reaction time to an auditory probe. Results: The group trial interaction (F (1, 26) ¼ 6.73, p < .05, h2 ¼ .21) supported the hypothesis: Posthoc tests revealed a significant decrease in self-confidence and a significant improvement in performance from practice to competition for the experimental group only. No significant effort effects were revealed. Conclusions: Some self-doubt can benefit performance, which calls into question the widely accepted positive linear relationship between self-confidence and performance. As effort did not increase with decreased confidence, the precise mechanisms via which self-confidence will lead to an increase or a decrease in performance remain to be elucidated.
    • Self-disclosure and self-deprecating self-reference: Conversational practices of personalization in police interviews with children reporting alleged sexual offenses

      Childs, Carrie; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-11-06)
      This article examines how police officers ostensibly reveal personal information about themselves in investigative interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses. We identify two practices of personalization. First, we show how, during the opening phase of interviews, officers engage in clear, unambiguous self-disclosure and how these self-disclosures are designed to elicit expressions of affiliation from witnesses. Second, we identify instances of self-deprecating self-reference as in ‘I’m going deaf that's all’. These self-references are delivered to manage trouble responsibility in environments of repair. We show how they manage the conflicting demands of rapport building and the requirement to make interviewees feel as if they are being listened to and understood, on the one hand, and the need for effective evidence gathering, on the other. The present study extends understanding of how officers personalize the investigative interview, as recommended by best practice guidelines.
    • Self-disgust, self-hatred, and compassion focused therapy.

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Karnac Books, 2015-03)
    • Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Irons, Christopher Paul; Bhundia, Rakhee; Christie, Rachael; Broomhead, Claire; Rockliff, Helen; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (British Psychological Society, 2010-11)
      Objectives. This study explored the relationship of forms and functions of self‐criticism, shame, and social rank variables to self‐harm, depression, and anxiety. Design. The study used a questionnaire design. Method. In‐patients and day‐patients (N = 73) completed a series of questionnaires measuring self‐harm, mood, self‐criticism, shame, and social comparison. Results. Self‐harm was significantly associated with forms and functions of self‐criticism, shame, and feelings of inferiority (low social rank). The self‐persecuting function of self‐criticism was especially linked to self‐harm, depression, and anxiety. Conclusions. This study adds to a growing literature on the importance of recognizing the pathogenic effects of negative self‐critical thoughts and feelings about the self and the value of distinguishing different types of self‐criticism.
    • Shame and the vulnerable self in medical contexts: the compassionate solution.

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2017-10-13)
      Shame is a powerful experience that plays a vital role in a whole range of aspects of the clinical encounter. Shame experiences can have an impact on our psychological and physiological state and on how we experience ourselves, others and our relationships. The medical encounter is an obvious arena for shame because we are presenting (aspects of) our bodies and minds that can be seen as unattractive and undesirable, diseased, decayed and injured with the various excretions that typically might invite disgust. In contrast, experiences of compassion of acceptance, validation and kindness and can increase approach, openness and preparedness to engage with painful difficult scenarios. While shame is an experience that separates, segregates, marginalises and disengages people, caring and compassion facilitate integration, (re)connection and support. Given the potential opposite impacts of these different types of social experience, this paper will outline their evolutionary origins and compare and contrast them with particular reference to the medical context.
    • Shaping children's artwork in English primary classes: insights from teacher–child interaction during art activities

      Hallam, Jenny; Das Gupta, Mani; Lee, Helen A. N.; University of Derby (2011-09)
      This paper utilises a Vygotskian framework to examine the ways in which teachers shape the creation of children’s artwork in educational contexts. Reflexive ethnography (Burgess, 1984) and a bottom up approach to discourse analysis (Edwards & Potter, 1992) are used to analyse a range of qualitative data including photographs, observational notes and audio recordings collected from a Year 1 and a Year 4 art lesson held in English Primary schools. It is argued that the co-creation of art in the classroom is a dynamic and collaborative process which is negotiated between teachers and children in different ways. This argument is discussed in relation to the ways in which different teaching approaches shape and limit the creation of children’s artwork.
    • Shyness, social anxiety, and social phobia

      Henderson, Lynne; Gilbert, Paul; Zimbardo, Philip; The Shyness Institute; Derbyshire Mental Health Services NHS Trust (Academic Press, 2014-07-25)
      In 1971, one of us conducted the now well-known Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo, 1977), a study with the purpose of examining the role of situational factors in producing behaviors, thoughts, and feelings typically assumed to manifest as dispositional attributes of the person, such as sadism or submissiveness. Preselected normal college students, randomly assigned to play the role of prisoner or guard in a simulated prison, were having such extreme reactions—extreme stress as prisoners, and brutal and sadistic behavior as guards—that they had to be released early. The study demonstrated how powerful context and situation are in producing the syndrome of affect, behavior and cognition relating to authoritarianism, aggression, submission and despair.
    • Sickle cell disease

      Elander, James; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-05-16)
      Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited blood disorders that cause severe pain, reduce life expectancy and require significant self-management, but are often associated with stigma and discrimination. This chapter provides an overview of evidence about psychological aspects of sickle cell disease, including inheritance, screening and testing, managing painful episodes, and adolescent transitions.
    • Simulated natural environments bolster the effectiveness of a mindfulness programme: A comparison with a relaxation-based intervention

      Choe, Eun Yeong; Jorgensen, Anna; Sheffield, David; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-14)
      This study assesses the effectiveness of incorporating the beneficial effects of exposure to nature in a 3-week mindfulness programme. Participants (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups (mindfulness, relaxation group) under different simulated environmental conditions (two natural, two non-natural environments) during an intervention lasting three weeks. The participants in the mindfulness group were asked to attend a weekly 1-h mindfulness programme. The relaxation group also spent 1 h per week on relaxation activities of their choice (e.g. reading books or magazines). Participants’ wellbeing outcomes and nature connectedness were measured before and after the three-week intervention, and at one-week follow-up. The findings show that the mindfulness programme was more effective when carried out in a natural environment. In addition, the mindfulness group in natural environments continued to improve even after the intervention was completed. This study offers valuable insights into the benefits of combining a wellbeing intervention with exposure to nature.
    • Slower is not always better: Response-time evidence clarifies the limited role of miserly information processing in the Cognitive Reflection Test

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Pitchford, Melanie; Ball, Linden J.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Steel, Richard; University of Derby; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire; Loughborough University (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-11-04)
      We report a study examining the role of ‘cognitive miserliness’ as a determinant of poor performance on the standard three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). The cognitive miserliness hypothesis proposes that people often respond incorrectly on CRT items because of an unwillingness to go beyond default, heuristic processing and invest time and effort in analytic, reflective processing. Our analysis (N = 391) focused on people’s response times to CRT items to determine whether predicted associations are evident between miserly thinking and the generation of incorrect, intuitive answers. Evidence indicated only a weak correlation between CRT response times and accuracy. Item-level analyses also failed to demonstrate predicted response-time differences between correct analytic and incorrect intuitive answers for two of the three CRT items. We question whether participants who give incorrect intuitive answers on the CRT can legitimately be termed cognitive misers and whether the three CRT items measure the same general construct.
    • Smartphone addiction and associated psychological factors

      Pearson, Claire; Hussain, Zaheer; University of Derby (Turkish Green Crescent Society, 2016-10-25)
      The use of smartphone technology has increased drastically resulting in a risk of addiction to certain web applications, such as social networking sites (SNS) that are easily accessible via smartphones. A major concern regarding the increased use of SNS sites is the risk of an increase in narcissism amongst users of SNS. The present study examined the relationship between smartphone use, narcissistic tendencies, and personality as predictors of smartphone addiction. A self-selected sample of 256 smartphone users (M = 29.2; SD = 9.49) completed an online survey. The results revealed that 13.3% of the sample was classified as addicted to smartphones. Regression analysis revealed that narcissism, openness, neuroticism, and age were linked to smartphone addiction. Therefore, it is suggested that smartphones encourage narcissism, even in non-narcissistic users. Future research requires more in-depth qualitative data, addiction scale comparisons, and comparison of use with, and without, SNS access. Further, it is advised that prospective buyers of smartphones be pre-warned of the potential addictive properties of new technology.
    • Smartphone use, addiction, narcissism, and personality: A mixed methods investigation

      Pearson, Claire; Hussain, Zaheer; University of Derby; University of Derby, Derby, UK; Psychology Department, University of Derby, Derby, UK (IGI Global, 2015)
      There are increasing numbers of people who are now using smartphones. Consequently, there is a risk of addiction to certain web applications such as social networking sites (SNSs) which are easily accessible via smartphones. There is also the risk of an increase in narcissism amongst users of SNSs. The present study set out to investigate the relationship between smartphone use, narcissistic tendencies and personality as predictors of smartphone addiction. The study also aimed to investigate the distinction between addiction specificity and co-occurrence in smartphone addiction via qualitative data and discover why people continue to use smartphones in banned areas. A self-selected sample of 256 smartphone users (Mean age = 29.2, SD = 9.49) completed an online survey. The results revealed that 13.3% of the sample was classified as addicted to smartphones. Higher narcissism scores and neuroticism levels were linked to addiction. Three themes of; social relations, smartphone dependence and self-serving personalities emerged from the qualitative data. Interpretation of qualitative data supports addiction specificity of the smartphone. It is suggested smartphones encourage narcissism, even in non-narcissistic users. In turn, this increased use in banned areas. Future research needs to gather more in-depth qualitative data, addiction scale comparisons and comparison of use with and without SNS access. It is advised that prospective buyers of smartphones be pre-warned of the potential addictive properties of new technology.
    • Smoking behaviour and smoking motivations: the effects of alcohol

      Haynes, Caroline Anne; Clements, Keith; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2000)
      The present study examines the relationship between smoking motivations and both self-report and experimental measures of smoking behaviour. It also examines the effects of alcohol consumption on the relationship between smoking motivations and smoking. 48 individual completed self-report measures of smoking, and participated in an experiment comparing smoking behaviour in people who had consumed either alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks. Results indicate a relationship tween self-reported and experimental measure of smoking and various smoking motivation factors. When separate analyses were conducted between groups who had consumed alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks, smoking motivations only predicted smoking behaviour in those participants who had not consumed alcohol. Smoking for relief of negative affect, for intellectual stimulation and curiosity, and for social attractiveness and sensory stimulation significantly predicted experimental measures of smoking behaviour in the non-alcohol conditions. This indicates that smoking motivations are important predictors of smoking, however when alcohol has been consumed, smoking motivational factors no longer influence smoking behaviour.
    • Smoking in teenage girls: an assessment of attitudes and the influence of family and peer smoking.

      Law, N.; Haynes, Caroline Anne; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2000)
      The present study examine the influence of the smoking behaviour of family members and peers on the smoking behaviour of teenage girls. Attitudes towards smoking are also examined across three age groups. 130 Females from three age groups, 12/13 years, 15/16 years and 18/19 years competed a smoking questionnaire. Significant differences in smoking behaviour were found across age groups and indicate that the main period for transition from non-smoker to smoker occurs between the ages of 15/16 and 18/19. Examination of the influence of family and peer smoking indicated that having a father, older sister or best friend who smoked influenced smoking in teenage girls. The smoking behaviour of other family members was less important. Attitudes toward smoking were also found to vary across the age groups.
    • Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Hay, J; Irons, Christopher Paul; Cheung, M.; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Wiley, 2007-01)
      This paper explores the relationship between personal evaluations of attachment and personal evaluations of social rank, in relationship to mood variation in bipolar disorder. Forty patients with diagnosed bipolar affective disorder, who were regarded as ‘relatively stable’ by their psychiatrist, were given a set of self-report questionnaires, measuring attachment style, social comparison, submissive behaviour and various aspects of mood. Mood variation within this group was highly linked to variation in social rank evaluations. In particular, elevated mood was associated with feeling superior, while depression was associated with feeling inferior. Attachment also varied with mood but appeared to be less related to mood in this group. This study suggests that variation in social rank evaluations may be significantly associated with mood variation in patients with a bipolar disorder.
    • Spirituality and the evolution of compassion.

      Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Hannah; University of Derby (Praeger, 2015-02-28)
    • Stress and risky decision making: Cognitive reflection, emotional learning or both.

      Simonovic, Boban; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Gale, Maggie; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Wiley, 2016-08-19)
      Stressful situations hinder judgment. Effects of stress induced by anticipated public speaking on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) were examined. The Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) was used to examine the relationship between reflective thinking and IGT performance. The stress manipulation increased blood pressure and was associated with poorer IGT and CRT performance. Stressed participants were slower to avoid the disadvantageous decks. Moreover, CRT scores correlated with optimal deck selections indicating the importance of reflective thinking for good performance on the IGT. These correlations were observed in relatively early trials, which challenges the view that analytic thinking is not important when card contingencies are being learned. Data revealed that IGT performance in healthy individuals is not always optimal; stress levels impair performance. A mediation analysis was consistent with the proposal that the stress manipulation reduced IGT performance by impeding reflective thinking. Thus reflective processing is an important explanation of IGT performance in healthy populations. It was concluded that more reflective participants appear to learn from the outcomes of their decisions even when stressed.
    • Stresses, challenges, and rewards of home-based applied behaviour analysis intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder.

      Parker, Vikki; Childs, Carrie; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-02)
      This study examined the experiences of five parents who had children with autism spectrum disorder, who were receiving applied behaviour analysis-based intervention in their home setting, in order to better understand the rewards and challenges associated with such a program. The limitations and difficulties of home-based programs for children with autism spectrum disorder have been well documented. These include the impact on family wellbeing, difficulties recruiting program tutors, and problems obtaining funding from local education authorities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three themes emerged: (i) absence of personal space: “one of the most difficult and least exciting things of running a home-program is the fact that it’s your home”; (ii) having personal agency: “the ability to sustain the program and fight the system”; and (iii) feeling empowered: “anyone can learn anything”. Findings highlighted the prevalence of problems caused by “the system”. Difficulties of implementing an intervention within the home and financial strain were additional stressors. It was concluded that challenges with applied behaviour analysis-based intervention are distinct from the intervention itself. Nevertheless, parents felt supported by their intervention teams. The results of this study are discussed in relation to current applied behaviour analysis-based intervention provisions.
    • Striving and competing and its relationship to self-harm in young adults.

      Williams, Katie; Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Guildford Press, 2009-09)
      Previous research has found that competitive, insecure striving (striving to avoid inferiority) has strong links with psychopathologies, self-harm and appearance anxiety. However, with rates of self-harm in young people rising, it seems important to explore the link between competitive striving and self-harm in young adults. Ninety-two participants completed a series of questionnaires which measured striving to avoid inferiority, self-harm, psychopathologies, social comparison, goal orientation and self-ideals. The results showed that competitive insecure striving was a key predictor of self-harm, depression, anxiety and stress.